World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

University of the Arts London

Article Id: WHEBN0026609273
Reproduction Date:

Title: University of the Arts London  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of universities in England, Art school, John Tusa, City University London, Courtauld Institute of Art
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

University of the Arts London

University of the Arts London
Established 1986
(London Institute)
(University of the Arts London)
Type Public
Chairman Sir John Tusa
Admin. staff 2,195 (2011)[1]
Students 25,750 (2009/10)[2]
Undergraduates 13,210 (2009/10)[2]
Postgraduates 3,215 (2009/10)[2]
Other students 9,325 (2009/10)[2]
Location London, United Kingdom
Affiliations Universities UK

University of the Arts London (formerly the London Institute) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom specialised in art, design, fashion and media.[3] It is a collegiate university comprising six constituent colleges: Camberwell College of Arts, Central Saint Martins, Chelsea College of Art and Design, London College of Communication, London College of Fashion and Wimbledon College of Art.

The university is Europe's largest provider of education in art, design, fashion, communication and the performing arts.[3] It brings together 19,000 students from over 100 different countries, including 2,250 further education students, 14,000 undergraduates and 2,700 postgraduate and research students. It is also a leading provider of short courses on creative subjects, with around 20,000 people aged 10 to 82 taking a course across the academic year.

The University wholly owns the UAL Awarding Body, which designs, assesses and awards pre-university arts and design qualifications, and validates more than half of the UK's foundation diplomas.


The university has its origins in seven previously independent art, design, fashion and media colleges, which were brought together for administrative purposes to form the London Institute in 1986.[4] They were: Saint Martin's School of Art; Chelsea School of Art; the London College of Printing; the Central School of Art and Design; Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts; the College for Distributive Trades; and the London College of Fashion.[5] The colleges were originally established from the mid 19th century to the early 20th century.

Under the Education Reform Act 1988, the London Institute became a single legal entity, and the first court of governors were instated the following year in 1989. The first appointed Rector was John McKenzie. The London Institute was incorporated as a higher education body in 1991 and was later granted academic degree awarding powers in 1993 by the Privy Council. Will Wyatt was appointed Chairman of Governors during the same year. Sir William Stubbs was appointed the second Rector after the retirement of McKenzie in 1996. A coat of arms was granted to the London Institute in 1998. Lord Stevenson was appointed the first chancellor in 2000.

On the retirement of Sir William Stubbs, Sir Michael Bichard was appointed as Rector in 2001 and encouraged the London Institute to apply for university status. The London Institute originally chose not to apply because its individual colleges were internationally recognised in their own right.[6] In 2003, the London Institute received Privy Council approval for university status and was renamed University of the Arts London in 2004.[7]

Wimbledon School of Art joined the university as a sixth college in 2006, and was renamed Wimbledon College of Art. Sir John Tusa was appointed as the new Chairman, replacing Will Wyatt, in 2007. Nigel Carrington, an international lawyer and former managing director of the McLaren Group, was appointed Rector in 2008, replacing Sir Michael Bichard.[8]

From 2008 to 2010, a far-reaching efficiency programme saw a number of staff made redundant and courses close.[9][10]

In 2011 playwright and actor Kwame Kwei-Armah became Chancellor, crowning an association with the university that began in 2002 when he studied for a Screenwriting MA at London College of Communication.

Central Saint Martins relocated to a purpose built complex situated in King's Cross in June 2011.[11][12]

In 2012, the university commissioned Pentagram to rebrand its identity which has now been rolled out successfully across all six colleges.


The University of the Arts London has six constituent colleges.

