World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Robert Lowe

Article Id: WHEBN0000251113
Reproduction Date:

Title: Robert Lowe  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hugh Childers, Reginald Maudling, Kenneth Clarke, Henry Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare, R. A. Cross, 1st Viscount Cross
Collection: 1811 Births, 1892 Deaths, Alumni of University College, Oxford, British Secretaries of State, Chancellors of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom, Fellows of the Royal Society, Liberal Party (Uk) Mps, Members of the New South Wales Legislative Council, Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for English Constituencies, Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for University Constituencies, Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, People from Bingham, Nottinghamshire, People with Albinism, Uk Mps 1852–57, Uk Mps 1857–59, Uk Mps 1859–65, Uk Mps 1865–68, Uk Mps 1868–74, Uk Mps 1874–80, Viscounts in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Robert Lowe

The Right Honourable
The Viscount Sherbrooke
PC
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
9 December 1868 – 11 August 1873
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by George Ward Hunt
Succeeded by William Ewart Gladstone
Home Secretary
In office
9 August 1873 – 20 February 1874
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by Henry Bruce
Succeeded by R. A. Cross
Personal details
Born 4 December 1811 (2016-06-17T08:09:40)
Bingham, Nottinghamshire
Died 27 July 1892(1892-07-27) (aged 80)
Nationality British
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s) Georgiana Orred (d. 1884)
Alma mater University College, Oxford

Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke William Ewart Gladstone as Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1868 and 1873 and as Home Secretary between 1873 and 1874. Lowe is remembered for his work in education policy, his opposition to electoral reform and his contribution to modern UK company law. The Division of Lowe, a now abolished Australian electoral division located in Sydney, was named after him. Gladstone appointed Lowe as Chancellor expecting him to hold down public spending. Public spending rose, and Gladstone pronounced Lowe "wretchedly deficient"; most historians agree. Lowe repeatedly underestimated the revenue, enabling him to resist demands for tax cuts and to reduce the national debt instead. He insisted that the tax system be fair to all classes. By his own main criterion of fairness – that the balance between direct and indirect taxation remain unchanged – he succeeded. However historians do not believe this balance is a good measure of class incidence and was by that time thoroughly archaic.[2]

Contents

  • Education and Australia 1
  • England and Parliament 2
  • Reform 3
  • Office 4
  • See also 5
  • Notes 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Education and Australia

Lowe was born in Bingham, Nottinghamshire, England, the second son of the Reverend Robert Lowe (rector of Bingham). His mother was Ellen,[1] the daughter of the Rev. Reginald Pyndar.[3] Lowe had albinism, and his sight was so weak that initially it was thought he was unfit to be sent to school.[3]

In 1822 he went to a school at

New South Wales Legislative Council
Preceded by
unknown
Appointed member
7 November 1843 – 9 September 1844
Succeeded by
unknown
Preceded by
John Coghill
Member for Counties of St Vincent and Auckland
April 1845 – June 1848
Succeeded by
George Hill
Preceded by
William Bland
Member for City of Sydney
July 1848 – November 1849
With: William Wentworth
Succeeded by
William Bland
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
John Best
Member of Parliament for Kidderminster
18521859
Succeeded by
Alfred Bristow
Preceded by
Sir William Williams, Bt
Member of Parliament for Calne
18591868
Succeeded by
Lord Edmond Petty-Fitzmaurice
New constituency Member of Parliament for London University
18681880
Succeeded by
Sir John Lubbock, Bt
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Baillie
Charles Bruce
Joint Secretary to the Board of Control
1852–1855
Succeeded by
Henry Danby Seymour
Preceded by
Hon. Edward Pleydell-Bouverie
Paymaster-General
1855–1858
Succeeded by
The Earl of Donoughmore
Vice-President of the Board of Trade
1855–1858
Preceded by
Charles Adderley
Vice-President of the Committee of
the Council on Education

1859–1864
Succeeded by
Henry Bruce
Preceded by
George Ward Hunt
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1868–1873
Succeeded by
William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by
Henry Bruce
Home Secretary
1873–1874
Succeeded by
Sir R. A. Cross
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Sherbrooke
1880–1892
Extinct
  • Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert Lowe

