World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Software engineer

Article Id: WHEBN0000090471
Reproduction Date:

Title: Software engineer  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Rob Pike, Software engineering, Software engineers, Sachin Bansal, Shilpa Singh
Collection: Computer Occupations, People in Information Technology, Software Engineering, Software Engineers
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Software engineer

A computer programmer writing software for the Wikimedia Foundation

A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to the design, development, maintenance, testing, and evaluation of the software and systems that make computers or anything containing software work.

Contents

  • Overview 1
    • A state of the art 1.1
  • Education 2
    • Other degrees 2.1
  • Profession 3
    • Employment 3.1
    • Work 3.2
    • Impact of globalization 3.3
    • Prizes 3.4
  • Use of the title "Engineer" 4
    • Suitability of the term 4.1
    • Regulatory classification 4.2
      • Iceland 4.2.1
      • United Kingdom 4.2.2
      • New Zealand 4.2.3
      • Canada 4.2.4
      • United States 4.2.5
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Overview

Prior to the mid-1960s, software practitioners called themselves computer programmers or software developers, regardless of their actual jobs. Many people prefer to call themselves software developer and programmer, because most widely agree what these terms mean, while software engineer is still being debated.

The term programmer has often been used as a pejorative term to refer to those without the tools, skills, education, or ethics to write good quality software. In response, many practitioners called themselves software engineers to escape the stigma attached to the word programmer. In many companies, the titles programmer and software developer were changed to software engineer, for many categories of programmers.

These terms cause confusion, because some denied any differences (arguing that everyone does essentially the same thing with software) while others use the terms to create a difference (arguing the terms mean completely different jobs).

A state of the art

In 2004, Keith Chapple of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics counted 760,840 software engineers holding jobs in the U.S.; in the same period there were some 1.4 million practitioners employed in the U.S. in all other engineering disciplines combined.[1] The label software engineer is used very liberally in the corporate world. Very few of the practicing software engineers actually hold Engineering degrees from accredited universities. (See also Regulation and licensure in engineering.)

Education

About half of all practitioners today have degrees in computer science, information systems, or information technology. A small, but growing, number of practitioners have software engineering degrees. In 1987, Imperial College London introduced the first three-year software engineering Bachelor's degree in the UK and the world; in the following year, the University of Sheffield established a similar program.[2] In 1996, the Rochester Institute of Technology established the first software engineering bachelor's degree program in the United States, however, it did not obtain ABET accreditation until 2003, the same time as Rice University, Clarkson University, Milwaukee School of Engineering and Mississippi State University obtained theirs.[3] In 1997, PSG College of Technology in Coimbatore, India was the first to start a five-year integrated Master of Science degree in Software Engineering.

Since then, software engineering undergraduate degrees have been established at many universities. A standard international curriculum for undergraduate software engineering degrees was recently defined by the CCSE. As of 2004, in the U.S., about 50 universities offer software engineering degrees, which teach both computer science and engineering principles and practices. The first software engineering Master's degree was established at Seattle University in 1979. Since then graduate software engineering degrees have been made available from many more universities. Likewise in Canada, the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB) of the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers has recognized several software engineering programs.

In 1998, the US Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) established the first doctorate program in Software Engineering in the world. Additionally, many online advanced degrees in Software Engineering have appeared such as the Master of Science in Software Engineering (MSE) degree offered through the Computer Science and Engineering Department at California State University, Fullerton. Steve McConnell opines that because most universities teach computer science rather than software engineering, there is a shortage of true software engineers.[4] ETS University and UQAM were mandated by IEEE to develop the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK), which has become an ISO standard describing the body of knowledge covered by a software engineer.[5]

Other degrees

In business, some software engineering practitioners have MIS or computer information systems degrees. In embedded systems, some have electrical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science with emphasis in "embedded systems" or computer engineering degrees, because embedded software often requires a detailed understanding of hardware. In medical software, practitioners may have medical informatics, general medical, or biology degrees.

Some practitioners have mathematics, science, engineering, or technology degrees. Some have philosophy (logic in particular) or other non-technical degrees.For instance, Barry Boehm earned degrees in mathematics. And, others have no degrees.