Camberwell College of Arts

Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts was established by the Technical Education Board of the London County Council on 10 January 1898, in a building beside the South London Art Gallery, with the financial support of John Passmore Edwards and following advocacy by Edward Burne-Jones, Lord Leighton, Walter Crane and G.F. Watts. The subjects taught were mainly technical until a Fine Arts department was established between the Wars. The school became part of the London Institute in January 1986, and was renamed Camberwell College of Arts in 1989.[13]

Central Saint Martins

Central Saint Martins College was formed in 1989 by the merger of Saint Martin's School of Art, founded 1854, and the Central School of Art and Design, founded as the Central School of Arts and Crafts in 1896. Drama Centre London, founded in 1963, became part of Central Saint Martins in 1999,[14] and the Byam Shaw School of Art, founded in 1910, was merged into CSM in 2003. The school was renamed Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design in 2011.[5]

Chelsea College of Art and Design

The Chelsea School of Art originated as part of the South-Western Polytechnic, which opened in 1895 and in 1922 became the Chelsea Polytechnic. In 1957 the science department of the polytechnic was renamed Chelsea College of Science and Technology; the School of Art became independent from it at that time, and merged with the Regent Street Polytechnic School of Art to create the Chelsea School of Art in 1964. In 1975 Chelsea merged with Hammersmith College of Art and Building, founded in 1891 by Francis Hawke and taken over by the London County Council in 1904. The Chelsea School of Art became part of the London Institute in 1986 and was renamed Chelsea College of Art and Design in 1989.[15]

London College of Communication

The London College of Printing descends from the St Bride's Foundation Institute Printing School, which was established in November 1894 under the City of London Parochial Charities Act of 1883. The Guild and Technical School opened in Clerkenwell in the same year, but moved a year later to Bolt Court, and became the Bolt Court Technical School; it was later renamed the London County Council School of Photoengraving and Lithography. St Bride's came under the control of the London County Council in 1922 and was renamed the London School of Printing and Kindred Trades; in 1949 it was merged with the LCC School of Photoengraving and Lithography, forming the London School of Printing and Graphic Arts. In 1960 this was renamed the London College of Printing. The printing department of the North Western Polytechnic was merged into it in 1969. The London College of Printing became part of the London Institute in 1986.

The Westminster Day Continuation School opened in 1921, and was later renamed the College for Distributive Trades. It became part of the London Institute in 1986. In 1990 it merged with the London College of Printing to form the London College of Printing and Distributive Trades, which in 1996 was renamed the London College of Communication.[16]

London College of Fashion

The London College of Fashion derives from three trade schools for women, the Shoreditch Technical Institute Girls Trade School, founded in 1906, Barrett Street Trade School, founded in 1915, and Clapham Trade School, founded in 1927; all were established by the Technical Education board of the London County Council to train skilled workers for the clothing and hairdressing trades.[17] The Barrett Street school became a technical college after the 1944 Education Act and was renamed Barrett Street Technical College. Shoreditch also became a technical college; in 1955 it merged with Clapham Trade School to form Shoreditch College for the Garment Trades. In 1966 it was renamed Shoreditch College for the Clothing Industry and in 1967 merged with Barrett Street Technical College to become the London College for the Garment Trades, which in 1974 was renamed the London College of Fashion.[18][19] It became part of the London Institute in January 1986. In August 2000 it merged with Cordwainers College, founded as the Leather Trade School by the Leathersellers and Cordwainers Company in 1887 in Bethnal Green, and later renamed the Cordwainers Technical College and, in 1991, Cordwainers College.[20]

Wimbledon College of Art

The foundation of Wimbledon College of Art goes back to 1890, when an art class for the Rutlish School for Boys was started. Between 1904 and 1920 this was housed in the Wimbledon Technical Institute in Gladstone Road. It became independent in 1930 and moved to Merton Hall Road in 1940. Theatre design was taught from 1932, and became a department in 1948. In 1993 the school, which previously had been controlled by the London Borough of Merton, was incorporated as an independent higher education institution. Wimbledon School of Art became part of University of the Arts London in 2006 and was renamed Wimbledon College of Art.[21]


The King's Cross campus of Central Saint Martins

Since the university is a collegiate university, taking in a number of institutions, it is located in a number of buildings in various parts of London.

South London

  • Camberwell College of Arts has its main building on Peckham Road.
  • The CCW (Camberwell, Chelsea, Wimbledon) Progression Centre (postgraduate centre) is on Wilson Road, near Camberwell Green.
  • The London College of Communication is based at Elephant and Castle.
  • Wimbledon College of Art is based at Merton Hall Road, Wimbledon.

