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Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet

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Title: Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet  
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Subject: Buildings and architecture of Bath, Duncan Davidson (1733–1799), The Poker Club, Thomas Telford, Wayne County, New York
Collection: 1729 Births, 1805 Deaths, Baronets in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia, British Mps 1768–74, British Mps 1774–80, British Mps 1780–84, British Mps 1784–90, British Mps 1790–96, British Mps 1796–1800, Members of the Faculty of Advocates, Members of the Parliament of Great Britain for English Constituencies, Members of the Parliament of Great Britain for Scottish Constituencies, Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for English Constituencies, People from Dumfries and Galloway, People of the Scottish Enlightenment, Scottish Landowners, Uk Mps 1801–02, Uk Mps 1802–06
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Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet

The Much Honoured
Baron of Westerhall
Portrait by Thomas Gainsborough
Member of Parliament for Shrewsbury
In office
1775–1805
Member of Parliament for Cromarty
In office
1768–1774
Personal details
Born October 1729
Westerhall, Dumfriesshire, Great Britain
Died 30 May 1805 (aged 75)
Bath House, Piccadilly, London, UK
Resting place Westminster Abbey
Political party Whig
Parents Sir James Johnstone
Barbara Murray
Net worth Increase £12.133 billion in 2011 pounds[1]

Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet (October 1729 – 30 May 1805), known as William Johnstone until 1767, was a Scottish advocate, landowner and politician. He was reputedly the wealthiest man in the Great Britain. He invested in lands in North America, and in developments in Great Britain, including the Pulteney Bridge and other buildings in Bath, buildings on the sea-front at Weymouth in Dorset, and roads in his native Scotland.

He was a patron of architect Robert Adam and civil engineer Thomas Telford.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Marriage and name change 2
  • Pulteney Bridge 3
  • Parliamentarian 4
  • US landowner 5
  • Patron of Thomas Telford 6
  • Family legacy 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Early life

William Johnstone, as he was born, was the second son of Sir James Johnstone, 3rd Baronet of Wester Hall, Dumfries, and his wife Barbara Murray, the oldest sister of the literary patron Patrick Murray, 5th Lord Elibank.

His older brother was thesoldier and politician East India Company official John Johnstone. Alexander Murray of Elibank, a Jacobite, was his uncle.[2]

He studied law, became a member of the Patrick Ferguson.

Marriage and name change

On 10 November 1760, he married heiress Frances Pulteney. Frances was the third daughter of MP and government official Daniel Pulteney and first cousin once removed of William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath. She inherited William’s substantial fortune and estates close to Bath in Somerset after his death in 1764 and that of his younger brother and heir in 1767. On inheriting, Johnstone changed his name in 1767 to Pulteney. Simultaneously, his daughter’s name was also changed from Henrietta Laura Johnstone to Henrietta Laura Pulteney.

Pulteney Bridge

At that time Bath was expanding, but the Pulteneys' rural Bathwick estate was separated from the city by the River Avon, and with no bridge in place the only means of crossing the river was via a small ferry. They decided a bridge needed to be built, and Pulteney turned to his friend and fellow countryman, architect Robert Adam. Adam was influenced by his travels to Florence and Venice and proposed a bridge incorporating shops along both sides. This was completed in 1773, but the Pulteneys' original plans for Bath's expansion did not take effect until 1788 when Bath architect Thomas Baldwin started to create a new estate. As well as the bridge bearing his name, Pulteney’s involvement is recalled by Great Pulteney Street in Bathwick, reputed to be the longest boulevard of its kind in Europe, while Henrietta Street was named after his daughter.

Parliamentarian

Pulteney represented Cromarty and later Shrewsbury, where he usually resided, in seven successive Parliaments. He first but unsuccessfully contested the Shrewsbury seat in 1768, but subsequently won the seat for Cromarty. In 1774 he again contested Shrewsbury, and although he was defeated, he was returned on petition the following March (and retained the seat until his death in May 1805).

On 1 June 1782, Frances died, leaving him her fortune.

US landowner

Pulteney invested in land in the West Indies and in what is today western New York state. The settlements of Bath, Pulteney, Henrietta and Caledonia are evidence of his speculation at the end of the 18th century, through 'The Pulteney Association' an agency run by his agent Charles Williamson.

Patron of Thomas Telford

In 1783, Pulteney began working with Thomas Telford, later the most eminent civil engineer of his day. When Pulteney first met him, Telford was a young stonemason from the same parish of Westerkirk in Dumfries, who had travelled to London to seek work. In 1787, Pulteney commissioned Telford to design and supervise restoration works at Shrewsbury Castle, and helped his appointment as Surveyor of Public Works for Shropshire.

Later, as Governor of the British Fisheries Society, Pulteney appointed Telford to design the world’s then largest herring fishing port, at Wick in Caithness. The village was named Pulteneytown and is the location of the Old Pulteney whisky distillery.

Pulteney was also influential in Telford's 1801 appointment to devise a master plan to improve communications in the Highlands of Scotland, a massive project that was to last 20 years.

Pulteney also took a lively interest in many other engineering projects, including that of Bell Rock lighthouse, supporting a bill in 1803.

Family legacy

He succeeded to the Johnstone baronetcy in 1794 on the death of his elder brother James Johnstone. He was thus titled 5th Baronet Pulteney, having declined several offers of a peerage during his parliamentary career.

In 1804 Pulteney married, as his second wife, Margaret, widow of Andrew Stuart and daughter of Sir William Stirling. The marriage did not last long. Pulteney died intestate at Bath House in Piccadilly, London, on 30 May 1805, and was buried at Westminster Abbey.

His daughter, (Henrietta) Laura, was created 1st Baroness of Bath on 26 July 1792 and 1st Countess of Bath on 26 October 1803. In 1794, she had married her father's first cousin Sir James Murray, who had taken the name Murray-Pulteney. She died on 14 July 1808 without bearing children and her titles became extinct.

References

  1. ^ Beresford, Philip; Rubinstein, William D. (2011). The Richest of the Rich: The Wealthiest 250 People in Britain since 1066. Harriman House Limited. p. 106. 
  2. ^ Haden-Guest, Edith (1964). L. Namier; J. Brooke, eds. "JOHNSTONE, John (1734-95), of Denovan and Alva, Stirling". The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1754-1790. Boydell and Brewer. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 

External links

  • Sir William Johnstone Pulteney (sic) and the Scottish Origins of Western New York
  • The Pulteney Estates in the Genesee Lands
  • The Pulteney Estate during the Nineteenth Century
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Sir John Gordon
(until 1761)
Member of Parliament for Cromarty
1768–1774
Succeeded by
George Ross
(from 1780)
Preceded by
Robert Clive
Noel Hill
Member of Parliament for Shrewsbury
1775–1801
With: Robert Clive 1775
John Corbet 1775–80
Sir Charlton Leighton 1780–84
John Hill 1784–96
William Noel-Hill 1796–1801
Succeeded by
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Parliament of Great Britain
Member of Parliament for Shrewsbury
1801–1805
With: William Noel-Hill
Succeeded by
William Noel-Hill
John Hill
Baronetage of Nova Scotia
Preceded by
James Johnstone
Baronet
(of Westerhall)
1794–1805
Succeeded by
John Lowther Johnstone
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