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Timeline of Mongolian history

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Title: Timeline of Mongolian history  
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Subject: History of Mongolia, History of modern Mongolia, List of Mongol states, Eastern Mongols, Mongols
Collection: History of Mongolia, Mongol Timelines
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Timeline of Mongolian history

This is a timeline of Mongolian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Mongolia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Mongolia. See also the list of Presidents of Mongolia.

Centuries: 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

3rd century BCE

Year Date Event
209 Modu Chanyu founded Xiongnu Empire

12th century CE

Year Date Event
c. 1162 Temüjin was born in the Khentii mountains of today's Mongolia.
1186 7 November Ögedei Khan, third son of Temüjin (Genghis Khan) was born.
1189 Temüjin became the Khan of the Khamag Mongol.

13th century

Year Date Event
1205 Temüjin united all of nomadic tribes at who were settled around at Baikal lake to China's Great Wall.
1206 Temüjin was given the title Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khaan), first Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire.
1215 23 September Kublai Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, was born.
1227 18 August Genghis Khan, 1st Khagan of the Mongol Empire, died after conquering Tanguud, aged c. 65.
1229 13 September Ögedei Khan, third son of Genghis Khan, became second Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
1241 11 December Ögedei Khan, second Khagan of the Mongol Empire, died aged 55.
1243 Zhenjin, second son of Kublai Khan and later founder of the Yuan dynasty, was born.
1246 24 August Güyük Khan, eldest son of Ögedei Khan and grandson of Genghis Khan, became third Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
1248 20 April Güyük Khan, third Khagan of the Mongol Empire, died aged 42.
1251 1 July Möngke Khan, eldest son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, became fourth Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
1259 11 August Möngke Khan, fourth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, died aged 50.
1260 5 May Kublai Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, became fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire. However, the Toluid Civil War began because of the fighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Khagan. This resulted in the division of the Mongol Empire.
1268 The Kaidu–Kublai war broke out, which lasted until 1301 and deepened the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire. All later Khagans of the Mongol Empire were nominal due to the empire's division.
1269 Birth of the 'Phags-pa script, designed by Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan.
1271 Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the founding of the Yuan dynasty with himself as first emperor, with Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) as its capital.
1273 Zhenjin designated Crown Prince by Kublai Khan.
1294 18 February Death of Kublai Khan (aged 78). By this time the Mongol Empire had already fractured into four khanates: the Yuan dynasty based in China, the Golden Horde based in Russia, the Chagatai Khanate based in Central Asia, and the Ilkhanate based in Iran, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan.
1294 10 May Temür Khan, son of Crown Prince Zhenjin and grandson of Kublai Khan, became sixth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and second emperor of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
1295 Enthronement of Ilkhan Ghazan. Islamization of the Ilkhanate.

14th century

Year Date Event
1304 A peace among the Mongol khanates established the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty over the three western khanates (the Golden Horde, the Chagatai Khanate and the Ilkhanate). However, the peace itself was short-lived and the war soon resumed.
1307 21 June With the death of Temür Khan (aged 41), Külüg Khan, first son of Darmabala and Dagi of the Khunggirad clan, and a great-grandson of Kublai Khan, became seventh Khagan of the Mongol Empire and third Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1311 7 April With the death of Külüg Khan (aged 29), Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan, second son of Darmabala and Dagi of the Khunggirat, and a great-grandson of Kublai Khan, became eighth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and fourth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1313 Enthronement of Öz Beg Khan. Islamization of the Golden Horde.
1315 Revival of the imperial examination system within the Yuan dynasty under Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan.
1320 19 April With the death of Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan (aged 34), Gegeen Khan, eldest son of Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan and Radnashiri, became ninth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and fifth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1323 4 October With the death of Gegeen Khan (aged 20), Yesün Temür, son of Gammala, grandson of Zhenjin and great grandson of Kublai Khan, became tenth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and sixth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1328 October With the death of Yesün Temür (aged 34), Ragibagh Khan, eldest son of Yesün Temür, became 11th Khagan of the Mongol Empire at the age of 7-8 and designate seventh Emperor of the Yuan dynasty before being deposed by a coup before his succession.
1328 16 October Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, second son of Khayishan, became 12th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and eighth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty. The War of the Two Capitals broke out. Ragibagh Khan failed in the war and disappeared or died at the age of 7-8, possibly murdered.
1329 27 February Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür abdicated and his elder brother Khutughtu Khan Kusala became 13th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and ninth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty. However, he died on Augest 30 at age 28, four days after a banquet with brother Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, presumed to have been poisoned. Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür regained the throne on September 8.
1332 23 October With the death of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür (aged 28), Rinchinbal Khan, second son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala, became 14th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and tenth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty at the age of six.
1333 19 July With the death of Rinchinbal Khan (aged 6), Toghon Temür, eldest son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala and older brother of Rinchinbal, became 15th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and eleventh Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1335 Disintegration of the Ilkhanate after the death of Ilkhan Abu Sa'id.
1368 14 September Fall of the Yuan dynasty. The remnants of the Yuan known as the Northern Yuan dynasty continued in Mongolia.