North London

  • Central Saint Martins is now located in the converted Granary Store at Kings Cross.[22]

Central London

  • Chelsea College of Art and Design is located next to Tate Britain on John Islip Street in Pimlico.
  • 272 High Holborn is the site of the students' union as well as some departments of the College of Fashion.
  • London College of Fashion has its main site at John Prince's Street, Oxford Circus.

West London

East London

Organisation and administration

The University is a higher education corporation established under Section 121 of the Education Reform Act 1988 and is an exempt charity under charity legislation.[1]

The University's governing body is the Court of Governors, and members of the Court of Governors are the University's trustees. The Court of Governors is composed primarily of external lay members from whom its Chairman and Deputy Chairman are elected. Also included in its membership are University staff members and the President of the Student Union.


In the financial year ended 31 July 2011, University of the Arts London had a total income (including share of joint ventures) of £209.17 million (2009/10 - £211.91 million) and total expenditure of £192.76 million (2009/10 - £200.6 million).[1] Key sources of income included £107.32 million from tuition fees and education contracts (2009/10 - £101.16 million), £77.05 million from Funding Council grants (2009/10 - £85.31 million), £1.31 million from research grants and contracts (2009/10 - £2.26 million), £0.56 million from endowment and investment income (2009/10 - £0.34 million) and £22.94 million from other income (2009/10 - £22.84 million).[1]

At year end the University of the Arts London had endowments of £3.74 million (2009/10 – £3.18 million) and total net assets of £212.99 million (2009/10 – £159.98 million).[1]


Partnerships and collaborations

The University has international affiliations with institutions including the Fashion Institute of Technology and Parsons The New School for Design in New York, and the Bunka Fashion College in Tokyo, where students have the opportunity to study abroad via exchange.

The University is part of the ERASMUS programme, through which it has exchange agreements with 40 European universities and specialist institutions. Under the programme students can study abroad for a minimum of three months to a maximum of one full academic year.

Industry partners of the University include the Body Shop, Hugo Boss, Pringle, Sony Mobile, Swarosvski, Tommy Hilfiger and Top Shop.


The 2001 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) published results by subject area on a point scale from 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4, 5 to 5*, the University achieved a 5 rating. In 2006-07, this rating equated to a QR grant of £8.6 million.[23]

In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise the Times Higher Education's RAE league tables placed the University of the Arts 44th out of 132 universities in the institution-wide table. In the 'Art and Design' subject tables the University was placed 22nd out of 72 submissions (for 'submission A' - the majority of the constituent colleges) and 23rd out of 72 submissions (for 'submission B' - Wimbledon College of Art alone).[24] The University submitted by far the largest number of researchers in the Arts and Design subject area (237.89 full-time equivalent staff), next highest was Glasgow School of Art with only 76.85 FTE staff. More than 50 per cent of the University of the Arts' research submission was rated as world leading or internationally excellent, with 77.5 per cent recognised as internationally significant.[25][26]

UAL's current research projects include:

Catalytic clothing - a fashion-science partnership between Helen Storey (London College of Fashion) and Tony Ryan (University of Sheffield) to harness the pollution-busting properties of titanium dioxide to create clothes that cleanse the air. The researchers are working with Ecover to develop a laundry additive that enables the oxide, which naturally reacts with light and air to break down pollutants, to grip onto fibres in materials.

Threat Mapping Web Application - a collaboration between Amanda Windle (London College of Communication), Microsoft Research Ltd and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature to improve the accuracy and usability of the IUCN's Red List of species at risk. The new application will allow researchers and conservationists to see threats to species and actions taken to protect them in a dynamic way, live on a global map, and ebable them to edit, add and research new data as it is generated.

TED's ten - the Textiles Environmental Design group has created a toolkit of design rules - TED's ten - that tackle fashion's often inconsistent approach to sustainability. The strategies for fashion and textile designers promote approaches that build reuse and recycling into the design process and eradicate waste. The group is testing the strategies as part of the Swedish government-funded Future Fashion consortium, which is developing a new fibre called CelluNova using wood from pine trees.

