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Status of First Nations treaties in British Columbia

 

Status of First Nations treaties in British Columbia

The status of the First Nations, aboriginal people of British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a long-standing problem that has become a major issue in recent years. In 1763 the British Crown declared that only it could acquire land from First Nations through treaties.[1] Historically only two treaties were signed with the First Nations of BC. The first of which was the Douglas Treaties, negotiated by Sir James Douglas with the native people of southern Vancouver Island from 1850-1854.[2] The second treaty, Treaty 8, signed in 1899 was part of the Numbered Treaties that were signed with First Nations outside of British Columbia.[3] British Columbian Treaty 8 signatories are located in the Peace River Country or the far North East of BC. For over nine decades no more treaties were signed with First Nations of BC; many Native people wished to negotiate treaties, but successive BC provincial governments refused until the 1990s.[4][5] A major development was the 1997 decision of the Supreme Court of Canada in the Delgamuukw v. British Columbia case that aboriginal title still exists in British Columbia and that when dealing with Crown land, the government must consult with and may have to compensate First Nations whose rights are affected.[6]

Contents

  • History 1
  • BC Treaty negotiation stages 2
  • First Nation treaty status 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

History

A map of Vancouver Island and the Lower mainland, with a dark patch showing Tsawwassen land
Traditional land of the Tsawwassen First Nation. In their 2009 treaty they will have title to 724 hectares (7.24 km2)[7]

In 1991 the Report of the BC Claims Task Force was released recommending a treaty commission be set up.[8] The British Crown passed its authority to negotiate treaties to Canada when it was created in 1867. Even though only the Canadian federal government has the authority to enter into treaties with First Nations[4] in 1992 the newly created British Columbia Treaty Commission (BCTP) and BC Treaty Process included the BC provincial government in the process by agreement among Canada, BC and the First Nations.[8] As of 2009 there are 60 First Nations participating in the BC treaty process. Because some First Nations negotiate at a common table, there are 49 sets of negotiations.[9] From 1992 to 2009 there have been a few treaties completed including the Maa-nulth First Nations Treaty signed on April 9, 2009,[10] and the Tsawwassen First Nation Treaty signed on April 3, 2009.[7] Another Treaty was ratified outside the BC Treaty process in 1999, the Nisga'a Treaty.[11] In May 1993 the Treaty Commission allocated approximately $432 million in negotiation support funding to more than 50 First Nations- $345.6 million in the form of loans and $86.4 million in the form of contributions.[12] Of that money the Treaty Commission's total operating costs from 1993 to March 31, 2009 has spent $34.2 million.[12]

Old black and white photo of an old man in a suit
From 1850-1854 Sir James Douglas, governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island, signed a number of treaties called the Douglas Treaties with the First Nations of Vancouver Island

There is considerable disagreement about treaty negotiations; while polls have shown that 25% of British Colombians are opposed to it,[13] a substantial minority of native people consider the current treaty process inadequate and have therefore refused to participate. Tapping into this public sentiment in 2002, the BC Liberal Party mailed out ballots for a provincial British Columbia aboriginal treaty referendum on principles for treaty negotiations, sparking protests and a boycott. Because of the boycott and general public apathy only about a third of eligible voters took part in the referendum,[14] which passed with 80% of those who responded voting "Yes" to continuing the Treaty Process.[15]

A November 21, 2007 court threatened the Treaty Process when the ruling for the Xeni Gwet'in First Nation was given. The judge ruled that the Xeni Gwet'in could demonstrate aboriginal title to half of the Nemaiah Valley, and that the province had no power over these lands.[16] Under the BC treaty process, negotiating nations have received as little as 5% of their claimed land recognized. Grand Chief Stewart Phillip, president of the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs, member governments of which reject the treaty process and remain outside it, has called the court victory a "nail in the coffin" of the B.C. treaty process.[16] He went on to say, "Why would any First Nation be foolish enough to ratify any [treaty] settlement for less than five per cent of their territory when the Xeni Gwet'in [have] achieved recognition of their title to 50 per cent of their territory?"[16]

Even with the Xeni Gwet'in ruling First Nations across BC are still continuing the Treaty process advancing through the six-stage process to eventual Treaty implementation. While Chief Stewart Phillip had claimed that the First Nations themselves would slow down or leave the treaty process it is the Canadian government who is holding up many of the treaties.[17]