17th century

Year Date Event
1619 Number of Mongol tribes defected from allegiance to Ligdan Khan to the Manchu people.
1632 Ligdan Khan travelled to Tibet to evade the Manchus and conquer the Gelug.
1634 Ligdan died at Qinghai Lake.
1635 Most Mongolian tribes submitted to the new Manchu-led Qing dynasty. End of the Northern Yuan dynasty.
1640 Zanabazar, son of the Tüsheet Khan of the Khalkha, was recognized as the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu.
1642 Establishment of the Khoshut Khanate in the Tibetan Plateau by Güshi Khan.
1687 Outbreak of the decades-long Dzungar–Qing War between the Dzungar Khanate and the Qing dynasty.
1688 The Dzungars conquered Khalkha and forced the nobility to flee.
1691 Khalkha nobles submitted to the Qing emperor.
1696 The Qing dynasty seized de facto control of Khalkha by defeating the Dzungars in the Battle of Jao Modo.

18th century

Year Date Event
1717 Fall of the Tibet-based Khoshut Khanate due to the invasion of the Dzungar Khanate.
1720 Expulsion of the Dzungar forces from Tibet by the Qing dynasty under Kangxi Emperor.
1723 Upper Mongols under rule of the prince Lubsan Danzan revolted against the Qing but were defeated.
1756 Chingünjav and Amursana led failed rebellions which ended in the destruction of the Dzungars by the Qing dynasty.

