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Taungoo

Toungoo
တောင်ငူမြို့
Toungoo is located in Myanmar
Toungoo
Location in Burma
Coordinates:
Country  Burma
Division Bago Region
Government
 • Type District Peace and Development Council and Township Peace and Development Council
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total 121,000 (est.)
 • Ethnicities Burman, Karen
 • Religions Theravada Buddhism, Christianity
Time zone MST (UTC+6:30)
Old postcard

Taungoo (Burmese: တောင်ငူမြို့; MLCTS: taung ngu mrui., pronounced: ; also spelled Toungoo) is a city in the Bago Region of Myanmar, 220 km from Yangon, towards the northeastern end of the division, with mountain ranges to the east and west. The main industry is in forestry products, with teak and other hardwoods extracted from the mountains. The city is known for its areca palms, to the extent that a Burmese proverb for unexpected good fortune is equated to a "betel lover winning a trip to Taungoo".

The city is famous in Burmese history for the Taungoo Dynasty which ruled the country for over 200 years between the 16th and 18th centuries. Taungoo was the capital of Burma in 1510–1539 and 1551–1552.

Hanthawaddy United Football Club is based in Taungoo.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Climate 2
  • Administration 3
    • Emergency 3.1
    • Military 3.2
    • Investigation 3.3
  • Demographics 4
  • Transport 5
  • Education 6
    • High schools 6.1
    • Public universities 6.2
    • Nursing and midwifery schools 6.3
    • Divinity school 6.4
  • Healthcare 7
  • Major sites 8
    • Pagodas 8.1
  • Notable residents 9
  • Media 10
  • Gallery 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13

History

Taungoo was founded in 1280[2]:209 in the waning days of Pagan as part of frontier expansion southwards. After the fall of Pagan Empire in 1287, Taungoo came under the rule of Myinsaing Kingdom and later Pinya Kingdom. In 1313, Uzana (later King Uzana of Pinya) was appointed governor of Taungoo.[3] In 1347, Thinkhaba became king of a new Burmese state with its capital located here.[2]:227 In the late 14th century, Taungoo became a nominal part of the Ava Kingdom, but its rulers retained a large degree of autonomy, playing larger Ava and Hanthawaddy kingdoms against each other. In 1470, Ava put down another rebellion and made Sithu Kyawhtin, the general who defeated the rebellion, governor. Sithu Kyawhtin's grandson Mingyi Nyo became governor of Toungoo in 1485. Under Mingyi Nyo's leadership, the principality grew powerful. In October 1510, Mingyi Nyo formally broke away from Ava and founded the Taungoo Kingdom.[4]

Mingyi Nyo's successors Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung went on to found the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia.[5] Taungoo's stint as capital was short-lived, however. Tabinshwehti moved the kingdom's capital to Pegu (Bago) in 1539. The city briefly again became capital of a rebellion in 1599 when viceroy Minye Thihathu of Taungoo declared himself king. In December 1599, Taungoo's forces in collaboration with the Arakanese armies aided by Portuguese mercenaries, sacked Pegu. The rebellious city state remained independent for another 10 years when Natshinnaung ascended the Taungoo throne in 1609. In the following year, King Anaukpetlun captured Taungoo and ended the city's long line of rulers.[6] Although few visible historic remains survive, all four sides of the brick city wall remain from the dynastic period, with the exception of the part of the southern wall. The 9.6 m wide moat has largely dried up, except for a section on the eastern side, which is still maintained.

By the mid-19th century, Taungoo was governed by a local governor appointed by the Konbaung kings. The Taungoo District consisted of 52 wards, including today's Pyinmana (and Naypyidaw) regions. The district was cut in half after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The British annexed the southern half, including the city of Taungoo while the northern portion, including Pyinmana and Ela, remained under Burmese control.[7]

In 1940, the British Royal Air Force built an airfield north of the town, which from August 1941 through February 1942 served as a training and support base for the 1st American Volunteer Group, popularly known as the Flying Tigers.

Taungoo celebrated its 500th birthday on 16 October 2010, by reconstructing and renovating many city attractions.[4]

Climate

Taungoo has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) bordering on a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am). Temperatures are hot throughout the year, and the months before the monsoon (March–May) are especially hot with average maximum temperatures exceeding 35 °C (95 °F). There is a winter dry season (November–March) and a summer wet season (April–October).