BC Treaty negotiation stages

In 1992 The Treaty Commission and the treaty process were established in by agreement among Canada, British Columbia and the First Nations Summit. Through the Treaty Commission a process was reached where treaties would follow a six stage system to successful Negotiation.[18]

A dark stone mask, free standing
Stone mask of Nisga'a people, 18th-early 19th century. The Nisga'a Treaty went into effect on May 11, 2000.[11]

Stage Number Stage Name Description Reference
Stage 1 Statement of Intent to Negotiate A First Nation submits a Statement Of Intent (SOI) stating among other things who is claiming, proof that the negotiating party is supported by the community and where the claim will be made. [18]
Stage 2 Readiness To Negotiate Within 45 days of submitting the SOI the parties must sit down and show that all parties have the will and resources to negotiate a treaty. [18]
Stage 3 Negotiation Of a Framework Agreement Basically the "table of contents" of a comprehensive treaty. The three parties agree on the subjects to be negotiated and an estimated time frame for stage four agreement-in-principle negotiations. [18]
Stage 4 Negotiation Of An Agreement In Principle The negotiating parties examine in detail the elements outlined in their framework agreement with the goal of solving the all problems and creating a working treaty. [18]
Stage 5 Negotiation to Finalize a Treaty The treaty for all intents and purposes is finished at this stage the treaty has to be approved by all parties of the negotiating team. [18]
Stage 6 Implementation of the Treaty Applying and running the First Nation as set out by the treaty. [18]

