World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Tarana

Article Id: WHEBN0000577567
Reproduction Date:

Title: Tarana  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hindustani classical music, Mohammad Hussain Sarahang, Khyal, Madhubala, Kyaikmaraw Township
Collection: Hindustani Music, Hindustani Music Terminology, Indian Styles of Music
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Tarana

Tarana or Taranah (Urdu: ترانہ‎, Hindi: तराना) is a type of composition in Hindustani classical vocal music in which certain words and syllables (e.g. "odani", "todani", "tadeem" and "yalali") based on Persian and Arabic phonemes[1] are rendered at a medium (madhya) or fast (drut) pace (laya). It was invented by Amir Khusro (1253-1325 CE),[2] and is similar to the Qalbana form of Sufi poetry. In modern times the tarana is most commonly associated with the singer Amir Khan, who helped popularize it and researched its origins and the syllables used.

Contents

  • Form 1
  • History 2
  • Fastest Tarana Singer 3
  • References 4

Form

The structure consists of a main melody, usually short, repeated many times, with variation and elaboration at the performer's discretion. There is a second, contrasting melody, usually with higher notes, which is introduced once before returning to the main melody. The tarana may include a Persian couplet, and may use syllables from sitar or tabla such as "dar-dar" or "dir-dir"; singers might recite full compositions (e.g. tihais, gats, tukdas) within the body of the tarana.

History

In the words of Thakur Jaidev Singh, an influential commentator on Indian music:

[Tarana] was entirely an invention of Khusrau. Tarana is a Persian word meaning a song. Tillana is a corrupt form of this word. True, Khusrau had before him the example of Nirgit songs using śuṣk-akṣaras (meaningless words) and pāṭ-akṣaras (mnemonic syllables of the mridang). Such songs were in vogue at least from the time of Bharat. But generally speaking, the Nirgit used hard consonants. Khusrau introduced two innovations in this form of vocal music. Firstly, he introduced mostly Persian words with soft consonants. Secondly, he so arranged these words that they bore some sense. He also introduced a few Hindi words to complete the sense…. It was only Khusrau’s genius that could arrange these words in such a way to yield some meaning. Composers after him could not succeed in doing so, and the tarana became as meaningless as the ancient Nirgit.[3]

Fastest Tarana Singer

Currently the Worlds Fastest Tarana Singer is Pandit Rattan Mohan Sharma of the Mewati Gharana. In 2011 the audience at Pandit Motiram Pandit Maniram Sangeet Samaroh in Hyderabad gave him the title of "Tarana ke Baadshah" (King of Tarana).


References

  1. ^ ITCSRA Glossary - Tarana
  2. ^ Massey, Reginald. India's Dances. Abhinav Publications. p. 13.  
  3. ^ Singh, Thakur Jai Deva (1975). "Khusrau’s Musical Compositions". In Ansari, Zoe. Life, Times & Works of Amir Khusrau Dehlavi. New Delhi: National Amir Khusrau Society. p. 276. 

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.