Climate data for Taungoo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.7
(87.3)
34.0
(93.2)
36.6
(97.9)
37.9
(100.2)
35.2
(95.4)
31.2
(88.2)
30.1
(86.2)
30.0
(86)
31.6
(88.9)
32.4
(90.3)
31.8
(89.2)
30.2
(86.4)
32.64
(90.77)
Average low °C (°F) 14.9
(58.8)
16.1
(61)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
24.6
(76.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.6
(74.5)
23.4
(74.1)
23.6
(74.5)
23.0
(73.4)
20.4
(68.7)
16.4
(61.5)
21.18
(70.12)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7
(0.28)
1
(0.04)
4
(0.16)
430
(16.93)
193
(7.6)
376
(14.8)
419
(16.5)
449
(17.68)
277
(10.91)
157
(6.18)
44
(1.73)
13
(0.51)
2,370
(93.32)
Source: HKO (1961-1990)[8]

Administration

  • Taungoo District Peace and Development Council
  • Taungoo Township Peace and Development Council
  • Taungoo Ward Peace and Development Council - 22 Wards
  • Taungoo Municipal
  • District and Township Immigration Dept
  • Myanmar Timber Enterprise
  • Finance and Tax Dept
  • Civil Engineering Dept
  • District and Township Education Dept
  • Health Dept
  • District and Township Forestry Dept
  • MPPE
  • Taungoo Correctional Dept. Taungoo Prison
  • Taungoo Quarry Camp
  • Taungoo Post Office
  • Taungoo TeleCom station
  • Myanmar Television Sub-station
  • Myawady Television Sub-station
  • Union Solidarity and Development Association
  • Myanmar Maternal Children’s Welfare Association
  • Myanmar Women Affair Federation
  • Division 5 Railways Office
  • Taungoo Township and District Courts
  • "Maha Myittar" Education Foundation

Emergency

  • No.1 Police Station Taungoo - 199
  • No.2 Police Station Taungoo - 199
  • Taungoo District Police Force
  • Taungoo Township Police Force
  • Division 5 Railways Police Force, Taungoo
  • Taungoo Motor Vehicle Police Station
  • Taungoo Fire Station Command - 191 (1 Support Vehicle)
  • Taungoo Township Fire Station No.1 - 191 (3 Engines)
  • Taungoo Township Fire Station No.2 - 191 (2 Engines)
  • Myanmar Red Cross Society, Taungoo - Ambulance 192
  • Taungoo Weather Station

Military

  • Southern Command - Kaytu Myothit
  • Taungoo Air Force Base HQ
  • No.47 Helicopter Squardron
  • Amoury Division - Oak Twin
  • Artillery Division - Oak Twin
  • Police Battalion, Taungoo - Training School
  • No.(3) Field Medical Battalion

Investigation

  • Military Intelligence No.3 (MI)
  • Special Intelligence (Special Branch) SB
  • Bureau of special investigations (BSI)
  • Special Police Force
  • Narcotic

Demographics

Taungoo's population is estimated be about 121,000.[1] The population was 66000 in 1983 when the last official census in Myanmar was conducted.[9] The Bamar (Burmans) make up the majority with a significant Kayin (Karen) population on the eastern side of the city. The Chinese, Indians, Shan and Kayah people make up the rest.

The majority of residents are Theravada Buddhists, followed by Baptist and Roman Catholic Christians. Taungoo is home to a number of Karen Christian association headquarters and 15 churches.

Transport

Circular railway

The main transport options to Taungoo is rail and motorways. The Taungoo railway station is on the main north line of Myanmar Railways, and the Taungoo Highway bus station is served by domestic bus lines.

Taungoo Airport is the area's only airport. It is served only by Myanmar National Airlines, with regular flights to Yangon, Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Loikaw, Tachilek, Mawlamyine , and Taunggyi.

Intra-city transport is mainly through a circular railway line which serves around the Taungoo District and bus lines, which serve downtown, and suburban areas:

  • Gandawin Express Bus
  • Yoma Express Bus
  • Zay Yar Shwe Pyi
  • Say Taman
  • Sein Myittar
  • Shwe Man Thu
  • Taw Win
  • Tabin Shwehtee

There are two main road bridges: over the Sittaung River and the Kaphaung River.

Education

Basic Education High School 4

High schools

Taungoo has eight high schools: see List of high schools in Taungoo.