First Nation treaty status

First Nation Treaty Council affiliation(s) Region/Location Treaty Status Date Details
Acho Dene Koe First Nation Deh Cho First Nations Tribal Council Peace Country (NE BC & Alberta)/NWT/Yukon Stage 2[9]
Adams Lake Indian Band Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Shuswap Not participating in treaty process [19]
Ahousaht First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [20]
Aitchelitz Band Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley Stage 4 [21]
Alexandria First Nation Tsilhqot'in Tribal Council Cariboo/Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process[22]
Alexis Creek First Nation Tsilhqot'in Tribal Council Chilcotin Not participating in treaty process[22]
Ashcroft Indian Band Nlaka'pamux Nation Tribal Council Thompson Country Not participating in treaty process [23]
Beecher Bay Indian Band Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties[2] 1850-54 Te'mexw Treaty Association; Renegotiating in the BC Treaty Process, presently at Stage 4 [24]
Blueberry River First Nations Treaty 8 Tribal Association Peace River Country Treaty 8, Treaty ratified [25] June 21, 1899 Discussions with BC and Canada outside the treaty process to adjust Treaty 8.
Bonaparte Indian Band Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Thompson Country Not participating in treaty process [19]
Boothroyd Indian Band Nlaka'pamux Nation Tribal Council Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process [23]
Boston Bar Indian Band Nlaka'pamux Nation Tribal Council Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process [23]
Bridge River Indian Band Lillooet Tribal Council Bridge River-Lillooet Country/Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process [26]
Burns Lake Indian Band Carrier Sekani Tribal Council The Interior Stage 4 [27]
Esketemc First Nation unaffiliated Cariboo, Williams Lake Stage 4 [28] negotiating independently
Cacli'p/Xaxli'p First Nation Lillooet Tribal Council Lillooet Country/Fraser Canyon Stage 3 [29] As of March 2001, the Xaxli'p First Nation left the negotiating table.[29]
Campbell River First Nation (Wei Wai Kum) Kwakiutl District Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [30] Hamatla Treaty Society In suspension[9]
Canim Lake Band Northern Shuswap Tribal Council Cariboo Stage 4 [31]
Canoe Creek Band/Dog Creek Indian Band Northern Shuswap Tribal Council Cariboo Stage 4 [31]
Cape Mudge First Nation (Wei Wai Kai) Kwakiutl District Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [30] Hamatla Treaty Society; In suspension[9]
Carcross/Tagish First Nation Northern Regional Negotiations Table Atlin Country/Yukon Stage 4 [32]
Cayoose Creek First Nation Lillooet Tribal Council Lillooet Country/Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process [26]
Champagne and Aishihik First Nations Atlin Country/Yukon Stage 4 [32] Northern Regional Negotiations Table
Chawathil First Nation Stó:lō Tribal Council Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21]
Cheam Indian Band Stó:lō Tribal Council Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21]
Chehalis First Nation no affiliation Fraser Valley No Information
Chemainus First Nation Naut'sa mawt Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [33] Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group
Cheslatta Indian Band unaffiliated The Interior Stage 3 [34] Negotiating independently
Coldwater Indian Band Nicola Tribal Association Nicola Country Not participating in treaty process[35]
Columbia Lake First Nation Ktunaxa Kinbasket Tribal Council Kootenays Stage 4 [36] Also known as ?Akisq'nuk First Nation
Cook's Ferry Indian Band Nicola Tribal Association Thompson Country Not participating in treaty process[35]
Cowichan Tribes Vancouver Island Stage 4 [33] Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group; Cowichan Tribes is the largest First Nation band in BC with 4,324 members[37]
Da'naxda'xw Awaetlatla Nation Vancouver Island Stage 4 [38] Winalagalis Treaty Group
Dease River First Nation Kaska Nation Cassiar Country Stage 4 [39] Negotiations are suspended until Canada resolves legal issues related to Yukon, BC boundaries.[39]
Ditidaht First Nation Vancouver Island Stage 4 [9] Non-member affiliate of the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council
Doig River First Nation Treaty 8 Tribal Association Peace River Country Treaty 8, Treaty ratified [25] June 21, 1899 Discussions with BC and Canada outside the treaty process to adjust Treaty 8.
Douglas First Nation In-SHUCK-ch Nation, Lower Stl'atl'imx Tribal Council Lower Lillooet River Valley Stage 5 [9]
Ehattesaht First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [20]
Esquimalt First Nation Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties[2] 1850-54
Fort Nelson First Nation Peace River Country Treaty 8, Treaty ratified [25] June 21, 1899 Negotiating independently
Gitanmaax Band Council Skeena Country, Gitanmaax Stage 4 [40] Gitxsan Treaty Society
Gitanyow First Nation Skeena Country Stage 4 [41] Negotiating independently
Gitsegukla Indian Band Skeena Country, Kitsegeucla Stage 4 [40] Gitxsan Treaty Society