The university's research outputs, many of them free to download, can also be found in the university's institutional research repository. Launched in February 2010, UAL Research Online [27] was developed from the Kultur project, funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) and was a collaboration between University of Southampton, University of the Arts London, University for the Creative Arts and the Visual Arts Data Service. It is currently the largest Creative Arts research repository in the UK.[28]


The University is home to 19,000 students, including 2,250 further education students, 14,000 undergraduates and 2,700 postgraduate and research students.

It is the second most popular institution in the United Kingdom for international students,[29] with 6,100 international students and a further 2,700 from non-UK EU countries. Top non-UK national groups at the University are from mainland China, South Korea, Hong Kong, USA, India, Taiwan, Japan and Russia.

Galleries and collections

The University houses various archives and collections, including the Stanley Kubrick Archive, Tom Eckersley Collection, Thorold Dickinson Collection, the John Schlesinger Library and a large collection of 20th century and 21st century posters.

Central Saint Martins has registered museum status. Its material includes historical and contemporary collections by students, staff and alumni of the college. The Platform Theatre at King's Cross provides venues for theatre productions, corporate hires and professional presentations. The Lethaby Gallery and the Window Gallery are used for exhibitions by practicising professionals and for past and present students from the college.

Chelsea College of Art and Design has two on-site exhibition spaces. Chelsea Space is an international and interdisciplinary platform for professional practitioners to exhibit experimental curatorial projects and releases regular publications from participating authors, artists and designers. The Parade Ground, situated within the college, has been transformed into an open-air gallery which hosts events including film screenings and large scale installations. The exhibition ground had previously been used for students and professionals as an open area platform, notably artist Chris Burden's "A Flying Steamroller" in 2006.


Many honours and awards have been received by students, staff and alumni of the six colleges. These include the BAFTA Award, BP Portrait Prize, British Fashion Designer of the Year, D&AD Student Award, Fujifilm Award, Jerwood Drawing Prize, Prince Philip Designers Prize, Saatchi Scholarship, Sunday Times Award, Academy Award and the Turner Prize.[30]

A Queen's Anniversary Prize was awarded to Camberwell College of Arts for the conservation of "works of art on paper" in 1996. The prize was also awarded to Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design for its contributions to the British fashion industry, and for nurturing the creativity of students, in 1998.[8] Cordwainers College of London College of Fashion was awarded the prize for its continued excellence in shoe and accessory design, development and teaching practice in 2008.[31] The University of the Arts London was among the twenty winners of the prize in 2013, for its "industrial and product design".[32]

Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design and the London College of Communication have been awarded Skillset Media Academy status, recognizing the achievements in the area of media, interactive design and film respectively.[33]

Chelsea College of Art and Design and the London College of Fashion share the "Creative Learning in Practice Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning" (CLIP CETL). The centre is funded by the British government in recognition of the two colleges' results in developing student learning.[34]

Rankings and reputation

The University of the Arts London received an overall ranking of 67 out of 124 in the 2014 Complete University Guide league tables, down from 48th place in 2013 and 59th in the 2012 ranking. It was ranked 102nd out of 124 for graduate prospects, and 123rd out of 124 for student satisfaction with teaching.[35][36]

It was ranked 78th in the 2013 Sunday Times University Guide, compared to 70th in the 2012 ranking. In the 2012 Times Good University Guide the UAL was ranked 82nd out of 116 institutions. The UAL was ranked 31st in the 2013 Guardian University Guide and 16th out of 81 institutions in the Art and Design subject table.[37]

In the 2011 National Student Survey, 69 per cent of University of the Arts London students were satisfied with their experience at the university, compared to an average across all English institutions of 83 per cent.[38] This is up from 62 per cent in 2010.

In the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) results in 2004, Camberwell College of Arts and London College of Communication were awarded 23 out of 24 for art and design; Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design and Chelsea College of Art and Design were awarded 22; London College of Fashion was awarded 21.[39] The OFSTED report in March 2012 gave the University's further education provision an overall rating of "good".

In 2007 BusinessWeek formed a panel of experienced consultants, academics, and executives to select the best art and design schools around the world, which featured both Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design and the London College of Communication.[40]

Central Saint Martins' MA Fashion is the only university course allowed its own on-schedule graduate show at London Fashion Week.

