World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

United States Ambassador to Albania

 

United States Ambassador to Albania

Ambassador of the United States to Albania
Ambasadori i Shteteve të Bashkuara në Shqipëri
Seal of the United States Department of State
Incumbent
Alexander Arvizu

since November 10, 2010
Nominator George W. Bush
Inaugural holder Ulysses Grant-Smith
as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Formation September 22, 1922
Website U.S. Embassy - Tirana

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.

This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Albania.

Albania had been under the domination of the Ottoman Empire since the 14th century but gained a shaky independence in 1912 after an uprising against the Turks. After suffering invasions and occupations during the First and Second Balkan Wars and the Great War, Albania achieved a relatively stable degree of statehood.

The United States established diplomatic relations with Albania in 1922. President Harding appointed the first U.S. Minister to Albania, Ulysses Grant-Smith, who arrived in Tirana in December 1922. The first envoys to Albania had the rank of Minister.

Albania–United States relations were broken in 1939 upon the Italian invasion of Albania just prior to the start of World War II. Relations were not restored until the downfall of Communism in Europe in 1991.

The United States Embassy in Albania is located in Tirana.

Ambassadors

  • Ulysses Grant-Smith – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 22, 1922
    • Presented credentials: December 4, 1922
    • Terminated mission: Left post, February 8, 1925
  • Note: In 1928 the Albanian parliament declared the nation a kingdom. This change of government required a new commission for the U.S. Ambassador during his term.
  • Charles C. Hart[1] – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 27, 1925
    • Presented credentials: August 1, 1925 and December 13, 1928[2]
    • Terminated mission: Left post, December 12, 1929
  • Herman Bernstein – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 17, 1930
    • Presented credentials: April 28, 1930
    • Terminated mission: Left post, September 24, 1933
  • Post Wheeler[3] – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 26, 1933
    • Presented credentials: November 28, 1933
    • Terminated mission: Left post, November 1, 1934
  • Hugh Gladney Grant – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 9, 1935
    • Presented credentials: November 8, 1935
    • Terminated mission: Left post, September 27, 1939
  • Note: The United States resumed diplomatic relations with Albania on March 15, 1991. Embassy Tirana was opened October 1, 1991 with Christopher R. Hill as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. The previous legation was raised to embassy status and the envoys would henceforth have the rank of Ambassador.
  • William Edwin Ryerson – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 2, 1991
    • Presented credentials: December 21, 1991
    • Terminated mission: Left post, October 13, 1994
  • Joseph Edward Lake – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 5, 1994
    • Presented credentials: October 17, 1994
    • Terminated mission: Left post, March 15, 1996
  • Marisa R. Lino – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 2, 1996
    • Presented credentials: September 4, 1996
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 20, 1999
  • Joseph Limprecht – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 7, 1999
    • Presented credentials: September 8, 1999
    • Terminated mission: Died in northern Albania, May 19, 2002[4][5]
  • James Franklin Jeffrey – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 3, 2002
    • Presented credentials: October 22, 2002
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 2, 2004
  • Marcie B. Ries – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 18, 2004
    • Presented credentials: October 30, 2004
    • Terminated mission: June 16, 2007
  • John L. Withers, II – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 28, 2007
    • Presented credentials: August 29, 2007
    • Terminated mission: November 10, 2010
  • Alexander Arvizu – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 1, 2010
    • Presented credentials: November 10, 2010
    • Terminated mission: Current

Notes

  1. ^ Hart was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 17, 1925.
  2. ^ Hart was reaccredited when Albania became a monarchy. He presented new credentials December 13, 1928
  3. ^ Wheeler was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 15, 1934.
  4. ^ . May 21, 2002The New York TimesObituary,
  5. ^ . May 21, 2002Los Angeles TimesObituary.

See also

References

External links

  • United States Department of State: Chiefs of Mission for Albania
  • United States Department of State: Albania
  • United States Embassy in Tirana
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.