Gitwangak Indian Band Skeena Country, Kitwanga Stage 4 [40] Gitxsan Treaty Society
Gitxaala Nation North Coast Not participating in treaty process [42] Also known as Kitkatla First Nation
Formerly part of the Gitxsan Treaty Society
Glen Vowell Indian Band Skeena Country Stage 4 [40] Gitxsan Treaty Society
Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw Nation Kwakiutl District Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [38] Also affiliated with the Winalagalis Treaty Group
Gwawaenuk Tribe Vancouver Island No Information INAC number - 627 [43]
Halfway River First Nation Treaty 8 Tribal Association Peace River Country Treaty 8, Treaty ratified [25] June 21, 1899 Discussions with BC and Canada outside the treaty process to adjust Treaty 8.
Hagwilget Village First Nation Office of the Wet'suwet'en Bulkley Country/Skeena Country Stage 4 [44]
Halalt First Nation Vancouver Island Stage 4 [33] Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group
Hartley Bay Indian Band British Columbia Coast Stage 4 [42] Tsimshian First Nations; Also known as the Gitga'at Nation and Gitga'at First Nation
Heiltsuk Nation Central Coast, Bella Bella Stage 4 [45] Negotiating independently
Hesquiaht First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [20]
High Bar First Nation Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Fraser Canyon/Cariboo Not participating in treaty process [19]
Homalco Indian Band Naut'sa mawt Tribal Council Sunshine Coast Stage 4 [9]
Hupacasath First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council but Negotiating independently Vancouver Island Stage 4 [9][20]
Huu-ay-aht First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 6 [10] April 9, 2009 Negotiating with the Maa-nulth First Nations [20]
Iskut First Nation Tahltan Nation Stikine Country Not participating in treaty process [46]
Kamloops Indian Band Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Thompson Country Not participating in treaty process [19]
Kanaka Bar Indian Band Fraser Canyon Indian Administration Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process[47]
Katzie First Nation Fraser Valley, Pitt Meadows Stage 4 [48] Negotiating independently
Kispiox Band Council Skeena Country, Kispiox Stage 4 [40] Gitxsan Treaty Society
Haisla Nation British Columbia Coast Stage 4 [49] Negotiating independently
Kitselas First Nation Tsimshian First Nations British Columbia Coast Stage 4 [42]
Kitasoo/Xaixais First Nation Oweekeno-Kitasoo-Nuxalk Tribal Council Bella Coola, Central Coast Stage 4 [42] Also part of the Tsimshian First Nations
Kitsumkalum First Nation Skeena Country Stage 4 [42] Tsimshian First Nations
Klahoose First Nation Naut'sa mawt Tribal Council Sunshine Coast Stage 4 [9]
Kluskus First Nation Carrier Chilcotin Tribal Council Not participating in treaty process [50]
K'ómoks (Comox) First Nation Kwakiutl District Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [9] in suspension [9]
Kwadacha First Nation Kaska Nation Cassiar Country Stage 4 [39] Negotiations are suspended until Canada resolves legal issues related to Yukon, BC boundaries.[39]
Kwakiutl First Nation Vancouver Island Stage 4 [9] in suspension [9]
Kwantlen First Nation Stó:lō Tribal Council Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21]
Kwaw-kwaw-a-pilt First Nation Stó:lō Tribal Council Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21]
Kwiakah First Nations Hamatla Treaty Society Vancouver Island Stage 4 [30] In suspension[9]
Kwicksutaineuk-ah-kwa-mish First Nation Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council Vancouver Island/Queen Charlotte Strait Not participating in treaty process [51]
Kwikwetlem First Nation Sto:lo (unaffiliated) Fraser Valley, Coquitlam/Port Coquitlam No Information INAC number - 560 [52]
Kyuquot/Cheklesahht First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 6 [10] April 9, 2009 Negotiating with the Maa-nulth First Nations [20]
Lake Babine Nation Negotiating independently Omineca Country/Bulkley Country Stage 4 [53]
Lake Cowichan First Nation Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group Vancouver Island Stage 4 [33]
Lax-kw'alaams First Nation Negotiating independently North Coast Stage 2 [54]
Leq'a:mel First Nation Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley, Nicomen Island Stage 4 [21]
Lheidli T'enneh Band Negotiating independently Prince George Stage 5 [55] On March 30, 2007, the Lheidli T'enneh Band held a ratification vote on the Final Agreement. With a final count of 123 against and 111 in favour, the Lheidli T'enneh community did not ratify the Final Agreement.[55]
Liard First Nation Kaska Tribal Council Cassiar Country Stage 2 [9]
Lil'wat Nation Lillooet Tribal Council Pemberton Valley Not participating in treaty process [26] aka the Lil'wat Nation or the Mount Currie Indian Band
Little Shuswap Indian Band Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Shuswap Country, Chase Not participating in treaty process [19]
Lower Kootenay First Nation Ktunaxa Kinbasket Tribal Council Kootenays Stage 4 [36]
Lower Nicola First Nation Nicola Tribal Association Nicola Country Not participating in treaty process[35]
