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Veiki moraine

A Veiki moraine (Swedish: Veikimorän) is a type of moraine found in northern Sweden and parts of Canada that is characterized by forming a hummocky landscape of moraine plateaus with elevated rims that are intercalated with ponds. The name Veiki derives from the type locality of Veiki in Swedish Lapland. Towards southern Norrland, Veiki moraines are gradually replaced by Rogen moraines as the most prominent morainic landforms, and to the north near Finland there is a gradual transition to what are called Pulju moraines. One of the most prominent Veiki moraines is the Lainio Arc (Swedish: Lainiobågen) in Torne älv, a large-scale moraine lobe pointing southeastwards that is made of Veiki moraines. The lobe has been interpreted as the remains of a large glacial surge.

Although originally thought as being remains of the last glacial period, Swedish Veiki moraines are now believed to be of late Saalian age. Veiki moraines are believed to have been formed by supraglacial till that during the late Saale glaciation or the early Eemian interglacial partially protecting dead-ice from melting. This insulation did not hinder parts of the ice to melt, creating ponds between the till-covered dead-ice. When dead-ice finally melted, the ponds remained like plateaus surrounded by rims of till. The subsequent Weichsel glaciation did not significantly alter the morphology of the Veiki moraines now exposed.

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