Public universities

Nursing and midwifery schools

Divinity school

Healthcare

  • Taungoo General Hospital
  • Taungoo Railways Hospital
  • Thaw Thee Ko Clinic
  • Ketu Clinic
  • Royal Special Clinic

Major sites

kandawgyi
  • Thargaya Elephant Camp
  • Kandawggyi Garden
  • Kaytumaddy Garden
  • Kaphaung Creek Bridge
  • Sittaung Bridge
  • Electronic Library
  • Taungoo Gym
  • Taungoo Stadium
  • Kha Baung Hall
  • Taungoo Municipal Market
  • Taungoo Market
  • Bayinnaung Market
  • Kayinmazay Market
  • 3D cinema
  • Win Mini Mart 1,2,3
Bayintnaung

Pagodas

Notable residents

  • Dr. Saw Durmay (Po Min) (fl. 1928), president of Loyal Karen Association of Burma-India, owner of white elephant and descendant of Karen chief priest[10][11]
  • Ringo aka Maung Maung Lwin, singer, composer, and guitarist[12]
  • Naw Li Zar, singer and composer[13]
  • Saw Say Wah, chairman of Eastern Bago Division Anti-Drug Association and retired chief of police (deputy-director)[14]

Media

  • MTV or MTV1 - broadcasts in Burmese language.
  • MTV2 - broadcast in Burmese language and some local languages
  • MTV4 - 24 hours sport channel. (pay TV)
  • MTV3 - broadcasts in Thai, Khmer, Vietnamese and English. (pay TV)
  • MRTV - broadcasts in Burmese, Arakanese, Shan, Karen, Kachin, Kayah, Chin, Mon and English
  • MWD 1,2 [3]
  • MRTV3 [4]
  • The Mirror (Burmese: ကြေးမုံ)(Burmese: ေၾကးမံု-Kyehmonn) - state-run daily (newspaper)
  • The New Light of Myanmar (Burmese: Myanma A-lin) - English and Burmese language (newspaper)
  • The Myanmar Times (Burmese: Myanma Taing) - private-run English-language weekly (newspaper)
  • Myanmar Radio National Service (Radio)
  • VOA (Radio)
  • BBC (Radio)
  • Myanmar Teleport (ISP)
  • Information Technology Central Services (ITCS)-(ISP)
  • Myanmar Post and Telecommunication (MPT)- (ISP)
  • Telenor - Norwegian mobile operator
  • Mandalay FM - FM Radio Channel (87.9 MHz)
  • Shwe FM - FM Radio Channel (89.8 MHz)
  • Channel 7 - Digital brocasting free to air channel
  • MRTV 4 - Digital and analogue free to air channel

Gallery

Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Cathedral 
Taungoo Burmese Church 
Trinity Church 
Paku Church 
No.5 State High School, Taungoo 
No.4 State High School, Taungoo 

References

  1. ^ a b "Taungoo, Burma Page". Falling Rain. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  2. ^ a b  
  3. ^ Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. Phayre (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. pp. 90–93. 
  4. ^ a b Shwe Yinnma Oo (2010-08-02). "Taungoo prepares for 500th birthday". The Myanmar Times. 
  5. ^ Victor B Lieberman (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800-1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. pp. 150–154. 
  6. ^  
  7. ^ Sir  
  8. ^ "Climatological Information for Taungoo, Myanmar".  
  9. ^ "City Population of Myanmar". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  10. ^ http://www.elephant.se/location2.php?location_id=1677&show=1
  11. ^ San C. Po, Dr. (1928). "VII Karen Celebrities". Burma and the Karens. London: Elliott Stock. 
  12. ^ http://www.myanmarmp3.net/artist.aspx?ArtID=107
  13. ^ http://www.myanmarmp3.net/artist.aspx?ArtID=357
  14. ^ http://www.mizzima.com/political-pro/new-parties/kpp.html

External links

  • http://www.most.gov.mm/taungootu/index.php
  • http://www.ucsy.edu.mm/taungoocu/
  • San C. Po, Dr. (1928). Burma and the Karens. London: Elliott Stock. 
  • "Central Myanmar Mission". Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook. 
  • "Diocese: Toungoo". Anglican Communion. 
  • "Diocese of Taungngu, Myanmar". GCatholic.org. 
Taungoo
Preceded by
Ava
Capital of Burma
16 October 1510 – January 1539
Succeeded by
Bago
Preceded by
Bago
Capital of Burma
11 January 1551 – 12 March 1552
Succeeded by
Bago

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