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Sodium iodide

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Sodium iodide

Sodium iodide
Sodium iodide Sodium iodide
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY
13517-06-1 (dihydrate)
PubChem
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
ChEBI  YesY
ChEMBL  N
RTECS number WB6475000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula NaI
Molar mass 149.89 g/mol
Appearance white solid
deliquescent
Odor odorless
Density 3.67 g/cm3
Melting point 661 °C (1,222 °F; 934 K)
Boiling point 1,304 °C (2,379 °F; 1,577 K)
Solubility in water 178.8 g/100 mL (20 °C)
184 g/100 mL (25 °C)
294 g/100 mL (70 °C)
302 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility soluble in ethanol and acetone (39.9 g/100 mL)
Acidity (pKa) 8-9.5
Refractive index (nD) 1.7745
Structure
Coordination
geometry
Octahedral
Thermochemistry
Std molar
entropy
So298
91 J·mol−1·K−1[1]
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−288 kJ·mol−1[1]
Hazards
MSDS [1]
EU Index Not listed
Main hazards Irritant, can harm the unborn child
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions Sodium fluoride
Sodium chloride
Sodium bromide
Other cations Lithium iodide
Potassium iodide
Rubidium iodide
Caesium iodide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N   YesY/N?)

Sodium iodide is a white, crystalline salt with the chemical formula NaI, and is used in radiation detection, treatment of iodine deficiency, and as a reactant in the Finkelstein reaction.

Production

Sodium iodide is manufactured from the reaction between iodine and sodium hydroxide.

Uses

Food supplement

Sodium iodide, as well as potassium iodide, is commonly used to treat and prevent iodine deficiency. Iodized table salt contains one part sodium or potassium iodide to 100,000 parts of sodium chloride.[2]

Organic synthesis

Sodium iodide is used in the Finkelstein reaction, for conversion of an alkyl chloride into an alkyl iodide. This method relies on the insolubility of sodium chloride in acetone to drive the reaction:

R-Cl + NaI → R-I + NaCl

Nuclear medicine

Some radioactive iodide salts of sodium, including [125I]NaI and [131I]NaI, have radiopharmaceutical uses, such as in the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism[3] or as radiolabeling tracers in imaging (see Isotopes of iodine > Radioiodines I-123, I-124, I-125, and I-131 in medicine and biology).

Thallium-doped NaI(Tl) scintillators

Sodium iodide activated with thallium, NaI(Tl), when subjected to ionizing radiation, emits photons (i.e., scintillate) and is used in scintillation detectors, traditionally in nuclear medicine, geophysics, nuclear physics, and environmental measurements. NaI(Tl) is the most widely used scintillation material. The crystals are usually coupled with a photomultiplier tube, in a hermetically sealed assembly, as sodium iodide is hygroscopic. Fine-tuning of some parameters (i.e., radiation hardness, afterglow, transparency) can be achieved by varying the conditions of the crystal growth. Crystals with a higher level of doping are used in X-ray detectors with high spectrometric quality. Sodium iodide can be used both as single crystals and as polycrystals for this purpose. The wavelength of maximum emission is 415 nm.[4]

Solubility data

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23.  
  2. ^ Lyday, Phyllis A. "Iodine and Iodine Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, ISBN 978-3-527-30673-2 doi:10.1002/14356007.a14_381 Vol. A14 pp. 382–390.
  3. ^ I131The Free Dictionary: sodium iodide
  4. ^ Scintillation Materials
  5. ^ Burgess, J. "Metal Ions in Solution" (Ellis Horwood, New York, 1978) ISBN 0-85312-027-7
  6. ^ Danil de Namor, A.F.; J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1, 1989,85, 2705-2712 DOI: 10.1039/F19898502705

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 1009 - Sodium Iodide (Anhydrous)
  • Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) - Safety data for sodium iodide
  • Sodium iodide as medication — Consumer Information
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