Student life

Students' Union

SUArts is based at UAL's High Holborn HQ with representatives and activities at all Colleges. It lobbies and campaigns on issues important to creative students, including campaigning against unpaid interships. Clubs and societies cover sports, nationality, politics and identity, and hobbies and interests from dance, drama and fashion to chess, knitting and food.

Student Hub

The Student Hub is the central university office at High Holborn, which is used for administrative purposes, learning resources, support services and a students' union cafe/bar. The Hub includes:

  • the Learning Zone - a space for collaborative and private study; facilities include computers, laptop hire and rooms for presentations/rehearsals;
  • the International Centre - manages international student recruitment and its network of local representatives based across the world. The centre and the local representatives offer specialist advice, such as course information and University services, as well as advice on immigration and fees; and
  • the Language Centre - enables prospective students to study English and other modern languages, before and during their course.


The Student Union publishes Less Common More Sense, a magazine that serves to showcase student work from all six colleges. The University also publishes Arts London News, a weekly newspaper distributed throughout three terms of the year, which is produced, managed and edited during term time by Journalism and Photojournalism students at the London College of Communication. The paper is published in conjunction with News International.

Student Enterprise and Employability service

Creative graduates typically have less clearly defined career paths than those of other disciplines. They are highly entrepreneurial – 18% of UAL graduates are self-employed three years after graduating compared to the national average of 5% - and tend to pursue flexible and varied ‘portfolio’ careers, made up of self-employment, part-time and short-term contracts, freelancing, and creative practice.

To make sure that students and graduates are prepared for the careers they will enter and that basic career skills and knowledge are built into the University’s curricula right from the start, UAL’s Student Enterprise and Employability service was set up in September 2011. The service provides advice, mentoring, events and surgeries focused on the basic skills that creative graduates need – effective networking, business planning, pitching, presenting and marketing – as well as more technical skills for successful entrepreneurship, including protecting your intellectual property,understanding legal contracts, accessing start-up funding, plus taking advantage of new models for business success, such as crowd funding and selling online.

SEE is a delivery partner for the Government’s Start Up Loans Scheme, offers annual Creative Enterprise Awards for graduates and provides grants for early-stage businesses through its SEED Fund. The service also offers relevant paid employment through ArtsTemps, UAL’s in-house temp agency set up to help students and recent graduates develop employment skills as well as earn. ArtsTemps is the preferred supplier of temp staff across the University, and has now paid out over £1 million in salaries.

SEE also helps students and graduates to find work placements and paid internships in organisations and businesses throughout the creative sector.

SEE’s third main focus is on supporting artists and craftspeople to develop their practice. It supports Artquest, a service providing practical peer support and networking to develop their ability to make, sell and find work. It has also set up Showroom – a high profile shop and gallery at the front of UAL’s Central London HQ that displays and sells work by UAL students and graduates.

Student housing

The University has 14 residences across London and aims to offer all first year students a room in University accommodation. New accommodation includes Camberwell Campus and the Costume Store in west London.

Notable alumni

For an extended list, view the respective article for each college.

Alumni of Camberwell College of Arts include:

Alumni of Chelsea College of Art and Design include:

Alumni of Central Saint Martins include:

Alumni of the Central School of Art and Design, formerly Central School of Arts and Crafts, now part of Central Saint Martins, include:

Alumni of Saint Martin's School of Art, now part of Central Saint Martins, include:

Alumni of the Byam Shaw School of Art, now part of Central Saint Martins, include:

Alumni of Drama Centre London, now part of Central Saint Martins, include:

Alumni of the London College of Communication include:

Alumni of the London College of Fashion include:

Alumni of Cordwainers College, part of the London College of Fashion, include:

Alumni of Wimbledon College of Art include:


