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Transforming growth factor beta superfamily

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Title: Transforming growth factor beta superfamily  
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Transforming growth factor beta superfamily

Transforming growth factor beta like domain
Identifiers
Symbol TGF_beta
Pfam InterPro PROSITE PDOC00223
SCOP SUPERFAMILY 1tfg

The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large family of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that was named after its first member, TGF-β1, originally described in 1983.[2]

Many proteins have since been described as members of the TGF-β superfamily in a variety of species, including invertebrates as well as vertebrates and categorized into 23 distinct gene types that fall into four major subfamilies:[3][4][5]

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)[6] is a multifunctional peptide that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, and generate intracellular signals using a conserved family of proteins called SMADs. They play fundamental roles in the regulation of basic biological processes such as growth, development, tissue homeostasis and regulation of the immune system.[3]

Structure

Proteins from the TGF-beta family are only active as homo- or heterodimer; the two chains being linked by a single disulfide bond. From X-ray studies of TGF-beta-2,[7] it is known that all the other cysteines are involved in intrachain disulfide bonds. As shown in the following schematic representation, there are four disulfide bonds in the TGF-beta's and in inhibin beta chains, while the other members of this family lack the first bond.

                                                     interchain
                                                     |
          +------------------------------------------|+
          |                                          ||
xxxxcxxxxxCcxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxCxxCxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxCCxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxCxCx
    |      |                  |  |                                        | |
    +------+                  +--|----------------------------------------+ |
                                 +------------------------------------------+

where 'C' denotes a conserved cysteine involved in a disulfide bond.

Examples

Human genes encoding proteins that contain this domain include:

AMH; ARTN; BMP10; BMP15; BMP2; BMP3; BMP4; BMP5; BMP6; BMP7; BMP8A; BMP8B; GDF1; GDF10; GDF11; GDF15; GDF2; GDF3; GDF3A; GDF5; GDF6; GDF7; GDF8; GDF9; GDNF; INHA; INHBA; INHBB; INHBC; INHBE; LEFTY1; LEFTY2; MSTN; NODAL; NRTN; PSPN; TGFB1; TGFB2; TGFB3;

References

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