External links

  • John Maloney, "Gladstone's Gladstone? The Chancellorship of Robert Lowe, 1868–73." Historical Research 2006 79(205): 404–428.
  • AP Martin, Life and Letters of the Rt Hon Robert Lowe, Viscount Sherbrooke (London, 1892) 2 Vols
  • R Knight, Illiberal Liberal – Robert Lowe in New South Wales, 1842–1850 (Melbourne University Press 1966)
  • AJ Marcham, "Educating our masters: political parties and elementary education 1867 to 1870" British Journal of Educational Studies (1973) 21(2) 180–191

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Knight, R. L. (1967). "Lowe, Robert [Viscount Sherbrooke] (1811 - 1892)".  
  2. ^ John Maloney, "Gladstone's Gladstone? The Chancellorship of Robert Lowe, 1868–73." Historical Research 2006 79(205): 404–428.
  3. ^ a b c d e Serle, Percival. "Lowe, Robert, Viscount Sherbrooke (1811–1892)".  
  4. ^ a b c d "Mr Robert LOWE (1811 - 1892)". Former Members. Parliament of New South Wales. 
  5. ^ John Micklethwait and Michael Wooldridge (2003) The Company
  6. ^ Lords Hansard text for 11 January 2006
  7. ^ Hansard 15 July 1867 p. 1540
  8. ^ Hansard 15 July 1867 p. 1542
  9. ^ Hansard 15 July 1867 p.1546
  10. ^ Hansard 15 July 1867 col 1543
  11. ^ Hansard 15 July 1867 pp. 1549–1550
  12. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24847. p. 3173. 25 May 1880.

Notes

 

See also

"Continentur hac in fossa
Humilis Roberti ossa;
Si ad coelum evolabit,
Pax in coelo non restabit;
Sin in inferis jacebit,
Diabolum ejus poenitebit."

Lowe was delighted with this, and promptly translated it into Latin, as follows:

"Here lies poor old Robert Lowe;
Where he's gone to I don't know;
If to the realms of peace and love,
Farewell to happiness above;
If, haply, to some lower level,
We can't congratulate the devil."

During the 1870s the following epitaph was suggested for him by one of the wits of his day:

Lowe spoke against the Royal Titles Bill in 1876 at East Retford and implied that Queen Victoria had been responsible for the bill's introduction. As a result, when the Liberals returned to power in 1880, Victoria made it clear that she would not accept any ministry that included Lowe.[1] Nevertheless, he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Sherbrooke, of Sherbrooke in the County of Surrey,[12] against the express wishes of Queen Victoria, but with the backing of William Gladstone (a peerage that would become extinct upon his death). But from 1875 till his death at Warlingham, Surrey, his health was constantly failing, and by degrees he figured less and less in public life and ended up becoming a supporter of the Liberal Unionist party in 1886.

Lowe was a rather cut-and-dried economist, who prided himself that during his four years of office he took twelve millions off taxation; but later opinion has hardly accepted his removal of the shilling registration duty on corn (1869) as good statesmanship, and his failures are remembered rather than his successes. His proposed tax of a halfpenny a box on Lucifer matches in 1871 (for which he suggested the epigram ex luce lucellum, "out of light a little profit") roused a storm of opposition, and had to be dropped. In 1873 he was transferred to the Home Office, but in 1874 the government resigned.

In spite of the fact that his appeals did not prevent the passing of the Second Reform Act, Robert Lowe beat Walter Bagehot in the next election to become the first Member of Parliament (MP) for the London University, a new constituency created by the very Act he opposed. In 1868 he accepted office in the Gladstone Cabinet as Chancellor of the Exchequer, an office that he described in the following terms in the House of Commons on 11 April 1870: "The Chancellor of the Exchequer is a man whose duties make him more or less of a taxing machine. He is entrusted with a certain amount of misery which it is his duty to distribute as fairly as he can."

A terracotta statuette dated 1873 by caricaturist Carlo Pellegrini of Lowe standing on a box of matches inscribed 'Ex luce lucellum'

Office

Lowe concluded his speech with considerable flair.

Being a man of company law, Robert Lowe saw unions as a threat to the order, which as he drafted, allowed only for social participation through investment of capital, not investment of labour. As it was the case that participation in Parliament was also only possible through possession of property, Lowe was fearful that a change in one part of the world he understood would lead to another, ending in unforeseeable chaos.

