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United States House of Representatives elections, 1834

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1834

United States House of Representatives elections, 1834

July 7, 1834 - November 5, 1835[1]

All 242[2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
122 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Leader James K. Polk John Bell
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Tennessee-9th Tennessee-7th
Last election 145 seats 61 seats
Seats won 143[2] 76
Seat change Decrease2 Increase 15

  Third party Fourth party
 
Leader Harmar Denny John K. Griffin
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-22nd South Carolina-9th
Last election 25 seats 9 seats
Seats won 16 7
Seat change Decrease 9 Decrease 2

Speaker before election

John Bell
Anti-Jacksonian

Elected Speaker

James K. Polk
Jacksonian

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 24th Congress were held in 1834 and 1835.

In this election, the dominant Jacksonian Party retained their majority, losing only two seats. However, their primary opponents, the Anti-Jacksonians, gained at the expense of the Jacksonians as well as the two single-issue parties, the Anti-Masonic Party (an anti-Masonry movement) and the Nullifier Party (a John C. Calhoun-led states' rights party that supported South Carolina during the Nullification Crisis in 1832 and 1833).

The Whig Party, who evolved from the National Republican Party, attempted to change their image and reach out to new groups, including conservative Jacksonians, anti-Masons, and former Federalists. The Whigs would soon be able to gain a number of seats due to the unpopularity in some regions of Andrew Jackson's brash style. A number of former Jacksonians left the party and joined the newly formed Whigs in opposition to the perceived autocratic style of the president.

As the President's party lost only 2 seats, this was the smallest loss by a President's party in the House as a result of the Six-year itch.

Election summaries

The States of Arkansas and Michigan were admitted during this Congress, adding 1 seat each.[3][4]

143 7 16 76
Jacksonian N AM Anti-Jacksonian
State Type Date Total
seats
Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Delaware At-large November 11, 1834 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 6, 1834 9 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District (3) August 4, 1834 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District (3) July 7–9, 1834 3 1 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District (8) September 8, 1834 8 6 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District (12) November 10, 1834 12 1 Steady 8 Decrease1 3 Increase1 0 Steady
New Jersey At-large October 14, 1834 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District (33[5]) November 3–5, 1834 40 31 Decrease1 9 Increase9 0 Decrease8 0 Steady
Ohio District (19) October 14, 1834 19 9 Decrease2 9 Increase3 1 Decrease1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District (25[6]) October 14, 1834 28 17 Increase3 3 Decrease1 8 Decrease2 0 Steady
South Carolina District (9) October 13–14, 1834 9 1 Steady 2 Increase2 0 Steady 6 Decrease2
Vermont District (5) September 2, 1834 5 0 Steady 3 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
1835 elections
Alabama District (5) August 3, 1835 5 3 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Connecticut At-large April 9, 1835 6 6 Increase6 0 Decrease6 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District (7) August 3, 1835 7 6 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District (13) August 5, 1835 13 4 Steady 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District (7[7]) October 5, 1835 8 4 Decrease2 4 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan[8] At-large October 5, 1835 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 3–5, 1835 2 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 3, 1835 2 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large March 10, 1835 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District (13) August 13, 1835 13 7 Increase1 6 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 25, 1835 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady
Tennessee District (13) August 5–6, 1835 13 4 Decrease8 9 Increase8 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District (21) April, 1835 21 16 Increase2 5 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
1836 elections
Arkansas[8] At-large August 1, 1836 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[2] 242 143
59.1%
Decrease2 76
31.4%
Increase15 16
6.6%
Decrease9 7
2.9%
Decrease2
House seats
Jacksonian
  
59.09%
Anti-Jacksonian
  
31.40%
Anti-Masonic
  
6.61%
Nullifier
  
2.89%

Complete returns

Pennsylvania

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[9][10]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Re-elected Joel B. Sutherland (J) 61.7%
James Gowen (?) 38.3%
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Horace Binney Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Anti-Jacksonian hold
Joseph R. Ingersoll (AJ) 60.4%
James Harper (AJ) 59.9%

James M. Linnard (J) 40.1%
Henry Horn (J) 39.6%
James Harper Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected
Pennsylvania 3 John G. Watmough Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Lost re-election
Jacksonian gain
Michael W. Ash (J) 55.6%
John G. Watmough (AJ) 44.4%
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Re-elected William Hiester (AM) 55.0%
David Potts, Jr. (AM) 55.0%
Edward Darlington (AM) 54.9%

