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United States House of Representatives elections, 1894

 

United States House of Representatives elections, 1894

United States House of Representatives elections, 1894

November 6, 1894[Note 1]

All 357[Note 2] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
179 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Leader Thomas Brackett Reed Charles Frederick Crisp
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 124 seats 220 seats[Note 3]
Seats won 254[1][Note 4] 93[1][Note 4]
Seat change 130 127
Popular vote 6,745,611 4,954,805
Percentage 49.96% 36.70%
Swing 7.08% 9.47%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Leader John Calhoun Bell
Party Populist Silver
Last election 11 seats 1 seat
Seats won 9[1][Note 4] 1[1]
Seat change 2
Popular vote 1,412,078 4,581
Percentage 10.46% 0.03%
Swing 2.57% 0.01%

Speaker before election

Charles Crisp
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Thomas Reed
Republican

The elections to the United States House of Representatives 1894 comprised a significant realigning election — a major Republican landslide that set the stage for the decisive election of 1896. The elections of members of the United States House of Representatives in 1894 came in the middle of President Grover Cleveland's second term. The nation was in its deepest economic depression ever following the Panic of 1893, so economic issues were at the forefront. In the spring, a major coal strike damaged the economy of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic. It was accompanied by violence; the miners lost and many moved toward the Populist party. Immediately after the coal strike concluded, Eugene V. Debs led a nationwide railroad strike, called the Pullman Strike. It shut down the nation's transportation system west of Detroit for weeks, until President Cleveland's use of federal troops ended the strike. Debs went to prison (for disobeying a court order). Illinois's Governor John Peter Altgeld, a Democrat, broke bitterly with Cleveland.

The fragmented and disoriented Democratic Party was crushed everywhere outside the South, losing more than half its seats to the Republican Party. Even in the South, the Democrats lost seats to Republican-Populist electoral fusion in Alabama, Texas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.[2][3] The Democrats lost ultimately lost 127 seats in the election while the Republicans gained 130 seats (after the resolution of several contested elections). This is the largest swing in the history of the House of Representatives, and also makes the 1894 election the single largest midterm election victory in the entire history of the United States. (A political party would not suffer triple-digit losses again until 1932.)

The main issues revolved around the severe economic depression, which the Republicans blamed on the conservative Bourbon Democrats led by Cleveland. Cleveland supporters lost heavily, weakening their hold on the party and setting the stage for an 1896 takeover by the silverist wing of the party. The Populist Party ran candidates in the South and Midwest, but generally lost ground, outside Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas where state-level fusion with the Republicans was successful despite Populist and Republican antagonism at the national level. The Democrats tried to raise a religious issue, claiming the GOP was in cahoots with the American Protective Association. The allegations seem to have fallen flat as Catholics moved toward the GOP.[4]

Contents

  • Election summaries 1
  • Early election dates 2
  • Complete returns 3
    • California 3.1
    • Florida 3.2
    • Ohio 3.3
    • South Carolina 3.4
    • Utah 3.5
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

Election summaries

One seat was added for the new State of Utah.