  1. ^ a b c d e "Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 July 2011". University of the Arts London. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Table 1 - All students by HE institution, level of study, mode of study and domicile 2009/10" ( 
  3. ^ a b "Education Guardian".  
  4. ^ Rebecca Smithers and Polly Curtis (15 July 2003). "Art world welcomes Institute change". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  5. ^ a b [s.n.] (August 2012). University of the Arts London (formerly The London Institute) A Brief History University of the Arts London. Accessed August 2013.
  6. ^ "Times Online University Profile". The Times (London). Retrieved 27 November 2008. 
  7. ^ Lee, Veronica (8 May 2004). "State of the arts". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  8. ^ a b "University of the Arts London History".  
  9. ^ "Times Higher Education: PR lecturer resigns in protest over lack of staff". Retrieved 12 October 2010. 
  10. ^ "Arts London News: Protests at LCC widen". Retrieved 12 October 2010. 
  11. ^ Needham, Alex (22 June 2011). "A change of scene for Central Saint Martins". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  12. ^ "Central Saint Martins fashion college bids farewell to Charing Cross Road". London: The Telegraph. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  13. ^ Julie Tancell (2002). Camberwell College of Arts. AIM25: Archives in London and the M25 area. Accessed August 2013.
  14. ^ Julie Tancell (2002). Central Saint Martins College of Art & Design. AIM25: Archives in London and the M25 area. Accessed August 2013.
  15. ^ Julie Tancell (2002). Chelsea College of Art & Design. AIM25: Archives in London and the M25 area. Accessed August 2013.
  16. ^ Robert Baxter (2001). GB 1574: London College of Printing Archive. AIM25: Archives in London and the M25 area. Accessed August 2013.
  17. ^ Julie Tancell (2002). GB 2159 London College of Fashion. AIM25: Archives in London and the M25 area. Accessed August 2013.
  18. ^ Julie Tancell (2002). GB 2159: Barrett Street Technical College. AIM25: Archives in London and the M25 area. Accessed August 2013.
  19. ^ Julie Tancell (2002). GB 2159: Shoreditch College for the Garment Trades. AIM25: Archives in London and the M25 area. Accessed August 2013.
  20. ^ Julie Tancell (2002). GB 2159: Cordwainers College. AIM25: Archives in London and the M25 area. Accessed August 2013.
  21. ^ Wimbledon School of Art, May 2004: Institutional audit. Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. p. 4. Accessed August 2013.
  22. ^ "Before and after: historic buildings restored and transformed". Daily Telegraph (London). 21 March 2013. 
  23. ^ "University of the Arts London RAE".  
  24. ^ Times Higher Education RAE results - see the main institution-wide table and the subsection on 'Art and Design'
  25. ^ RAE results for University of Arts, from official RAE website
  26. ^ All RAE results for 'Art and Design' subject area, from official RAE website
  27. ^ "Current Research UAL Research Online - UAL Research Online". Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  28. ^ Registry of Open Access Repositories -
  29. ^ "Percentage of International Students: 34.5".  
  30. ^ "University of the Arts London Success". Success online statistics. Retrieved 30 July 2008. 
  31. ^ "Cordwainers - Queen Anniversary Prize". Queen's Anniversary Prize online statistics. Retrieved 30 July 2008. 
  32. ^ [s.n.] (22 November 2013). Winners of the Queen’s Anniversary Prizes announced. The Royal Anniversary Trust. Accessed December 2013.
  33. ^ "Skillset Academy Status".  
  34. ^ "University of the Arts London Success". CLIP CETL online statistics. Retrieved 30 July 2008. 
  35. ^ [s.n.] (15 July 2013). University of the Arts London. The Independent. Accessed August 2013.
  36. ^ University League Table 2014. Complete University Guide. Accessed August 2013.
  37. ^ "University guide 2013: league table for art and design". The Guardian (London). 22 May 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012. 
  38. ^ Newman, Melanie (11 September 2008). "Students more satisfied than ever before".  
  39. ^ "The Complete University Guide".  
  40. ^ "BusinessWeek: The Best Design Schools in the World".  
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wimbledon College of Art: About Wimbledon: Alumni: Alumni List. University of the Arts London. Accessed August 2013.

External links

  • University of the Arts London
  • UAL Research Online: an online collection of research produced by UAL faculty and staff
  • University of the Arts London - Students' Union
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.