Profession

Employment

Most software engineers work as employees or contractors. Software engineers work with businesses, government agencies (civilian or military), and non-profit organizations. Some software engineers work on their own as Consulting Software Engineers. Some organizations have specialists to perform each of the tasks in the analysts, architects, developers, testers, technical support, managers) and in academia (educators, researchers).

There is considerable debate over the future employment prospects for Software Engineers and other IT Professionals. For example, an online futures market called the Future of IT Jobs in America attempts to answer whether there will be more IT jobs, including software engineers, in 2012 than there were in 2002. Possible opportunities for Advancement can be as a Software Engineer, then to a Senior Software Engineer, or straight to a Senior Software Engineer, depending on skills and reputation. Services such as Hired are trying to better gauge the coding ability of an engineer, given not all engineers progress their abilities at the same rate.

Work

Most Software Engineers work 37 to 40 hours per week. This job is office-based, and most of the work is done during normal office hours, but can sometimes lead to working away and working late or during weekends, depending on where and when the client is situated. The job can also be done at home or anywhere a computer is set up. Some high-profile companies have encouraged software engineers to work for long hours; Apple's Steve Jobs set up a culture where engineers would never take holidays and work throughout weekends, yet love what they were doing.[6]

Impact of globalization

Most students in the developed world have avoided degrees related to software engineering because of the fear of offshore outsourcing (importing software products or services from other countries) and of being displaced by foreign visa workers.[7] Although government statistics do not currently show a threat to software engineering itself; a related career, computer programming does appear to have been affected.[8][9] Often one is expected to start out as a computer programmer before being promoted to software engineer. Thus, the career path to software engineering may be rough, especially during recessions.

Some career counselors suggest a student also focus on "people skills" and business skills rather than purely technical skills because such "soft skills" are allegedly more difficult to offshore. Reasonable command over reading, writing & speaking English is asked by most of employers.[10] It is the quasi-management aspects of software engineering that appear to be what has kept it from being impacted by globalization.[11]

Prizes

There are several prizes in the field of software engineering:[12]

  • The CODiE awards is a yearly award issued by the Software and Information Industry Association for excellence in software development within the software industry.
  • Jolt Awards are awards in the software industry.
  • Stevens Award is a software engineering award given in memory of Wayne Stevens.

Use of the title "Engineer"

Suitability of the term

Many people believe that software engineering implies a certain level of academic training, professional discipline, adherence to formal processes, and especially legal liability that often are not applied in cases of software development. A common analogy is that working in construction does not make one a civil engineer, and so writing code does not make one a software engineer. Furthermore, because computing doesn't utilize the methods of mathematical physics common to all conventional engineering disciplines, it's more appropriate to call those engaged in this occupation as software developers, computer scientists or similar.

In 1978, a prominent computing scientist, E. W. Dijkstra, wrote in a paper that the coining of the term software engineer was not useful since it was an inappropriate analogy, "The existence of the mere term has been the base of a number of extremely shallow—and false—analogies, which just confuse the issue...Computers are such exceptional gadgets that there is good reason to assume that most analogies with other disciplines are too shallow to be of any positive value, are even so shallow that they are only confusing."[13]

In each of the last few decades, at least one radical new approach has entered the mainstream of software development (e.g. Structured Programming, Object Orientation), implying that the field is still changing too rapidly to be considered an engineering discipline. Proponents argue that the supposedly radical new approaches are evolutionary rather than revolutionary.

Individual commentators have disagreed sharply on how to define software engineering or its legitimacy as an engineering discipline. David Parnas has said that software engineering is, in fact, a form of engineering.[14][15] Steve McConnell has said that it is not, but that it should be.[16] Donald Knuth has said that programming is an art and a science.[17] Edsger W. Dijkstra claimed that the terms software engineering and software engineer have been misused and should be considered harmful, particularly in the United States.[18]

Regulatory classification

Iceland

The use of the title tölvunarfræðingur (e. computer scientist) is protected by law in Iceland.[19] Software engineering is taught in Computer Science departments in Icelandic universities. Icelandic law state that a permission must be obtained from the Minister of Industry when the degree was awarded abroad, prior to use of the title. The title is only awarded to those who have obtained a master's degree in Software Engineering from a recognized higher educational institution.

