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Treaty of Narva

Treaty of Narva
Type alliance
Signed 30 August 1704
Location Narva
Parties Tsardom of Russia
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Sandomierz Confederation)
Language Russian

The Treaty of Narva was concluded on 19 August (O.S.) / 30 August 1704 during the Great Northern War.[1] The faction of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth loyal to Augustus the Strong joined the anti-Swedish alliance between the Saxon electorate and the Tsardom of Russia.[1]

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Terms 2
  • Consequences 3
  • Sources 4
    • References 4.1
    • Bibliography 4.2
  • External links 5

Background

At the onset of the Great Northern War, Augustus the Strong was king of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and Elector of Saxony.[2] In 1699, he allied with the Russian tsar Peter the Great in the Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye and with Frederik IV of Denmark-Norway in the Treaty of Dresden.[3] These alliances provided the basis for a combined attack on the Swedish Empire that followed in 1700.[4] Yet, already in 1700 Denmark was forced to withdraw[4] and Russia suffered a decisive defeat.[5] In the following years, Charles XII of Sweden pursued Augustus through Poland-Lithuania, imposing on him a series of defeats, while Russia was able to recover and advance in the Baltic provinces.[5] The Lithuanian magnates abandoned Augustus in April 1702 and allied with Sweden.[6]

In July 1704, Swedish advances and the resulting internal quarrels in Poland-Lithuania caused the dethronement of Augustus the Strong and election of Stanisław Leszczyński, the candidate promoted by the Charles XII of Sweden, as Polish king.[1][7] Yet Augustus the Strong still enjoyed support in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in particular by the Sandomierz Confederation and about 75% of the Polish army.[8] In the name of the commonwealth, Augustus and his supporters declared war on Sweden, and joined the anti-Swedish coalition at Narva.[8]

Terms

The treaty was negotiated for Poland by Thomas Dzialynski (Dzialin),[9] a commander of the Saxo-Polish forces participating in the preceding Russian siege and storm of Narva.[10] The treaty was signed by Peter the Great of Russia, Augustus the Strong, and Polish-Lithuanian magnates.[1]

The alliance was both defensive and offensive.[1] The treaty ruled that Poland and Russia were to continue the war and sign no treaties without mutual consent.[11] Peter the Great was to grant August the Strong 200,000 rubles annual subsidies,[12] maintain 12,000 troops, return Semen Paliy's conquests in Ukraine and Russian conquests in Livonia.[11]

Consequences

Peter the Great had thus ensured that the Polish-Lithuanian theater of the war would continue to bind Swedish forces.[9][13] Most notably, enforcements for Charles XII's Russian campaign were cut off in the Battle of Koniecpol.[14] To pay the agreed on subsidies, a monetary tax was raised from the peasantry.[15]

For Augustus, the treaty was favourable, as his position had deteriorated due to his numerous defeats by Swedish armies.[9] Peter the Great, in pursuit of the treaty, ordered Ivan Mazepa to expel Paliy (Paley) from the commonwealth's cossack territories, which he eventually did - this had been Dzialinsky's irrefutable condition during the negotiations.[9][16] However, Russian "helpful occupation" of Livonia would not result in the anticipated hand-over, but instead in integration into the Russian Empire.[10][16]

The faction of the Warsaw Confederation, instead concluded an alliance with the Swedish Empire in the Treaty of Warsaw in November 1705.[16]

Sources

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Donnert & Mühlpfort (1997), p. 512
  2. ^ Frost (2000), p. 227
  3. ^ Frost (2000), p. 228
  4. ^ a b Frost (2000), p. 229
  5. ^ a b Frost (2000), p. 230
  6. ^ Frost (2000), p. 265
  7. ^ Frost (2000), pp. 267-268
  8. ^ a b Frost (2000), p. 268
  9. ^ a b c d Bromley (1970), p. 699
  10. ^ a b Wróbel (1996), p. 374
  11. ^ a b Schuyler (2004 reprint), p. 28
  12. ^ Schuyler (2004 reprint), p. 29
  13. ^ Frost (2000), pp. 269-270
  14. ^ Frost (2000), p. 270
  15. ^ Anisimov (1993), p. 104
  16. ^ a b c Frost (2000), p. 269

Bibliography

  • Anisimov, Evgeniĭ Viktorovich (1993). The reforms of Peter the Great. Progress through coercion in Russia. The New Russian history. M.E. Sharpe.  
  • Bromley, J. S. (1970). Rise of Great Britain & Russia, 1688-1725. The New Cambridge Modern History 6. CUP Archive.  
  • Donnert, Erich; Mühlpfordt, Günter (1997). Europa in der Frühen Neuzeit: Festschrift für Günter Mühlpfordt. Aufbruch zur Moderne (in German) 3. Böhlau.  
  • Frost, Robert I (2000). The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721. Harlow: Longman.  
  • Schuyler, Eugene (2004). Peter the Great 2 (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing.  
  • Wróbel, Piotr; Kozicki, Richard J., ed. (1996). Historical dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group.  

External links

  • Scan of the treaty at IEG (Institut für Europäische Geschichte) Mainz, 21 pages
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