World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0004253830
Reproduction Date:

Title: Stylommatophora  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Eupulmonata, Orthurethra, Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005), Cylindrellinidae, Partuloidea
Collection: Cretaceous First Appearances, Stylommatophora
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Temporal range: Cretaceous–Recent
An individual of Trochulus hispidus, a stylommatophoran land snail in the family Hygromiidae within the Helicoidea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora

A. Schmidt, 1855

Subdivision ranks

clade Elasmognatha
clade Orthurethra
informal group Sigmurethra

about 20,500 species
Helix aspersa (Common Garden Snail)

Stylommatophora is a taxon of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs. This taxon is currently considered to be a clade. It was previously regarded as an infraorder (also sometimes was considered to be an order). This taxon includes the majority of land snails and slugs.

The two strong synapomorphies of Stylommatophora are a long pedal gland placed beneath a membrane and two pairs of retractile tentacles (Dayrat & Tillier).

Several families in this group contain species of snails and slugs that create love darts.

Stylommatophora are known from the Cretaceous to the Recent periods.[3]


  • 2005 taxonomy 1
  • Previous taxonomy 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

2005 taxonomy

According to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) based on evolutionary ancestry is the clade Stylommatophora in clade Eupulmonata within informal group Pulmonata. It uses unranked clades for taxa above the rank of superfamily (replacing the ranks suborder, order, superorder and subclass) and the traditional Linnaean approach for all taxa below the rank of superfamily.

The clade Stylommatophora contains the subclades Elasmognatha, Orthurethra and the informal group Sigmurethra. The term "informal group" has been used to indicate whenever monophyly has not been tested, or where a traditional taxon of gastropods has now been discovered to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic.

clade Elasmognatha

clade Orthurethra

informal group Sigmurethra

"limacoid clade" (within the Sigmurethra)

(not in limacoid clade, but is within the Sigmurethra)

Previous taxonomy


  1. ^ Solem A. (1978). Classification of the land Mollusca. In: Fretter V. & Peake J. (eds). Pulmonates, Vol. 2A. London, Academic Press, 49–97.
  2. ^ Sutcharit C., Naggs F., Wade C. M., Fontanilla I. & Panha S. (2010). "The new family Diapheridae, a new species of Diaphera Albers from Thailand, and the position of the Diapheridae within a molecular phylogeny of the Streptaxoidea (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 1-16. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00598.x.
  3. ^ (Czech) Pek I., Vašíček Z., Roček Z., Hajn. V. & Mikuláš R. (1996). Základy zoopaleontologie. Olomouc, 264 pp., ISBN 80-7067-599-3.

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.