Lower Post First Nation Kaska Nation Liard Country Stage 4 (suspended) [39] Canada does not classify the Lower Post First Nation as a band, but rather as one of eight reserves belonging to the Yukon-based Liard First Nation. Negotiations are suspended until Canada resolves legal issues related to Yukon, BC boundaries.[39]
Lower Similkameen Indian Band Okanagan Nation Alliance Similkameen Country Not participating in treaty process [56]
Lyackson First Nation Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group Vancouver Island Stage 4 [33]
Lytton First Nation unaffiliated Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process [23]
McLeod Lake Indian Band Treaty 8 Northern Interior Treaty 8, Treaty ratified June, 2000 The McLeod Nation was originally left out of the Treaty 8 bill even though they live on its land. The McLeod Lake Indian Band Treaty No. 8 Adhesion and Settlement Agreement rectified this oversight.[57]
Malahat First Nation Te'mexw Treaty Association Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties[2] 1850-54 Renegotiating in the BC Treaty Process, presently at Stage 4 [24]
Mamalilikulla-Qwe'Qwa'Sot'Em First Nation Kwakiutl District Council Vancouver Island No Information INAC number - 629 [58]
Matsqui First Nation Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley, Matsqui Not participating in treaty process [21] One of four Sto:lo Nation members not in the treaty process
Metlakatla First Nation Tsimshian First Nations British Columbia Coast Stage 4 [42]
Moricetown Indian Band Office of the Wet'suwet'en North Coast Stage 4 [44]
Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nations Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [20]
Musqueam Indian Band Negotiating independently Fraser Valley, Vancouver Stage 4 [9]
Nadleh Whut'en First Nation Carrier Sekani Tribal Council Central Interior Stage 4 [27] Until 1990, it was referred to as the Fraser Lake Indian Band.
Nak'azdli Band Carrier Sekani Tribal Council Central Interior Stage 4 [27]
‘Namgis First Nation Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council Alert Bay, Vancouver Island Stage 4 [9]
Nanoose First Nation Te'mexw Treaty Association Nanoose Bay, Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties[2] 1850-54 Renegotiating in the BC Treaty Process, presently at Stage 4 [24]
Nazko First Nation The Interior Negotiating independently Stage 4 [59] Is a member of the Carrier-Chilcotin Tribal Council [50]
Nee-Tahi-Buhn Band The Interior No Information INAC number - 726 [60]
Neskonlith Indian Band Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Shuswap Country Not participating in treaty process [19]
Nicomen Indian Band Fraser Canyon Indian Administration, Nicola Tribal Association Thompson Country Not participating in treaty process[35]
Nisga'a Tribal Council Negotiated independently North Coast, Nass Country Stage 6 [11] May 11, 2000 Nisga'a Final Agreement
N'quatqua First Nation Negotiating independently Bridge River Country No Information INAC number - 556 [61]
Nooaitch Indian Band Nicola Tribal Association Nicola Country Not participating in treaty process[35]
Nuchatlaht First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [20]
Nuxálk Nation Oweekeno-Kitasoo-Nuxalk Tribal Council Bella Coola, Central Coast Not participating in treaty process[62]
Okanagan Indian Band Okanagan Nation Alliance Okanagan, Vernon Not participating in treaty process [56]
Old Massett Village Council Council of the Haida Nation Haida Gwaii Stage 2 [63] In December 2009 a reconciliation protocol was signed outside of the BC Treaty Process between the BC government and the First Nations represented by the Haida Nation.[64] Along a number of economic issues being settled an agreement was reached to rename the Queen Charlotte Islands to the Haida Gwaii.[64]
Oregon Jack Creek Indian Band Nlaka'pamux Nation Tribal Council Thompson Country Not participating in treaty process [23]
Osoyoos Indian Band Okanagan Nation Alliance Okanagan Not participating in treaty process [56]
Pacheedaht First Nation Negotiating independently Vancouver Island Stage 4 [9] Not a member of the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council and define themselves differently
Pauquachin Sencot'en Alliance Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties [2] 1850-54 Fighting other First Nations over claims made in the BC Treaty process [65]
Pavilion Indian Band Lillooet Tribal Council Lillooet Country/Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process [26] Also known as Ts'kw'aylaxw First Nation
Penelakut First Nations Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group Vancouver Island Stage 4 [33]
Penticton Indian Band Okanagan Nation Alliance Okanagan Not participating in treaty process [56]
Peters Band Sto:lo Nation unaffiliated Fraser Valley No Information INAC number - 586 [66]
Popkum Band Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley Stage 4 [21]
Prophet River Band Treaty 8 Tribal Association Peace River Country Treaty 8, Treaty ratified [25] June 21, 1899 Discussions with BC and Canada outside the treaty process to adjust Treaty 8.