Archibald T. Dick (J) 45.1%
Benjamin Champneys (J) 45.0%
John Morgan (J) 45.0%
Edward Darlington Anti-Masonic 1832 Re-elected
David Potts, Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Re-elected
Pennsylvania 5 Joel K. Mann Jacksonian 1830 Retired
Jacksonian hold
Jacob Fry, Jr. (J) 55.3%
James Royer (?) 44.7%
Pennsylvania 6 Robert Ramsey Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Anti-Jacksonian gain
Mathias Morris (AJ) 52.4%
Henry Chapman (J) 47.6%
Pennsylvania 7 David D. Wagener Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected David D. Wagener (J) 68.1%
Alexander E. Brown (?) 31.9%
Pennsylvania 8 Henry King Jacksonian 1830 Retired
Jacksonian hold
Edward B. Hubley (J) 59.6%
Walter C. Livingston (?) 40.4%
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Re-elected Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (J) 69.3%
Stanly Kirby (?) 30.7%
Pennsylvania 10 William Clark Anti-Masonic 1832 Re-elected William Clark (AM) 54.0%
John C. Bucher (J) 46.0%
Pennsylvania 11 Charles A. Barnitz Anti-Masonic 1832 Lost re-election
Jacksonian gain
Henry Logan (J) 54.2%
Charles A. Barnitz (AM) 45.8%
Pennsylvania 12 George Chambers Anti-Masonic 1832 Re-elected George Chambers (AM) 59.8%
Ludwig Heck (J) 40.2%
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected Jesse Miller (J) 51.4%
Thomas Whiteside (AM) 48.6%
Pennsylvania 14 Joseph Henderson Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected Joseph Henderson (J) 52.5%
James Milliken (AM) 47.5%
Pennsylvania 15 Andrew Beaumont Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected Andrew Beaumont (J) 56.1%
Charles D. Shoemaker (?) 43.9%
Pennsylvania 16 Joseph B. Anthony Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected Joseph B. Anthony (J) 62.8%
Samuel J. Packer (?) 37.2%
Pennsylvania 17 John Laporte Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected John Laporte (J) 56.8%
Horrace Williston 43.2%
Pennsylvania 18 George Burd Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Retired
Jacksonian gain
Job Mann (J) 54.6%
Charles Ogle (AM) 45.4%
Pennsylvania 19 Richard Coulter Jacksonian 1826 Lost re-election
Jacksonian hold
John Klingensmith, Jr. (J) 59.7%
Richard Coulter (J) 40.3%
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Stewart Anti-Masonic 1820
1830
Lost re-election
Jacksonian gain
Andrew Buchanan (J) 58.9%
Andrew Stewart (AM) 41.1%
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan Anti-Masonic 1830 Re-elected Thomas M. T. McKennan (AM) 51.3%
Thomas Ringland (J) 48.7%
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (special) Re-elected Harmar Denny (AM) 53.5%
John M. Snowden (J) 46.5%
Pennsylvania 23 Samuel S. Harrison Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected Samuel S. Harrison (J) 69.9%
John Gilmore (?) 30.1%
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks Anti-Masonic 1830 Re-elected John Banks (AM) 52.2%
Samuel Power (J) 47.8%
Pennsylvania 25 John Galbraith Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected John Galbraith (J) 60.6%
Thomas H. Sill (AM) 39.4%

Two vacancies occurred in Pennsylvania's congressional representation during the 24th Congress. The first occurred in the 24th district when John Banks (AM) resigned on April 2, 1836, and was replaced in a special election by John J. Pearson (AJ). The second occurred in the 13th district when Jesse Miller (J) resigned on October 30, 1836, which vacancy was filled in a special election by James Black (J).

See also

http://clerk.house.gov/histHigh/Congressional_History/index.html

References

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 24th Congress
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  3. ^ Stat. 49
  4. ^ Stat. 50
  5. ^ Includes 5 plural districts
  6. ^ Includes 3 plural districts
  7. ^ Includes 1 plural district
  8. ^ a b New state
  9. ^ For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats
  10. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project
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