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Sonderaktion 1005

Sonderaktion 1005
A Sonderkommando 1005 unit stand next to a bone crushing machine at Janowska concentration camp in 1943.
Also known as Aktion 1005 or
Enterdungsaktion (English: Exhumation action)
Location Nazi-occupied Europe
Participants Nazi Germany
Organizations SS Police Battalions
Sicherheitsdienst
Trawnikis
Camp Extermination camps
Concentration camps
Mass-killing sites in Eastern Europe.
Documentation Nuremberg Trials

The Sonderaktion 1005 (English: Special Action 1005), also called Aktion 1005, or Enterdungsaktion (English: Exhumation Action) began in May 1942 during World War II to hide any evidence that people had been murdered by Nazi Germany in Aktion Reinhard in occupied Poland. The operation, which was conducted in strict secrecy from 1942–1944, used prisoners to exhume mass graves and burn the bodies. These work groups were officially called Leichenkommandos ("corpse units") and were all part of Sonderkommando 1005; inmates were often put in chains in order to prevent escape.

In May 1943 the operation moved into occupied territories in Eastern Europe to destroy evidence of the Holocaust. Sonderaktion 1005 was used to conceal the evidence of massacres committed by SS-Einsatzgruppen Nazi death squads that had massacred hundreds of thousands of mostly Jews, as well as Roma and local civilians in Eastern Europe. The Aktion was overseen by selected squads from the Sicherheitsdienst and Ordnungspolizei.

Contents

  • Operations 1
  • The aftermath 2
  • Dramatizations 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5

Operations

In March 1942, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich placed SS-Standartenführer Paul Blobel in charge of the Aktion 1005. However its start was delayed after Heydrich was assassinated in June 1942 by Czechoslovakian SOE agents in Operation Anthropoid. It was after the end of June that SS-Gruppenführer Heinrich Müller, head of the Gestapo finally gave Blobel his orders.[1] While the principal aim was to erase evidence of Jewish exterminations, the Aktion would also include non-Jewish victims of Nazi Einsatzgruppen.[1]

Blobel began his work experimenting at [2] The Auschwitz and Belsen camps had crematoria with furnace rooms on site to dispose of the bodies, therefore the Aktion 1005 commandos were not needed there.[1]

The semi-industrial incineration of corpses at the [9]

The operation also returned to the scenes of earlier mass killings such as Babi Yar, Ponary, the Ninth Fort,[1] as well as Bronna Góra.[10] By 1944, with Soviet armies advancing, SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe, head of the Reichsgau Wartheland ordered that each of the five districts of General Government territory set up its own Aktion 1005 commando to begin "cleaning" mass graves. The operations were not entirely successful as the advancing Soviet troops reached some of the sites before they could be cleared.[1]

The aftermath

At the Nuremberg Trials after World War II, a deputy of Adolf Eichmann, SS-Hauptsturmführer Dieter Wisliceny gave the following testimony regarding Aktion 1005.[11]

In November 1942, in Eichmann's office in Berlin, I met Standartenfuehrer Plobel [sic], who was leader of Kommando 1005, which was specially assigned to remove all traces of the final solution of the Jewish problem by Einsatz Groups and all other executions. Kommando 1005 operated from at least autumn 1942 to September 1944 and was all this period subordinated to Eichmann. The mission was constituted after it first became apparent that Germany would not be able to hold all the territory occupied in the East and it was considered necessary to remove all traces of the criminal executions that had been committed. While in Berlin in November 1942, Plobel [sic] gave a lecture before Eichmann's staff of specialists on the Jewish question from the occupied territories. He spoke of the special incinerators he had personally constructed for use in the work of Kommando 1005. It was their particular assignment to open the graves and remove and cremate the bodies of persons who had been previously executed. Kommando 1005 operated in Russia, Poland and through the Baltic area. I again saw Plobel [sic] in Hungary in 1944 and he stated to Eichmann in my presence that the mission of Kommando 1005 had been completed. SS-Hauptsturmführer Dieter Wisliceny [11]
SS-Standartenführer Paul Blobel, beard grown in prison

Blobel was sentenced to death by the U.S. Nuremberg Military Tribunal in the Einsatzgruppen Trial. He was hanged at Landsberg Prison on June 8, 1951. Nearly 60,000 deaths are attributable to Blobel though during testimony at Nuremberg he alleged he only killed between 10,000–15,000 people.[12]

The prosecution at the trial of Adolf Eichmann attempted to prove that Eichmann was Blobel's superior, but the court did not accept it. Blobel's superior was in fact Heinrich Müller.[13]

Dramatizations

Aktion 1005 was depicted in the 1988 TV miniseries War and Remembrance. It also plays a central role in Daniel Silva's 2005 novel A Death in Vienna. Schindler's List also depicts Aktion 1005 when Jewish prisoners were forced to exhume corpses for burning on open pyres.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g  
  2. ^ a b Operation Reinhard: "The attempt to remove traces" (reprint) Nizkor.org 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  3. ^ a b  
  4. ^ International Katyn Commission (30 April 1943). "Commission Findings". Transcript, Smolensk 30 April 1943. Warsaw Uprising by Project InPosterum. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  5. ^ Kużniar-Plota, Małgorzata (30 November 2004). "Decision to commence investigation into Katyn Massacre". Departmental Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  6. ^ Sturdy Colls, Caroline (22 January 2012). "Treblinka: Revealing the hidden graves of the Holocaust". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  7. ^  
  8. ^  
  9. ^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (10 June 2013). "Treblinka". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  10. ^ AŻIH, Bronna Góra (Bronnaja Gora). Sites of Martyrdom. Museum of the History of Polish Jews Virtual Shtetl 2014.
  11. ^ a b , Volume VIII. USGPO, Washington, 1946, pages 606–619.Nazi Conspiracy and AggressionProf. Stuart Stein: "Affidavit of Dieter Wisliceny", from Note: SS-Hauptsturmführer Dieter Wisliceny in his testimony given before the International Military Tribunal at Nurnberg, 3 January 1946, erroneously identifies the Auschwitz concentration camp complex as the concentration area Sosnowitz (which was one of its dozens of subcamps).
  12. ^ , Time Magazine, Jun. 18, 1951Case Closed
  13. ^ Ruth Bettina Birn (2011). "Fifty Years After: A Critical Look at the Eichmann Trial". Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 44: 443–473. 

References

  • Arad, Yitzhak, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Indiana University Press, 1992 ISBN 0-253-21305-3
  • Edelheit, Abraham J., and Edelheit, Herschel, History of the Holocaust, Westview Press, 1995 ISBN 0-8133-2240-5
  • Shmuel Spector, Aktion 1005 — effacing the murder of millions Oxford Journals, Holocaust and Genocide Studies. Volume 5, Issue 2. Pp. 157-173.
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