Qayqayt First Nation Negotiating independently Fraser Valley, New Westminster Qayqayt are not officially involved in treaty negotiations [67]
Qualicum First Nation Vancouver Island No Information
Quatsino First Nation Kwakiutl District Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [38] Also affiliated with the Winalagalis Treaty Group
Red Bluff First Nation Carrier-Chilcotin Tribal Council Not participating in treaty process [50]
Saik'uz First Nation Carrier Sekani Tribal Council The Interior Stage 4 [27]
Samahquam First Nation In-SHUCK-ch Nation/Lower Stl'atl'imx Tribal Council Lower Lillooet River Valley Stage 5 [9]
Saulteau First Nation Treaty 8 Tribal Association Peace River Country Treaty 8, Treaty ratified [25] June 21, 1899 Discussions with BC and Canada outside the treaty process to adjust Treaty 8.
Simpcw North Thompson Indian Band Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Thompson Country Not participating in treaty process [19]
Scowlitz First Nation Stó:lō Tribal Council Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21]
Seabird Island Band Stó:lō Tribal Council Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21]
Sechelt Indian Band unaffiliatd Sunshine Coast Stage 5 [68] April 16, 1999 Negotiating independently; Negotiations have been on hold since October 1999, when the Sechelt requested a break in final agreement negotiations in order to consult with their community members.[68]
Semiahmoo First Nation Sencot'en Alliance Fraser Valley, White Rock Douglas Treaties [2] 1852 Sencot'en Alliance; Fighting other First Nations over claims made in the BC Treaty process [65]
Seton Lake First Nation Lillooet Tribal Council Bridge River-Lillooet Country Not participating in treaty process [26] On November 4, 2008, The Province, Canada and the Seton Lake Indian Band celebrated the settlement of the remaining cut-off claims in British Columbia.
Shackan First Nation Nicola Tribal Association Nicola Country Not participating in treaty process[35]
Shuswap Indian Band Ktunaxa Kinbasket Tribal Council Shuswap Country[36] Stage 4 Also part of the Shuswap Nation Tribal Council[19]
Sinixt Nation Sinixt Nation West Kootenay Not participating in treaty process
Siska Indian Band Nicola Tribal Association Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process[35]
Skatin First Nation In-SHUCK-ch Nation/Lower Stl'atl'imx Tribal Council Lower Lillooet River Valley Stage 5 [9]
Skawahlook First Nation Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley Stage 4 [21]
Skeetchestn Indian Band Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Thompson Country Not participating in treaty process [19]
Skidegate Band Council Council of the Haida Nation Haida Gwaii Stage 2 [63] In December 2009 a reconciliation protocol was signed outside of the BC Treaty Process between the BC government and the First Nations represented by the Haida Nation.[64] Along a number of economic issues being settled an agreement was reached to rename the Queen Charlotte Islands to the Haida Gwaii.[64]
Skin Tyee First Nation Omineca Country/Nechako Country No Information INAC number - 729 [69]
Shxw'ow'hamel First Nation Stó:lō Tribal Council Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21]
Skowkale First Nation Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley Stage 4 [21]
Skuppah First Nation Fraser Canyon Indian Administration Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process[47]
Skwah First Nation Fraser Valley No information Not to be confused with Skway or Shxwhá:y Village which is also located near Chilliwack in the Fraser Valley.
Shxwhá:y Village Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21] One of four Sto:lo Nation members not in the treaty process
Also known as the Skway First Nation. Not to be confused with Skwah which is also located near Chilliwack in the Fraser Valley.
Sliammon First Nation British Columbia Stage 5 [70] December 6, 2003 [70] Negotiating independently
Snuneymuxw First Nation Vancouver Island, Nanaimo Douglas Treaties[2] 1850-54 Negotiating independently; Renegotiating in the BC Treaty Process, presently at Stage 4 [71]
Soda Creek/Deep Creek Band Northern Shuswap Tribal Council Cariboo Stage 4 [31]
Songhees First Nation Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties[2] 1850-54 Te'mexw Treaty Association; Renegotiating in the BC Treaty Process, presently at Stage 4 [24]
Soowahlie First Nation Stó:lō Tribal Council Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21]
Spallumcheen Indian Band Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Shuswap-Okanagan Not participating in treaty process [19]
Spuzzum Indian Band Nlaka'pamux Nation Tribal Council and Fraser Canyon Indian Administration Fraser Canyon Not participating in treaty process[47]
Squamish Nation unaffiliated Howe Sound/Burrard Inlet Stage 3 [72] Negotiating independently
Squiala First Nation Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley Not participating in treaty process [21] One of four Sto:lo Nation members not in the treaty process
St. Mary's Indian Band Ktunaxa Kinbasket Tribal Council Kootenays Stage 4 [36]