254 1 9 93
Republican S P Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic Populist Silver
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 2 2 5 4 2 2 0
Arkansas District 6 0 6 0 0
California District 7 6 3 1 2 0 1 0
Colorado District 2 1 1 0 1 1 0
Connecticut District 4 4 3 0 3 0 0
Delaware At-large 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
Florida District 2 0 2 0 0
Georgia District 11 0 11 0 0
Idaho At-large 1 1 0 0 0
Illinois District[Note 5] 22 22 11 0 11 0 0
Indiana District 13 13 11 0 11 0 0
Iowa District 11 11 1 0 1 0 0
Kansas District
+at-large
8 7 4 0 1 4 0
Kentucky District 11 6 5 5 5 0 0
Louisiana District 6 0 6 0 0
Maine[Note 6] District 4 4 0 0 0
Maryland District 6 3 3 3 3 0 0
Massachusetts District 13 12 3 1 3 0 0
Michigan District 12 12 5 0 5 0 0
Minnesota District 7 7 3 0 2 0 1 0
Mississippi District 7 0 7 0 0
Missouri District 15 11 9 4 9 0 0
Montana At-large 1 1 0 0 0
Nebraska District 6 5 2 0 1 1 1 0
Nevada At-large 1 0 0 1 0 1
New Hampshire District 2 2 0 0 0
New Jersey District 8 8 6 0 6 0 0
New York District 34 30 16 4 16 0 0
North Carolina District 9 3 2 2 6 4 4 0
North Dakota At-large 1 1 0 0 0
Ohio District 21 19 9 2 9 0 0
Oregon[Note 6] District 2 2 0 0 0
Pennsylvania District
+2 at-large
30 28 8 2 8 0 0
Rhode Island District 2 2 2 0 2 0 0
South Carolina District 7 1 6 0 0
South Dakota At-large 2 2 0 0 0
Tennessee District 10 4 2 6 2 0 0
Texas District 13 1 1 12 1 0 0
Vermont[Note 6] District 2 2 0 0 0
Virginia District 10 2 2 8 2 0 0
Washington At-large 2 2 0 0 0
West Virginia District 4 4 4 0 4 0 0
Wisconsin District 10 10 6 0 6 0 0
Wyoming At-large 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
1895 election
Utah[Note 7] At-large 1 1 1 0 0 0
Total[Note 2] 357 254[1]
71.1%
111 93[1]
26.1%
107 9[1]
2.5%
4 1[1]
0.3%
1
House seats
Republican
  
71.15%
Democratic
  
26.05%
Populist
  
2.52%
Silver
  
0.28%

The previous election of 1892 saw 11 Populists and a Silver Party member win seats.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
 
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
 
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Populist
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3 to 5 Democratic gain
 
  3 to 5 Republican gain
  1 to 2 Democratic gain
  1 to 2 Populist gain
  1 to 2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1894, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:

Complete returns

California

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Thomas J. Geary Democratic 1890 Lost re-election
Republican gain
John All Barham (R) 41.1%
Thomas J. Geary (D) 37.0%
Roger F. Grigsby (Pop) 19.7%
J. R. Gregory (Pr)
California 2 Anthony Caminetti Democratic 1890 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Grove L. Johnson (R) 43.0%
Anthony Caminetti (D) 35.1%
Burdelli Cornell (Pop) 20.0%
Elam Briggs (Pr) 1.9%
California 3 Warren B. English Democratic 1892[Note 8] Lost re-election
Republican gain
Samuel G. Hilborn[Note 9] (R) 45.5%
Warren B. English (D) 37.8%
W. A. Vann (Pop) 14.9%
L. B. Scranton (Pr) 1.8%
California 4 James G. Maguire Democratic 1892 Re-elected James G. Maguire (D) 48.3%
Thomas Bowles Shannon (R) 32.0%
B. K. Collier (Pop) 18.4%
Joseph Rowell (Pr) 1.3%
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Re-elected Eugene F. Loud (R) 36.8%
Joseph P. Kelly (D) 23.0%
James T. Rogers (Pop) 21.5%
James Denman (Pr) 18.7%
California 6 Marion Cannon Populist 1892 Retired
Republican gain
James McLachlan (R) 44.3%
George S. Patton (1856-1927) (D) 27.6%
W. C. Bowman (Pop) 23.1%
J. E. McComas (Pr) 5.0%
California 7 William W. Bowers Republican 1890 Re-elected William W. Bowers (R) 42.9%
W. H. Alford (D) 28.2%
J. L. Gilbert (Pop) 25.0%
W. H. Somers (Pr) 3.9%

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen R. Mallory Democratic 1890 Retired
Democratic hold
Stephen M. Sparkman (D) 85.3%
D. L. McKinnon (Pop) 14.7%
Florida 2 Charles Merian Cooper Democratic 1892 Re-elected Charles Merian Cooper (D) 79.8%
Montholom Atkinson (Pop) 20.2%

