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St-412

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St-412

The ST-506 was the first 5.25 inch hard disk drive, introduced in 1980[1] by Seagate Technology (then Shugart Technology) It stored up to 5 megabytes after formatting and cost $1500.[2] The similar (but more expensive) 10 MB ST-412 was introduced in late 1981. Both used MFM encoding, a widely used coding scheme. A subsequent extension of the ST-412 used RLL for a 50% boost in capacity and bit rate.

The ST-506 connected to a computer system through a disk controller. The ST-506 interface between the controller and drive was derived from the Shugart Associates SA1000 interface,[3] which was in turn based upon the floppy disk drive interface,[4] thereby making disk controller design relatively easy.[1] The ST-506 Interface and its variants (ST-412, ST-412RLL) were de facto industry standards for disk drives[5] well into the 1990s.

Interface to controller

In the ST-506 interface, the drive was connected to a controller card with two cables; a third cable provided power. The drives were "dumb", so-called because the control card translated requests for a particular track and sector from the host system into a sequence of head positioning commands, then read the signal from the drive head and recovered the data from it. A 34-pin control cable would control the mechanical motions of the drive with pins such as "HD SLCT 0" through "HD SLCT 3" used to select one of up to 16 heads (only four were available on the two-platter ST-506 itself) and "STEP" / "DIRECTION IN" used to move the heads to the appropriate track. Data then could be read or written serially using the appropriate two pins of the 20 pin data cable. This led to slow potential performance due to the limited bandwidth of the data cable, although this was not an issue at the time. Modern disk drive systems have considerable processing power on board, so that the host system only needs request a particular block of data and the drive internally carries out all the steps required to retrieve it.

Seagate's second generation ST-412 disk drive, amongst other things, added buffered seek capability to the interface. In buffered seek mode, the controller could send STEP pulses to the drive as fast as it could receive them, without having to wait for the mechanism to settle. An onboard microcontroller would then move the mechanism to the desired track as fast as possible. The ST-506 disk drive without buffered seek, averaged 170 ms (similar to a floppy drive or modern optical drive) while the mechanically very similar ST412 disk drive with buffered seek averaged 85 ms.[6] By the late 1980s ST412 drives were capable of average seek times between 15 and 30 milliseconds.

Compatible systems and developments

A number of other companies quickly introduced drives using the same connectors and signals, creating an ST-506-based hard drive standard. IBM chose to use it, acquiring adapter cards for the PC/XT from Xebec[7] and for the PC/AT from Western Digital. As a consequence of IBM's endorsement, most of the drives in the 1980s were ST-506-based.

However the complexity of the controller and cabling led to newer solutions like SCSI, and later, ATA (IDE). A few early SCSI drives were in fact ST-506 drives with a SCSI to ST-506 controller on the bottom of the drive; however, most SCSI and all ATA drives had built the controller into the drive, thereby eliminating the ST-506 interface in such models.

Connector pinouts

From ST506/ST412 OEM Manual[6] In the following table, "~" denotes a negated (active low) signal.

Control Connector Pinout
GROUND 1 2 ~HD SLCT 3 (or ~Reduced Write Current)
GROUND 3 4 ~HD SLCT 2
GROUND 5 6 ~WRITE GATE
GROUND 7 8 ~SEEK CMPLT
GROUND 9 10 ~TRACK 0
GROUND 11 12 ~WRITE FAULT
GROUND 13 14 ~HD SLCT 0
Key (no pin) 15 16 Reserved
GROUND 17 18 ~HD SLCT 1
GROUND 19 20 ~INDEX
GROUND 21 22 ~READY
GROUND 23 24 ~STEP
GROUND 25 26 ~DRV SLCT 0
GROUND 27 28 ~DRV SLCT 1
GROUND 29 30 ~DRV SLCT 2
GROUND 31 32 ~DRV SLCT 3
GROUND 33 34 ~DIRECTION IN
Data Connector Pinout
~DRV SLCTD 1 2 GROUND
No connection 3 4 GROUND
No connection 5 6 GROUND
No connection 7 8 Key (no pin)
No connection 9 10 No connection
GROUND 11 12 GROUND
+MFM WRITE 13 14 -MFM WRITE
GROUND 15 16 GROUND
+MFM READ 17 18 -MFM READ
GROUND 19 20 GROUND
Power Connector
Pin 1 +12 V DC
Pin 2 +12 V return
Pin 3 +5 V return
Pin 4 +5 V DC

Notes

External links

  • ST506 MicroWinchester OEM Manual
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