Stellat'en First Nation Carrier Sekani Tribal Council The Interior Stage 4 [27] Reserves 5 and 6 split from Nadleh Whut'en First Nation to make the Stellat'en First Nation.
Stone First Nation Tsilhqot'in Tribal Council Chilcotin Not participating in treaty process[22]
Sumas First Nation Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley, Abbotsford Not participating in treaty process [21] One of four Sto:lo Nation members not in the treaty process
Tahltan First Nation Tahltan Nation Stikine Country Not participating in treaty process [46]
Takla Lake First Nation Carrier Sekani Tribal Council The Interior Stage 4 [27]
T'it'q'et First Nation Lillooet Tribal Council Lillooet Country Not participating in treaty process [26]
T'sou-ke Nation unaffiliated Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties[2] 1850-54 Te'mexw Treaty Association; Renegotiating in the BC Treaty Process, presently at Stage 4 [24]
Tl'azt'en Nation Carrier Sekani Tribal Council The Interior Stage 4 [27]
Taku River Tlingit First Nation Atlin Country Stage 4 [32] Northern Regional Negotiations Table
Tl'etinqox-t'in Government Office Tsilhqot'in Tribal Council Chilcotin Not participating in treaty process[22]
Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [9][20] Negotiating independently
Tlatlasikwala Nation Kwakiutl District Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [38] Also affiliated with the Winalagalis Treaty Group
Tlowitsis Tribe Vancouver Island Stage 4 [73] Negotiating independently
Tobacco Plains Indian Band Ktunaxa Kinbasket Tribal Council Kootenays Stage 4 [36]
Toosey First Nation Chilcotin Stage 4 [59] Negotiating independently; Also known as the Tl'esqox First Nation
Toquaht First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 6 [10] April 9, 2009 Negotiating with the Maa-nulth First Nations [20]
Tsartlip Sencot'en Alliance Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties [2] 1850-54 Sencot'en Alliance; Fighting other First Nations over claims made in the BC Treaty process [65]
Tsawout Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties [2] 1850-54 Sencot'en Alliance; Fighting other First Nations over claims made in the BC Treaty process [65]
Tsawataineuk First Nation Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council Vancouver Island Not participating in treaty process [51]
Tsawwassen First Nation Fraser Valley, Delta Stage 6 [7] April 3, 2009 Negotiated independently
Tsay Keh Dene Band unaffiliated Northern Interior Stage 4 [74] Negotiating independently
Tseshaht First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 4 [20]
Tseycum First Nation Vancouver Island Douglas Treaties[2] 1850-54 Signatory in the Douglas Treaties 1850-54[2]
Tsleil-Waututh First Nation Naut'sa mawt Tribal Council Fraser Valley, Vancouver Stage 4 [75] Negotiating independently; Also known as the Burrard Indian Band
Tzeachten First Nation Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley Stage 4 [21]
Uchucklesaht First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 6 [10] April 9, 2009 Negotiating with the Maa-nulth First Nations [20]
Ucluelet First Nation Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Vancouver Island Stage 6 [10] April 9, 2009 Negotiating with the Maa-nulth First Nations [20]
Ulkatcho First Nation Carrier-Chilcotin Tribal Council Not participating in treaty process [50]
Union Bar First Nation Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley No Information [76]
Upper Nicola Indian Band Nicola Tribal Association Nicola Country Not participating in treaty process[35]
Upper Similkameen Indian Band Okanagan Nation Alliance Nicola-Similkameen Country Not participating in treaty process [56] In 2001, the Upper Similkameen Indian Band (USIB) Cut-Off Claim Settlement Agreement was ratified by Canada, B.C. and the USIB.[56]
West Moberly First Nations Peace River Country Treaty 8, Treaty ratified [25] June 21, 1899 Negotiating independently
Westbank First Nation Okanagan Nation Alliance Okanagan Stage 4 [77]
Wet'suwet'en First Nation Carrier Sekani Tribal Council The Interior Stage 4 [27] Formerly known as the Broman Lake Indian Band
Whispering Pines/Clinton Indian Band Shuswap Nation Tribal Council Thompson-Cariboo Not participating in treaty process [19]
Williams Lake Indian Band Northern Shuswap Tribal Council Cariboo Stage 4 [31] Also known as T'exelc, Sugarcane, The Cane or SCB
Wuikinuxv Nation Negotiating independently Central Coast, Rivers Inlet Stage 4 [78] Affiliate of the Oweekeno-Kitasoo-Nuxalk Tribal Council. Formerly the Oweekeno Nation.
Xeni Gwet'in First Nation Tsilhqot'in Tribal Council Chilcotin Not participating in treaty process[22] Under that BC Treaty Process, bands have received title to about five per cent of the land they have claimed plus cash. In 2007 the Xeni Gwet'in First Nation won a court ruling that gave them 50% of their claim.[16]
Yakweakwioose First Nation Sto:lo Nation Fraser Valley Stage 4 [21]
Yale First Nation Negotiating independently Fraser Canyon Stage 5 [79]
Yekooche First Nation Negotiating independently Omineca Country Stage 5 [80]