20th century

Year Date Event
1907 The Qing government implemented sinification policies.
1911 1 December Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty under the Bogd Khan.
29 December The Bogdo Khanate of Mongolia was proclaimed and Bogd Khan enthroned.
1912 3 November The Russian Empire recognized Mongolian independence and the rule of Bogd Khan.
1913 11 November Mongolia and Tibet concluded treaty on mutual recognition and mutual assistance.
1915 Russia, China and Mongolia signed a treaty at Kyakhta under which China was recognized as sovereign over an autonomous Mongolia.
1919 Outer Mongolia was occupied by the Republic of China.
1921 The Russian Red Army, with the support of Damdin Sükhbaatar, defeated the forces of Roman Ungern von Sternberg.
February Ungern drove Chinese troops out of Niislel Khuree.
March All remaining Chinese troops were defeated by Ungern and driven from Mongolia, allowing the reassertion of Mongolian independence under Bogd Khan.
18 March Communist guerrillas headed by Damdin Sükhbaatar, with the assistance of Red Army troops, defeated the Chinese garrison in the Mongolian settlement Maimachen near Kyakhta.
1924 26 November After the death of the Bogd Khan, the Mongolian People's Republic was declared in Outer Mongolia.
1928 Collectivization began.
1932 The failure of collectivization led to widespread uprisings and a temporary thaw.
1936 Prince Demchugdongrub formed the Mongol Military Government, a non-Communist state independent from China, in Inner Mongolia.
1937 The Mongol Military Government was renamed the Mongol United Autonomous Government.
Stalinist purges in Mongolia: A Stalinist terror began which would lead to the deaths of more than thirty thousand people in the Mongolian People's Republic.
1939 Stalinist purges in Mongolia: The terror ended.
May Battle of Khalkhyn Gol: Large scale fighting took place between Japanese and joint Soviet-Mongolian forces along Khalkhyn Gol on the border between Mongolia and Manchuria.
16 September Battle of Khalkhyn Gol: The battle ended in a Japanese defeat. A truce was negotiated between Japan and the Soviet Union.
1941 The Mongol United Autonomous Government was renamed the Mongolian Autonomous Federation, or Mengjiang.
1945 August The Republic of China requested Soviet help in the war against Japan, and offered recognition of the independence of Outer Mongolia in exchange according to the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.
August The Mongolian People's Republic declared war on Japan, one day after the Soviet Union, and began to liberate Southern Mongolia from the China and the Japan.
October A plebiscite yielded a 100% pro-independence vote.
1946 January The Chinese government recognized the independence of Mongolian People's Republic.
1949 6 October The newly established People's Republic of China recognized Mongolia and agreed to establish diplomatic relations.
1950 Herds were successfully collectivized.
1952 The Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan renounced the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.
1955 The ROC blocked the accession of the Mongolian People's Republic's entry to the United Nations.
1961 The Mongolian People's Republic entered the United Nations.
The Trans-Mongolian Railway was finished.
1962 Mongolia became a member of the Comecon.
Sino-Soviet split: The Communist Party leadership sided with the Soviet Union in a falling-out with China.
1965 Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal purged the intelligentsia.
1969 Sino-Soviet split: The Soviet Union stationed a large army on Mongolian territory in response to threats of Chinese aggression.
1981 March Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa became the first Mongolian in space.
1984 August Tsedenbal resigned.
1987 27 January Mongolia established diplomatic relations with the United States.
1989 July The first Mongolian member of the Bahá'í Faith entered the country.
December The first popular reform demonstrations took place; the Mongolian Democratic Association was organized.
1990 January Large-scale pro-democracy demonstrations were held in sub-zero weather.
2 March Mongolia and the Soviet Union announced that all Soviet troops would be withdrawn from Mongolia by 1992.
May The constitution was amended to provide for a multi-party system and new elections.
29 July The first democratic elections were held. The Communist Party, now the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), won.
3 September The first democratically elected People's Great Hural took office.
1992 13 January A new constitution went into effect.
8 April A new election law was passed.
28 June An election was held for the first unicameral legislature, the State Great Hural. The MPRP won.
1993 6 June The first direct presidential election took place. Opposition candidate Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat, a former MPRP member, won.
1996 30 June The first non-Communist government was elected.
1998 Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, Minister of Infrastructure and one of the leaders of the 1990 protests, was murdered.
2000 2 July The MPRP was elected; a new government was formed by Prime Minister Nambaryn Enkhbayar.

21st century

Year Date Event
2003 Mongolian troops begin taking part in peace keeping operations in Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan.
2004 An election resulted in a draw. A coalition was formed between the MPRP and other parties which was headed by Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj.
2006 January The governing coalition was dissolved by the MPRP.
25 January A new coalition between the MPRP and smaller parties and defectors was formed under Miyeegombyn Enkhbold.
2007 October The governing coalition was led by the MPRP and replaced by a coalition headed by Sanjaagiin Bayar.
2009 June Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj from Democratic Party was selected President of Mongolia.
2009 October Sanjaagiin Bayar resigned from Primer Ministership due to declining health conditions and was replaced with Sükhbaataryn Batbold.
2012 August After the 2012 Mongolian legislative election, a coalition headed by Norovyn Altankhuyag from Democratic party was formed.
2013 June Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, President of Mongolia, was re-elected in the 2013 Mongolian presidential election.

See also

External links

  • John Stewart Bowman "Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture"
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