World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

River Derwent, Derbyshire


River Derwent, Derbyshire

River Derwent
The River Derwent, near Hathersage
Country England
Counties Derbyshire
 - left Bentley Brook, River Amber
 - right River Westend, River Ashop, River Noe, River Wye, River Ecclesbourne
 - location Bleaklow, east of Glossop
 - coordinates
 - location Derwent Mouth, River Trent
 - coordinates
Length 80 km (50 mi)
River Derwent, Derbyshire is located in Derbyshire
Derwent Mouth
Map showing the location of Source (Bleaklow) and Derwent Mouth within Derbyshire

The Derwent is a river in the county of Derbyshire, England. It is 66 miles (106 km) long and is a tributary of the River Trent which it joins south of Derby.[1] For half its course, the river flows through the Peak District.

Much of the river's route, with the exception of the city of Derby, is rural. However the river has also seen many human uses, and between Matlock and Derby was one of the cradles of the Industrial Revolution, providing power to the first industrial scale cotton mills. Today it provides a water supply to several surrounding cities, and its steeply sided valley is an important communications corridor through the uplands of the Peak District.[2]

Because of its scenic qualities, the valley of the River Derwent sees many tourist visitors. The upper reaches pass through the Peak District National Park, whilst the middle reaches around the old spa town of Matlock Bath which attracts tourists because of its souvenir shops and amusement arcades, together with attractions such as the Heights of Abraham and its cable car.[2][3]

It has been theorised that the name "Derwent" is Celtic and means "a valley thick with oaks" [4] - cf. Welsh derwen ("oak"). An alternative etymology suggests the name originates from the Celtic dwr gwyn, meaning "white water".[5]


  • Course 1
  • Natural history 2
  • River uses 3
  • Tributaries 4
  • Naming 5
  • Gallery 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


The River Derwent rises at Swains Greave (590 metres above sea level) on the eastern flank of Bleaklow, opposite Howden Moors, and some 6 miles (9.7 km) east of Glossop.[1] It flows through the Upper Derwent Valley with its three consecutive reservoirs. In order downstream these are the Howden Reservoir, Derwent Reservoir and Ladybower Reservoir. Howden Reservoir is also fed by the River Westend, whilst Ladybower Reservoir is also fed by the River Ashop. In both cases the former confluences of the two tributaries with the River Derwent are now submerged below the respective reservoirs.[2][6]

Further south, the Derwent passes by the village of Bamford, where it is joined by the River Noe. Below this confluence, it flows through Hathersage, Grindleford, Calver and Baslow, and through the estate of Chatsworth House, before it is joined by the River Wye at Rowsley.[6]

After passing through Darley Dale, the Derwent reaches Matlock, where, at an oxbow, it collects the great millstream Bentley Brook. It then flows past the villages of Matlock Bath, Cromford, Whatstandwell, and Ambergate, where it is joined by the River Amber.[6]

Below Ambergate, the river flows by the town of Belper and the villages of Milford and Duffield. It then enters the city of Derby near Darley Abbey and flows through the centre of the city. The river ends at Derwent Mouth, 1-mile (1.6 km) east of Shardlow, where it flows into the River Trent at a height of 30 metres (98 ft) above sea level; a total drop of 560 metres (1,840 ft).[1] Its course meanders somewhat, especially in its lower reaches, adding 16 miles (26 km) to its apparent length of 50 miles (80 km). Its waters ultimately reach the North Sea via the Humber Estuary.[6]

Natural history

The River Derwent is the habitat for many different animals such as otters,[7] birds, insects, fish and crayfish.[8] It is also a habitat for many wild flowers, as exemplified by the Lower Derwent Trail.[9]

River uses

The lower river from Derwent Mouth upstream as far as Derby was made navigable under an Act of Parliament of 1720, and this stretch opened to navigation in 1721. Traffic ceased about 1795 and the navigation was acquired by the owners of the competing Derby Canal. The river is no longer considered navigable, although the upper river is widely used by kayakers and canoeists who enjoy the fast flowing water and the slalom course at Matlock Bath.[10][11]

The river was also used to power the many textile mills that were built along the Derwent between Matlock Bath and Derby. Initially, the need for water power was quite modest, for example Lombe's Silk Mill in Derby, which is considered to be the forerunner of the later cotton mills, only needed to use the power provided by a small mill fleam, and Richard Arkwright's Cromford Mill, the world's first water-powered cotton spinning mill, only used a small tributary of the Derwent in conjunction with a lead mine sough.[12] The later mills at Belper, Darley Abbey, and Masson Mill, were much larger and needed to harness the full power of the river to drive the complex machinery within them. This required the construction of large weirs across the Derwent that still remain as significant features in the riverscape.[13]