Ohio

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[5]
Ohio 1 Bellamy Storer Republican 1890 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 2 Jacob H. Bromwell Republican 1894 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 3 Paul J. Sorg Democratic 1894 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 4 Fernando C. Layton Democratic 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 5 Dennis D. Donovan Democratic 1892 Lost re-nomination
Republican gain
Ohio 6 George W. Hulick Republican 1892 Re-elected
  • George W. Hulick (R) 61.9%
  • Joseph L. Stephens (D) 38.1%
Ohio 7 George W. Wilson Republican 1892 Re-elected
  • George W. Wilson (R) 60.6%
  • Charles E. Gain (D) 39.4%
Ohio 8 Luther M. Strong Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 9 Byron F. Ritchie Democratic 1892 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 10 Hezekiah S. Bundy Republican 1893 (s) Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 11 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 12 Joseph H. Outhwaite Democratic 1892 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 13 Darius D. Hare Democratic 1892 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 14 Michael D. Harter Democratic 1892 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 15 H. Clay Van Voorhis Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 16 Albert J. Pearson Democratic 1892 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 17 James A. D. Richards Democratic 1892 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 18 George P. Ikirt Democratic 1892 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 19 Stephen A. Northway Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 20 William J. White Republican 1892 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 21 Tom L. Johnson Democratic 1890 Lost re-election
Republican gain

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 George W. Murray
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1892 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
William Elliott (D) 59.1%
George W. Murray (R) 40.9%
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Re-elected W. Jasper Talbert (D) 99.5%
Others 0.5%
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Re-elected Asbury Latimer (D) 81.3%
Robert Moorman (R) 13.9%
Others 4.8%
South Carolina 4 George W. Shell Democratic 1890 Retired
Democratic hold
Stanyarne Wilson (D) 75.1%
Lawson D. Melton (R) 24.7%
Others 0.2%
South Carolina 5 Thomas J. Strait Democratic 1892 Re-elected Thomas J. Strait (D) 67.6%
G. G. Alexander (R) 17.0%
W. R. Davie (I) 12.8%
Others 2.6%
South Carolina 6 John L. McLaurin Democratic 1892 Re-elected John L. McLaurin (D) 76.9%
J. P. Wilson (R) 23.1%
South Carolina 7 None (open seat due to redistricting) Democratic gain J. William Stokes (D) 73.0%
T. B. Johnson (R) 26.3%
Others 0.7%

In the 1st district, Murray successfully challenged Elliott's election and was awarded the seat on June 4, 1896.

The election in the 7th district was declared void on June 1, 1896 due to electoral fraud

Utah

This was Utah's first election for Representatives.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Utah at-large None (new state) Republican win Clarence E. Allen (R) 49.7%
Brigham H. Roberts (D) 47.5%
J. Hogan (Pr) 2.8%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 4 and September 10.
  2. ^ a b Includes late elections.
  3. ^ Included two Independent Democrats.
  4. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 312) counts 244 Republicans, 105 Democrats, 7 Populists, and 1 Silver at the opening of the 54th Congress, before the results of several contested elections were overturned in favor of Republican (and a few Populist) candidates. Dubin counts 253 Republicans, 93 Democrats, 9 Populists, and 1 Silver at the start of the 2nd session of the 54th Congress, which closely matches Martis' figure (pp. 148–49).
  5. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting.
  6. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  7. ^ Newly admitted state.
  8. ^ After contested election.
  9. ^ Had been the initial winner in 1892 but lost contested election

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Martis, pp. 148–149.
  2. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A00E7DF1231E033A2575AC0A9679D94659ED7CF
  3. ^ http://history.missouristate.edu/wrmiller/Populism/Texts/Documents/Bibliography/african_American.htm
  4. ^ Jensen (1971), Chap. 9.
  5. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 656, 657. 

Bibliography

  • Republican Congressional Committee, Republican Campaign Text Book: 1894 (1894).
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–1896 (1971).
  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company.  
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company.  
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc.  
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015. 

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)
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