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Sodium perchlorate

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Sodium perchlorate

Sodium perchlorate
Sodium perchlorte
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY
PubChem
ChemSpider  YesY
EC number
UN number 1502
ChEMBL  N
RTECS number SC9800000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula NaClO4
NaClO4.H2O (monohydrate)
Molar mass 122.44 g/mol
Appearance White crystalline solid
Density 2.4994 g/cm3
2.02 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
Melting point 468 °C (decomp., anhydrous)
130 °C (monohydrate)
Boiling point 482 °C (decomp, monohydrate)
Solubility in water 209.6 g/100 mL (25 °C, anhydrous)
209 g/100 mL (15 °C, monohydrate)
Refractive index (nD) 1.4617
Structure
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 0715
EU Index 017-010-00-6
EU classification Oxidant (O)
Harmful (Xn)
R-phrases R9, R22
S-phrases (S2), S13, S22, S27
NFPA 704
0
2
1
OX
Flash point 400 °C (752 °F; 673 K)
Related compounds
Other anions Sodium chloride
Sodium hypochlorite
Sodium chlorite
Sodium chlorate
Other cations Lithium perchlorate
Potassium perchlorate
Ammonium perchlorate
Caesium perchlorate
Related compounds Perchloric acid
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N   YesY/N?)

Sodium perchlorate is the chemical formula NaClO4. It is the most soluble of the common perchlorate salts. It is a white crystalline, hygroscopic solid that is highly soluble in water and in alcohol. It usually comes as the monohydrate, which has a rhombic crystal system.[1]

Its heat of formation is −382.75 kJ mol−1.[2]

Uses

Sodium perchlorate is the precursor to many other perchlorate salts, often taking advantage of their low solubility relative to NaClO4 (209 g/100 ml at 25 °C). Perchloric acid is made by treating NaClO4 with HCl.

NaClO4 finds only minimal use in pyrotechnics because it is hygroscopic; ammonium and potassium perchlorates are preferred. These salts are prepared by double decomposition from a solution of sodium perchlorate and potassium or ammonium chlorides.

Laboratory applications

NaClO4 has a variety of uses in the laboratory, often as a nonreactive electrolyte. For example, it is used in standard DNA extraction and hybridization reactions in molecular biology.

In medicine

Sodium perchlorate can be used to block iodine uptake before administration of iodinated contrast agents in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (suppressed TSH).[3]

Production

Sodium perchlorate is produced by anodic oxidation of sodium chlorate (not sodium chloride) at an inert electrode, such as platinum.[4]

ClO3(aq) + H2O(l) → ClO4(aq) + H2(g)

See also

References

  1. ^ Eagleson, Mary (1994). Concise Encyclopedia Chemistry. revised, illustrated. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1000.  
  2. ^ 4WebBook page for NaClO
  3. ^ Becker C. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice]. Radiologe. 2007 Sep;47(9):768-73.
  4. ^ Helmut Vogt, Jan Balej, John E. Bennett, Peter Wintzer, Saeed Akbar Sheikh, Patrizio Gallone “Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids” in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_483

External links

  • WebBook page for NaClO4
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