These sites were all important in the development of the Industrial Revolution, and Arkwright's innovation, along with several local competitors, is recognised today, by the designation of the area as the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site.[14]

The power of the Derwent is still utilised at a number of these historic mill sites, producing hydro-electricity from turbines instead of driving mill wheels, with a recent development being the construction of a hydro-electric station at Longbridge weir, adjacent to the Riverside Gardens in Derby.[15]

The Howden Reservoir and Derwent Reservoir in the upper valley were both completed in 1916 to supply the cities of Sheffield, Nottingham, Derby, and Leicester. The adjacent Ladybower Reservoir was completed in 1945 to cover increasing demand. Treated water from these reservoirs flows down the 28-mile-long (45 km) Derwent Valley Aqueduct parallel to the river. The river also indirectly supplies Carsington Reservoir, with the water taken from the river by a pumping station at Ambergate in times of high flow. When flows are low, water is released back into the river via the same 6.5-mile-route (10.5 km) of tunnels and aqueducts, thus allowing greater abstraction rates downstream at Little Eaton in the drier summer months. Today all these reservoirs are managed by Severn Trent Water.[16][17]

The valley of the Derwent provides an important communications route. Between Derby and Rowsley the valley is followed by the A6 road, which was the main road from London to Manchester until the creation of the motorway network, and is still a busy single-carriageway road. The former Midland Railway's lines from Derby to Sheffield and Manchester also followed the Derwent, the former as far as Ambergate and the latter as far as Rowsley. The Sheffield line still operates as part of the Midland Main Line, but the Manchester line was severed north of Matlock in 1968, and the section from Ambergate to Matlock now forms the Derwent Valley Line, a single-track branch line. Between Ambergate and Cromford, the river, road and railway are also paralleled by the Cromford Canal.The terminus was once connected to Manchester across the High Peak by the early Cromford and High Peak Railway.[6][18]


Alphabetical listing of tributaries, extracted from the Water Framework Directive list of water bodies for the Derbyshire Derwent:[19]


The River Derwent provides the name for the oldest hockey club in Derbyshire. Derwent Hockey Club was established in 1897 and played its matches on the banks of the Derwent in Darley Dale, before relocating to Wirksworth.[20] It also gives its name to Derwent Rowing Club in Derby, founded in 1867.


See also


  1. ^ a b c 1:50 000 Scale Colour Raster (Map).  
  2. ^ a b c "River Derwent". Derbyshire UK. Retrieved 9 July 2009. 
  3. ^ "Matlock Bath". Derbyshire UK. Retrieved 9 July 2009. 
  4. ^ Ekwall, Eilert (1960) [1936]. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names (Fourth ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 143.  
  5. ^ Howells, David. "City's name may have its roots in water, not trees". Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 3 January 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Philip's Navigator Road Atlas Britain. Philip's. 25 May 2005.  
  7. ^ "Water for Wildlife – The Otter" (PDF). Derbyshire Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 7 July 2009. 
  8. ^ "Derby's Riverside Quarter Trail" (PDF).  
  9. ^ "The Lower Derwent Trail" (PDF).  
  10. ^ "Waterways of Derbyshire". Jim Shead. Retrieved 6 June 2009. 
  11. ^ "Matlock Canoe Club". Slalom UK. Retrieved 7 July 2009. 
  12. ^ "Why the Derwent Valley". Derwent Valley Mills – World Heritage Site. Retrieved 28 February 2013. 
  13. ^ "Key Sites". Derwent Valley Mills – World Heritage Site. Retrieved 28 February 2013. 
  14. ^ "The Arkwright Society". The Arkwright Society. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  15. ^ "Longbridge weir Hydro Project. Environmental Report" (PDF). Derby City Council. Retrieved 28 February 2013. 
  16. ^ "Upper Derwent Valley – Facts and Figures".  
  17. ^ "Carsington Water – Facts and Figures".  
  18. ^ Rimmer, A. (1998). The Cromford & High Peak Railway. Locomotion Papers No. 10 (New ed.) (Oakwood Press).  
  19. ^ "Water Framework Directive Surface Water Classification Status and Objectives 2012 csv file". Environment-agency. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  20. ^ "Derwent Hockey Club History". Derwent Hockey Club. Retrieved 7 July 2009. 

External links

  • Web page on River Derwent from DerbyshireUK
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.