World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Tarifa

Tarifa
Municipality
View of the Puerta de Jerez, the traditional entrance to the old city centre.
View of the Puerta de Jerez, the traditional entrance to the old city centre.
Flag of Tarifa
Flag
Coat of arms of Tarifa
Coat of arms
Location in the province of Cádiz
Location in the province of Cádiz
Tarifa is located in Spain
Tarifa
Location in Spain
Coordinates:
Country Spain
Autonomous community Andalusia
Province Cádiz
Comarca Campo de Gibraltar
Judicial district Algeciras
Government
 • Mayor Juan Andrés Gil García (2011) (People's Party[PP])
Area
 • Total 419.67 km2 (162.04 sq mi)
Elevation 7 m (23 ft)
Population (2009)
 • Total 17,793
 • Density 42/km2 (110/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Tarifeños
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 11380
Dialing code (+34) 956
Official language(s) Spanish
Website Official website

Tarifa is a small town in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost coast of Spain. It is primarily known as one of the world's most popular destinations for wind sports. The town is located on the Costa de la Luz ("coast of light") and across the Straits of Gibraltar facing Morocco.

At exactly 36 degrees latitude, it is the southernmost point of the European continent, situated south of both African capital cities of Tunis and Algiers.


The municipality includes Punta de Tarifa, the southernmost point in continental Europe. There are several villages which depend economically on Tarifa in the municipality, including Tahivilla, Facinas, and Bolonia.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Name 2
  • Main sights 3
  • Cinema 4
  • Transportation 5
  • Climate 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

History

It used to be thought that Tarifa was once the site of the Roman settlement of Julia Transducta (also known as Julia Joza, or just Transducta). However, that settlement is now thought to have been where Algeciras now stands, while Tarifa may have been the site of the settlement of Mellaria.[1][2] Tarifa was given its present name after the attack of Tarif ibn Malik in 710, a Berber military commander of Musa bin Nusayr.[3] The village of Bolonia near Tarifa was also populated in Roman times (called Baelo Claudia). Roman ruins still exist near the village today.

After the Islamic conquest of southern Spain, the city was fortified starting from the 10th century. Later Tarifa was held by the taifa of Algeciras (1031) and by that of Seville (1057), and subsequently by the Almoravids. After the latter's fall, it lived a short period under another taifa of Algeciras (1231), until becoming part of the Kingdom of Granada. In 1292 it was conquered by Sancho IV of Castile, and two years later it resisted a siege by North African Islamic troops. The town resisted another siege in 1340 from Moroccan troops, eventually leading to the Battle of Río Salado.

In 1514 it became the seat of a marquisate, including also Bornos, Espera and Alcalá de los Gazules.

In the course of the Peninsular War, Tarifa was besieged by French troops on 20 December 1810, and again on 18 December 1811. In both of these cases the town was defended by British troops from Gibraltar as the Spanish and British were allies against the French. During the 1811–12 Siege of Tarifa there were 3,000 defending troops with 1,200 of those British, including Colonel Charles Holloway who as commanding Royal Engineer made improvements to Tarifa's defences.

On 19 December the town was attacked again by General Laval, who bombarded the town over Christmas to the point where surrender was demanded on the 30 December. Both the British and Spanish commanders refused to comply and their defiance was rewarded by rain that started the next day. By 5 January the attacking force realised that their powder was wet and their guns were bogged down in mud, and retreated.[4]

Name

Tarifa is sometimes credited with being the origin of the word "tariff", since it was the first port in history to charge merchants for the use of its docks, but other sources[5] point to the Arabic word ta'rïf, as the origin. The name "Tarifa" itself is derived from the name of the Berber warrior, Tarif ibn Malik.

Main sights

Tarifa seen from the Isla de Las Palomas
Sunset at Punta Paloma beach.

Historical landmarks of the city include:

  • the well-preserved Guzman castle, near the port, built by order of caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III (960). Annexed are the Guzmán el Bueno Tower (13th century) and the church of St. Mary, on the site of a former mosque
  • remains of the medieval walls. Of three gates once existing, today only the Puerta de Jerez (13th century) has survived
  • Church of St. Matthew, built in the early 16th century in Gothic style, also over a former mosque. The façade was redesigned by Torcuato Cayón de la Vega in 1774.
  • The ruins of the Roman city of Baelo Claudia, located nearby.