Proponents of the Bill argued a lower property qualification would give the vote to respectable members of the working class. But Lowe thought:

However Benjamin Disraeli who led the subsequent Conservative government proposed his own Reform Bill, which by splitting the parties succeeded to become the Reform Act 1867. As he said in the third reading of the Bill, Lowe thought any step towards democracy was bad because it engendered "a right existing in the individual as opposed to general expediency… numbers as against wealth and intellect".[7] So the bill contained "the terms of endless agitation".[8]

Lord Palmerston had been a towering opponent to widening democratic participation and his death in October 1865 opened the way to the Canning and Peel Liberal school. Moreover he had been heavily shocked by his experiences of the comparatively developed union movement in his time in Australia in a less rigid class system. He had already made known his objections to the advance of "democracy", notably in his speech in 1865 on Sir Edward Baines's Borough Franchise Bill. He was not invited to join the new ministry. Lowe retired into what Bright called the "Cave of Adullam", and with other Liberals and Whig peers (known collectively as the 'Adullamites' ) opposed the bill in a series of brilliant speeches, which raised his reputation as an orator to its highest point and helped to cause government's downfall.

Robert Lowe, Vanity Fair, 1869

Reform

In 1859, Lowe went to the Education Office as Vice-President of the Committee of the Council on Education in Lord Palmerston's ministry; there he pursued a vigorous policy, insisting on payment by results, and bringing in the revised code (1862), which embodied this principle and made an examination in "the three R's" the test for grants of public money. He felt then, and still more after the Reform Act of 1867, that "we must educate our masters," and he rather scandalized his old university friends by the stress he laid on physical science as opposed to classical studies. Considerable opposition was aroused by the new regime at the Education Office, and in 1864 Lowe was driven to resign by an adverse vote in Parliament with reference to the way in which inspectors' reports were "edited." This was the result of the strong feelings that had been aroused against Lingen's administration of the Education Office.

"One hundred and fifty years ago, my predecessor Robert Lowe, later First Viscount Sherbrooke, brought forward the Bill that created the joint stock limited liability company. It was the first nationwide codification of company law in the world, and he has recently been described as "the father of modern company law". Our company law continues to have an excellent record. Since 1997 new incorporations have risen by over 60 per cent and the number of foreign firms incorporating in the UK has more than quadrupled. No doubt this is because, according to the World Bank's assessment, it is quicker and cheaper for companies to set up in the UK than in any other EU member state."[6]

Lowe's previous university reputation and connections combined with his colonial experience stood him in good stead; The Times was glad to employ him, and, as one of its ablest leader-writers, he made his influence widely felt. In 1852, he was returned to Parliament for Kidderminster in the Liberal interest. In the House of Commons, his acute reasoning made a considerable impression, and, under successive Liberal ministries (1853–1858), he obtained official experience as Secretary to the Board of Control and Vice-President of the Board of Trade. During his time there, he saw the Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 passed – the first nationwide codification of company law in the world. He has been referred to as "the father of modern company law".[5] This status was again referred to in the presentation by Lord Sainsbury of the second reading leading up to the new United Kingdom Companies Act 2006.

England and Parliament

On 27 January 1850, the Lowes and the two Jamieson children sailed to England, where he would enter political life.[3]

In 1844, Lowe defended a Royal Navy captain, John Knatchbull, on a charge of murdering a widowed shopkeeper named Ellen Jamieson; he was one of the earliest to raise in a British court the plea of moral insanity (unsuccessfully). Knatchbull was hanged on 13 February 1844. Lowe and his wife adopted Mrs. Jamieson's two orphaned children, Bobby and Polly Jamieson.[1]

In 1841 Lowe moved to London to read for the Bar, but his eyesight showed signs of serious weakness, and, acting on medical advice, sailed to Sydney in the colony of Governor of New South Wales, to a seat in the New South Wales Legislative Council;[4] owing to a difference with Gipps he resigned his seat on 9 September 1844,[4] but was elected in April 1845 for Counties of St Vincent and Auckland.[4] Lowe held that seat until 20 June 1848 and was elected for City of Sydney in July 1848, a seat he held until November 1849.[4] Lowe soon made his mark in the political world by his clever speeches, particularly on finance and education; and besides obtaining a large legal practice, he was involved with the founding and was one of the principal writers for the Atlas newspaper.[3]

. University of Glasgow at the Greek Lowe was for a few years a successful tutor at Oxford, but in 1838 was disappointed at not being elected to the professorship of [1]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.