See also

References

  1. ^ "FAQ - Why, in this day and age, are treaties being negotiated in BC?". bctreaty.net. 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Douglas Treaties: 1850-1854".  
  3. ^ "Numbered Treaty Overview". canadiana.org. 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  4. ^ a b Helena Kajlich (2002). "The British Columbia Treaty Referendum:An Appropriate Democratic Exercise?".  
  5. ^ Anthony J. Hall (March 2002). "The Denigration of A Great National Question".  
  6. ^ "A Lay Person's Guide to DELGAMUUKW" (PDF). bctreaty.net. 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c "Tsawwassen First Nation".  
  8. ^ a b "About Us". bctreaty.net. 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Negotiation Update".  
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Maa-nulth First Nations".  
  11. ^ a b c "Nisga'a Final Agreement".  
  12. ^ a b "FAQ - How much will treaty negotiations cost?". bctreaty.net. 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  13. ^ "There are Compelling Economic Reasons". bctreaty.net. 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  14. ^ "Voter response low to B.C. treaty referendum".  
  15. ^ "B.C. treaty referendum".  
  16. ^ a b c d "Huge win for Interior natives".  
  17. ^ Andrew MacLeod (November 26, 2008). "Federal government delaying several treaties: BC Treaty Commission". The Hook. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g "Six-Stages: Policies and Procedures".  
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Shuswap Nation Tribal Council".  
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council".  
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Stó:lo Nation".  
  22. ^ a b c d e "Tsilhqot'in National Government".  
  23. ^ a b c d e "Nlaka'pamux Nation Tribal Council".  
  24. ^ a b c d e "Te'mexw Treaty Association".  
  25. ^ a b c d e f g "Treaty 8 First Nations".  
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Lillooet Tribal Council".  
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h "Carrier Sekani Tribal Council".  
  28. ^ "Esketemc First Nation".  
  29. ^ a b "Xaxli'p First Nation (formerly Fountain Band)".  
  30. ^ a b c "Hamatla Treaty Society".  
  31. ^ a b c d "Northern Shuswap Treaty Society / Tribal Council".  
  32. ^ a b c "Northern Regional Negotiations Table".  
  33. ^ a b c d e f "Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group".  
  34. ^ "Cheslatta Carrier Nation".  
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h "Nicola Tribal Association".  
  36. ^ a b c d e "Ktunaxa Kinbasket Tribal Council".  
  37. ^ "Cowichan Tribes".  
  38. ^ a b c d "Winalagalis Treaty Group".  
  39. ^ a b c d e f "Kaska Nations".  
  40. ^ a b c d e "Gitxsan Treaty Society".  
  41. ^ "Office of the Gitanyow Hereditary Chiefs".  
  42. ^ a b c d e f "Tsimshian First Nations".  
  43. ^ "Gwawaenuk Tribe".  
  44. ^ a b "wetsuweten".  
  45. ^ "Heiltsuk Nation".  
  46. ^ a b "Tahltan Nation".  
  47. ^ a b c "Fraser Canyon Tribal Administration".  
  48. ^ "Katzie First Nation".  
  49. ^ "Haisla Nation".  
  50. ^ a b c d "Carrier Chilcotin Tribal Council".  
  51. ^ a b "Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council".  
  52. ^ "Kwikwetlem".  
  53. ^ "Lake Babine Nation".  
  54. ^ "lax-kwalaams".  
  55. ^ a b "Lheidli T’enneh Band".  
  56. ^ a b c d e f "Okanagan Nation Alliance".  
  57. ^ "The McLeod Lake Indian Band Treaty No. 8 Adhesion and Settlement Agreement".  
  58. ^ "Mamalilikulla-Qwe'Qwa'Sot'Em".  
  59. ^ a b "Nazko First Nation".  
  60. ^ "Nee-Tahi-Buhn".  
  61. ^ "N'Quatqua".  
  62. ^ "Wuikinuxv First Nation (formerly Oweekeno Nation)".  
  63. ^ a b "Haida Nation".  
  64. ^ a b c d "Queen Charlotte Islands renamed Haida Gwaii in historic deal".  
  65. ^ a b c d "Alliance maps out at-risk treaty lands".  
  66. ^ "Peters".  
  67. ^ "Uncovering her roots".  
  68. ^ a b "Sechelt Indian Band".  
  69. ^ "Skin Tyee".  
  70. ^ a b "Sliammon First Nation".  
  71. ^ "Snuneymuxw First Nation".  
  72. ^ "Squamish First Nation".  
  73. ^ "Tlowitsis Tribe".  
  74. ^ "Tsay Keh Dene Band".  
  75. ^ "Tsleil-Waututh First Nation Also Burrard Indian Band".  
  76. ^ "Union Bar First Nations". unionbarfirstnations.com. 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  77. ^ "Westbank First Nation".  
  78. ^ "Wuikinuxv First Nation (formerly Oweekeno Nation)".  
  79. ^ "Yale First Nation".  
  80. ^ "Yekooche First Nation".  
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