Tarifa has become a popular spot for northern-Europeans to spend their summers. The coast of Tarifa is also popular with windsurfers and kitesurfers due to the strong winds of the straits. For this reason Tarifa is also dotted with hundreds of wind turbines.

Tarifa is a renowned place to watch migrating birds, in particular the storks which cross the Straits of Gibraltar in spring and autumn. Also whale and dolphin watching can be done on the 14 kilometer wide Straits.

Cinema

Tarifa is renowned for its African Film Festival, whose first edition took place in 2004.

Transportation

There are regular ferry services between Tarifa and Tangier and bus services between Tarifa and Algeciras, about 20 km to the northeast, and Seville about 200 km to the north.

Climate

Tarifa features a Mediterranean climate with Oceanic influences, with warm summers and very mild winters. Rain is concentrated in winter, with the summers being largely dry. Because of its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation in the wet period is quite high; monthly averages exceed 80mm in the two wettest months, December and January. The influence of the ocean has the additional effect of creating a very small annual variation in temperature. Winters are much warmer than those of continental Spain - a phenomenon also due to its southerly location - and summers are cooler than most of the country - the average daily high in the hottest month, August, is only 24 °C, significantly cooler than the temperatures experienced further inland in the Guadalquivir valley, and also a little cooler than those felt further east along the Mediterranean coast in places such as Málaga and Almería and even further west in Huelva and the Algarve coast of Portugal, as well as nearby Gibraltar and Tanger, which renders Tarifa to be an extreme microclimate.

Climate data for Tarifa (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
24.7
(76.5)
24.3
(75.7)
26.7
(80.1)
31.9
(89.4)
34.9
(94.8)
35.3
(95.5)
37
(99)
37.4
(99.3)
31.8
(89.2)
27.1
(80.8)
23.6
(74.5)
37.4
(99.3)
Average high °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
15.1
(59.2)
16.3
(61.3)
17.3
(63.1)
19.4
(66.9)
21.8
(71.2)
23.9
(75)
24.5
(76.1)
23.1
(73.6)
20.6
(69.1)
17.9
(64.2)
16.1
(61)
19.27
(66.68)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
13.0
(55.4)
14.4
(57.9)
15.2
(59.4)
17.2
(63)
19.8
(67.6)
21.7
(71.1)
22.3
(72.1)
21.1
(70)
18.6
(65.5)
15.9
(60.6)
14.1
(57.4)
17.19
(62.95)
Average low °C (°F) 10.8
(51.4)
10.9
(51.6)
12.4
(54.3)
13.0
(55.4)
14.9
(58.8)
17.8
(64)
19.4
(66.9)
20.0
(68)
19.0
(66.2)
16.7
(62.1)
13.9
(57)
12.1
(53.8)
15.07
(59.13)
Record low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
1.2
(34.2)
4
(39)
7.4
(45.3)
10.6
(51.1)
11.9
(53.4)
14.2
(57.6)
5
(41)
6.4
(43.5)
2.4
(36.3)
0.4
(32.7)
−3.3
(26.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 70
(2.76)
75
(2.95)
48
(1.89)
57
(2.24)
28
(1.1)
8
(0.31)
2
(0.08)
4
(0.16)
16
(0.63)
80
(3.15)
86
(3.39)
118
(4.65)
592
(23.31)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 7 8 5 7 4 1 0 0 2 6 8 10 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 153 161 199 218 264 284 307 297 233 202 170 142 2,538
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[6]
Tarifa kite school.

References

  1. ^ Gozalbes Cravioto, Enrique (December 1996). "La ubicación de la Mellaria romana". Revista de Estudios Tarifeños VI (23 Fourth Quarter). Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  2. ^ Gozalbes Cravioto, Enrique (1995). "Aspectos de la crisis del Bajo Imperio romano en la comarca del Campo de Gibraltar" (PDF). Almoraima (in Spanish) (13). ISSN 1133-5319. 
  3. ^ Naturalis Historia, 3,7
  4. ^ Hills, George (1974). Rock of contention : a history of Gibraltar. London: Hale. pp. 369–370.  
  5. ^ Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, New York, 1997, ISBN 0-550-14230-4
  6. ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Cádiz - Tarifa". 

External links

  • Official website (Spanish)
  • Estrecho Natural Park (Spanish)
  • Lances Beach Natural Paraje (Spanish)


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.