World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

South Morava

Article Id: WHEBN0004956000
Reproduction Date:

Title: South Morava  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Jablanica (river), Morava Valley, Aleksinac, Lazar of Serbia, Geography of Kosovo
Collection: Rivers of Kosovo, Rivers of Serbia, Rivers of the Republic of MacEdonia, South Morava Basin
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

South Morava

South Morava (Јужна Морава)
Origin Near Skopska Crna Gora in Macedonia
Mouth with the West Morava forms the Great Morava at Stalać, Serbia
Basin countries Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia
Length 295 km
Avg. discharge 100 m³/s
Basin area 15,469 km²

South Morava or in the past Bulgarian Morava[1][2][3] (Serbian and Macedonian: Јужна Морава, Južna Morava; pronounced ; Bulgarian: Българска Морава, Balgarska Morava)[4][5] is a river in southern Serbia which represents the shorter headwater of Great Morava. Today, it is 295 km long. It flows generally in the south to north direction, from Macedonian border to Central Serbia, where it meets West Morava at Stalać, to create Great Morava.


  • Sources 1
  • Geography 2
  • Tributaries 3
  • Economy 4
  • See also 5
  • Notes and references 6
  • External links 7


The river rises in the Skopska Crna Gora mountain in Macedonia, north Skopje. Streams of Ključevska reka and Slatinska reka join together to form the river Golema, which is, after passing the Macedonian-Serbian border, known as Binačka Morava. After 49 km it meets Preševska Moravica at Bujanovac, and for the remaining of 246 km flows as South Morava.


South Morava belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin, and its own drainage area is 15,469 km², out of which 1,237 is in Bulgaria (through its right tributary Nišava). Its average discharge at the mouth is 100 m³/s and it is not navigable.

South Morava has a composite valley, which means it consists of series of gorges and valleys in this order: Leskovac valley – Niš valley – Aleksinac valley – Stalać gorge. After breaking through the last, Stalać gorge, it meets West Morava.

South Morava in Moravac

In macro-geological point of view, South Morava connects Aegean basin with Pannonian basin. This creates a phenomenon named apparent flow inversion, because it seems that river from one lowland climbs up the mountains and then flows into another lowland. The point connecting these two large geological basins is Grdelica gorge (Serbian: Grdelička klisura/Грделичка клисура), but the bottom of the gorge, where the river flows, is much lower than the mountains surrounding it, so the river flows normally.

South Morava used to be 318 km long and represented longer and natural (flowing in the same direction) headwater of Great Morava. Causing severe floods in history, meandering river has been shortened by almost 30 km until today, so it became shorter than West Morava. However, West Morava has always had bigger discharge.

Areas in southern Serbia where South Morava flows have been almost completely deforested, which causes one of the most severe cases of erosion in the Balkans. As a result of this, the river brings large amount of materials to the Great Morava, filling and elevating its river bed, which helps the huge floods of its daughter river.


South Morava has 157 tributaries. The most important left ones are: Jablanica, Veternica, Pusta reka and Toplica. Right tributaries are: Vrla, Vlasina, Nišava (the longest) and Sokobanjska Moravica.


South Morava has a significant potential for electricity production, but this has not been used at all. Huge hydroelectrical system has been constructed in its drainage basin, though (Vlasina- Vrla I-IV power stations).

To a certain extent, its waters are used for irrigation.

The most important role river valley has in transportation. It is the natural route for both railway and highway Belgrade–Skopje–Thessaloniki. It is part of the Pan-European corridor X, and the route of E75 Highway.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Serbien und die Serben ..., Spiridion Gopčević, 1891, p.5
  2. ^ The Russo-Turkish War, R. Grant Barnwell, 1878, p.402
  3. ^ A handbook of Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and adjacent parts of Greece, Great Britain. Naval Intelligence Division, 1920, p.11
  4. ^ Български хроники: история на нашия народ от 2137 пр. Хр. до 1453 сл. Хр. Стефан Цанев, TRUD Publishers, 2008, ISBN 9545288612q str. 346.
  5. ^ Bŭlgaria 20-ti vek: almanakh, Filip Panaĭotov, TRUD Publishers, 1999, ISBN 9545281464, p. 1013.
  • Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition (1985); Prosveta; ISBN 86-07-00001-2
  • Jovan Đ. Marković (1990): "Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije"; Svjetlost-Sarajevo; ISBN 86-01-02651-6

External links

  • PIM "Ivan Milutinović", Belgrade, Serbia
  • Morava - Vardar (Axios) Navigation Route (About 1,200 km shorter route (three days shorter time of navigation) from Belgrade to Port of Thessaloniki than across Danube, Black Sea and Aegean Sea. Electric power production, improvement of water quality and regulation of flooding wave.)
  • Morava - Vardar (Axios) Navigation Route map
  • Hydropower and navigation system "Morava" at the Wayback Machine (Concepts of regulation of rivers Great Morava and South Morava for navigation and hydropower production.)
  • Macedonia's way to the Danube

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.