Up antiquark

Up quark
Composition Elementary particle
Statistics Fermionic
Generation First
Interactions Strong, Weak, Electromagnetic force, Gravity
Symbol
  1. redirect
Antiparticle

Up antiquark (

  1. redirect )
Theorized Murray Gell-Mann (1964)
George Zweig (1964)
Discovered SLAC (1968)
Mass 2.3+0.7
 MeV/c2
[1]
Decays into Stable or Down quark + Positron
Electric charge +23 e
Color charge Yes
Spin 12
Weak isospin LH: +12, RH: 0
Weak hypercharge LH: +13, RH: +43

The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter. It, along with the down quark, forms the neutrons (one up quark, two down quarks) and protons (two up quarks, one down quark) of atomic nuclei. It is part of the first generation of matter, has an electric charge of +23 e and a bare mass of 1.8–3.0 MeV/c2. Like all quarks, the up quark is an elementary fermion with spin-12, and experiences all four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and strong interactions. The antiparticle of the up quark is the up antiquark (sometimes called antiup quark or simply antiup), which differs from it only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign.

Its existence (along with that of the down and strange quarks) was postulated in 1964 by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig to explain the Eightfold Way classification scheme of hadrons. The up quark was first observed by experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968.

History

In the beginnings of particle physics (first half of the 20th century), hadrons such as protons, neutrons and pions were thought to be elementary particles. However, as new hadrons were discovered, the 'particle zoo' grew from a few particles in the early 1930s and 1940s to several dozens of them in the 1950s. The relationships between each of them was unclear until 1961, when Murray Gell-Mann[2] and Yuval Ne'eman[3] (independently of each other) proposed a hadron classification scheme called the Eightfold Way, or in more technical terms, SU(3) flavor symmetry.

This classification scheme organized the hadrons into isospin multiplets, but the physical basis behind it was still unclear. In 1964, Gell-Mann[4] and George Zweig[5][6] (independently of each other) proposed the quark model, then consisting only of up, down, and strange quarks.[7] However, while the quark model explained the Eightfold Way, no direct evidence of the existence of quarks was found until 1968 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.[8][9] Deep inelastic scattering experiments indicated that protons had substructure, and that protons made of three more-fundamental particles explained the data (thus confirming the quark model).[10]

At first people were reluctant to identify the three-bodies as quarks, instead preferring Richard Feynman's parton description,[11][12][13] but over time the quark theory became accepted (see November Revolution).[14]

Mass

Despite being extremely common, the bare mass of the up quark is not well determined, but probably lies between 1.8 and 3.0 MeV/c2.[1] Lattice QCD calculations give a more precise value: 2.01±0.14 MeV/c2.[15]

When found in mesons (particles made of one quark and one antiquark) or baryons (particles made of three quarks), the 'effective mass' (or 'dressed' mass) of quarks become greater because of the binding energy caused by the gluon field between each quark (see mass–energy equivalence).The bare mass of up quarks is so light, it cannot be straightforwardly calculated because relativistic effects have to be taken into account.

See also

References

Further reading

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.