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Title: Riprap  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Accropode, Gabion, Bridge scour, Seawall, Coastal management
Collection: Building Stone, Coastal Construction, Geotechnical Engineering, Types of Wall, Walls
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Riprap lining a lake shore
Concrete rubble used as riprap along the San Francisco Bay shoreline
Riprap stairway
Crews replacing riprap at Galveston Seawall after a 1915 hurricane

Riprap, also known as rip rap, rip-rap, shot rock, rock armour or rubble, is rock or other material used to armor shorelines, streambeds, bridge abutments, pilings and other shoreline structures against scour and water or ice erosion. It is made from a variety of rock types, commonly granite or limestone, and occasionally concrete rubble from building and paving demolition. It can be used on any waterway or water containment where there is potential for water erosion.

Underwater, rock armour caps submerged tunnels to protect against accidental anchor strikes or sinking debris.


  • Ciria-CUR (2007) - Rock Manual - The use of rock in hydraulic engineering.
  • N.W.H. Allsop (2002) - Breakwaters, coastal structures and coastlines.
  • US Dept. of Transportation (2004) - Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook

External links

  • Design example, USACE
  • Ohio Dept. of Natural Resources riprap guide
  • US Bureau of Reclamation publication on riprap for dam overtopping
  • Minnesota DNR
  • USGS Minerals Yearbook: Stone, Crushed
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