United Kingdom

The U.K. has seen the alignment of the Information Technology Professional and the Engineering Professionals.[20]

New Zealand

In New Zealand,

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

External links

  1. ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, USDL 05-2145: Occupational Employment and Wages, November 2004
  2. ^ Cowling, A. J. 1999. The first decade of an undergraduate degree program in software engineering. Ann. Softw. Eng. 6, 1–4 (Apr. 1999), 61–90.
  3. ^
  4. ^ McConnell, Steve (July 10, 2003). Professional Software Development: Shorter Schedules, Higher Quality Products, More Successful Projects, Enhanced Careers. ISBN 978-0-321-19367-4.
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ As outsourcing gathers steam, computer science interest wanes
  8. ^ Computer Programmers
  9. ^ Software developer growth slows in North America | InfoWorld | News | 2007-03-13 | By Robert Mullins, IDG News Service
  10. ^ Hot Skills, Cold Skills
  11. ^ Dual Roles: The Changing Face of IT
  12. ^ Some external links:
    • SIGSOFT Awards
    • ICSE's Most Influential Paper Award
    • A list of various Software Engineering (and SE-related) Awards
  13. ^ http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/EWD/transcriptions/EWD06xx/EWD690.html E.W.Dijkstra Archive: The pragmatic engineer versus the scientific designer
  14. ^ , p. 19: "Rather than treat software engineering as a subfield of computer science, I treat it as an element of the set, {Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering,....}."
  15. ^ , p. 20: "This paper argues that the introduction of accredited professional programs in software engineering, programmes that are modelled on programmes in traditional engineering disciplines will help to increase both the quality and quantity of graduates who are well prepared, by their education, to develop trustworthy software products."
  16. ^ , p. 39: "In my opinion, the answer to that question is clear: Professional software development should be engineering. Is it? No. But should it be? Unquestionably, yes. "
  17. ^ Transcript of the 1974 Turing Award lecture.
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ 'British Computer Society' (name removed) licensed by the Engineering Council to award Chartered Engineer status (CEng) and Incorporated Engineer status (IEng);" [1]
  21. ^
  22. ^ 'Professional Engineers of Ontario' – "Quebec Engineers win court battle against Microsoft" http://www.canadianconsultingengineer.com/engineering/quebec-order-of-engineers-wins-legal-battle-with-microsoft/1000018197/]
  23. ^ U.S Department of Labor and Statistics The 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System: 15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations
  24. ^ U.S Department of Labor and Statistics The 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System: 17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations
  25. ^ IEEE Software: "What do you mean I can't call myself a Software Engineer?"
  26. ^ Florida Statutes: Chapter 471: Engineering
  27. ^ National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying, [2] "NCEES Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination – Software Engineering Exam Specifications" Retrieved March 20, 2014

References

See also

There is also a new PE (Professional Engineer) exam beginning in April 2013 for Software Engineering specifically as the process of tougher regulation moves forward.[27]

Some of the states regulate the use of terms such as "computer engineer" and even "software engineer". These states include at least Texas[25] and Florida.[26]

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies computer software engineers as a subcategory of "computer specialists", along with occupations such as computer scientist, programmer, and network administrator.[23] The BLS classifies all other engineering disciplines, including computer hardware engineers, as "engineers".[24]

United States

IT professionals with degrees in other fields (such as computer science or information systems) are restricted from using the title "Software Engineer", or wording "Software Engineer" in a title, depending on their province or territory of residence. In some instances, cases have been taken to court regarding the illegal use of the protected title "Software Engineer".[22]

In Canada the use of the job title "Engineer" is controlled in each province by self-regulating professional engineering organizations, often aligned with geologists and geophysicists, who are also tasked with enforcement of the governing legislation. The intent is that any individual holding themselves out as an engineer (or geologist or geophysicist) has been verified to have been educated to a certain accredited level and their professional practice is subject to a code of ethics and peer scrutiny.

Canada

[21]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.