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Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate

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Title: Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate  
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Subject: Levantine Arabic phonology, Modern Hebrew phonology, Hebrew alphabet, Ch (digraph), Oromo language
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Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate

Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
t͡ʃ
t͜ʃ
t̠ʲʃ
IPA number 103 134
Encoding
Entity (decimal) t​͡​ʃ
Unicode (hex) U+0074 U+0361 U+0283
X-SAMPA tS or t_r_jS
Kirshenbaum tS
Sound
 ·

The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with t͡ʃ, t͜ʃ or (formerly the ligature ʧ), or in broad transcription with c. It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".

Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar stop /k/ (as in English, Slavic languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental stop by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel.

Some scholars use the symbol /t͡ʃ/ to transcribe the laminal variant of the voiceless retroflex affricate. In such cases, the voiceless palato-alveolar affricate is transcribed /t͡ʃʲ/.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate 3
    • Features 3.1
    • Occurrence 3.2
  • Notes 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe чэмы     'cow' Some dialects contrast labialized and non-labialized forms.
Albanian çelur [t͡ʃɛluɾ] 'open'
Aleut Atkan dialect chamĝul [t͡ʃɑmʁul] 'to wash'
Amharic አንቺ [ant͡ʃi] 'you' f. sg.
Arabic[1] Central Palestinian مكتبة [ˈmat͡ʃt̪abɐ] 'library' Corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Iraqi كتاب [t͡ʃiˈt̪aːb] 'book'
Jordanian
Armenian Eastern[2] ճնճղուկ     'sparrow'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic chmah [t͡ʃmaː] 'how many?' Used in the Urmia and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [k] in other varieties.
Azeri Əkinçi [ækint͡ʃi] 'the ploughman'
Nahuatl āyōtōchtli [aːjoːˈtoːt͡ʃt͡ɬi] 'armadillo'
Bengali চশমা [t͡ʃɔʃma] 'spectacles' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Basque txalupa [t͡ʃalupa] 'boat'
Bulgarian чучулига [t͡ʃut͡ʃliɡa] 'lark'
Choctaw hakchioma [hakt͡ʃioma] 'tobacco'
Coptic Bohairic dialect ϭⲟϩ [t͡ʃoh] 'touch'
Czech morče [ˈmo̞rt͡ʃɛ] 'guinea pig' See Czech phonology
English bleach [ˈbliːt͡ʃ] 'bleach' See English phonology
Esperanto ĉar [t͡ʃar] 'because' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese gera [t͡ʃeːɹa] 'to do' Contrasts with aspirated form.
French caoutchouc [kaut͡ʃu] 'rubber' Relatively rare; occurs mostly in loanwords. See French phonology
Galician cheio [ˈt͡ʃejo] 'full' Galician-Portuguese /t͡ʃ/ is conserved in Galician and merged with /ʃ/ in most Portuguese dialects.
[3] იხი [t͡ʃixi] 'impasse'
German Standard[4] Tschinelle [t͡ʃʷiˈnɛlə] 'cymbal' Laminal or apico-laminal[4] and strongly labialized.[4] See German phonology
Greek Cypriot τζ̌αι [t͡ʃe̞] 'and' Contrasts with /t͡ʃʰː/ and prenasalised [d͡ʒ].
Hebrew תשובה [t͡ʃuˈva] 'answer' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani चाय/چاۓ [t͡ʃɑːj] 'tea' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Haitian Creole match [mat͡ʃ] 'sports match'
Hungarian gyümölcs [ˈɟymølt͡ʃleː] 'juice' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5] ciao [ˈt͡ʃaːo] 'ciao' See Italian phonology
K'iche' K'iche' [kʼiˈt͡ʃeʔ] 'K'iche'' Contrasts with ejective form
Kabardian чэнж     'shallow'
Kashubian[6]
Macedonian чека [t͡ʃɛka] 'wait' See Macedonian phonology
Malay cuci [t͡ʃut͡ʃi] 'wash'
Maltese bliċ [blit͡ʃ] 'bleach'
Marathi हा [t͡ʃəhɑː] 'tea' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian kjøkken [t͡ʃøkːen] 'kitchen' Only in some dialects. See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[7] [t͡ʃaɾo] 'needle'
Nakhish (Chechen-Ingush) Ча̄рх [t͡ʃaːrχ] 'mechanic'
Occitan chuc [ˈt͡ʃyk] 'juice' See Occitan phonology
Persian چوب [t͡ʃʰuːb] 'wood' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna ciemny [ˈt͡ʃɛmn̪ɘ] 'dark' /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ merge into [t͡ʃ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /t͡ʃ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiceless retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
Portuguese Most Brazilian
dialects[9]
presente [pɾe̞ˈzẽ̞t͡ʃi] 'present' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects tchau [ˈt͡ʃaw] 'bye' In Standard European Portuguese it occurs only in recent loanwords.
Punjabi ਚੌਲ [t͡ʃɔːl] 'rice'
Romanian cer [t͡ʃe̞r] 'sky' See Romanian phonology
Rotuman[10] joni [ˈt͡ʃɔni] 'to flee'
Scottish Gaelic slàinte [ˈslaːnt͡ʃə] 'health' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers čokoláda / чоколада [t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈɫǎ̠ːd̪a̠] 'chocolate' In varieties that distinguish /t͡ʃ/ from /t͡ɕ/ it may be laminal retroflex instead. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnian Ловћен / Lovćen [ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ʃe̞n] 'Lovćen' Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /t͡ʃ/ and /t͡ɕ/, either to [t͡ʃ] or to laminal [ʈ͡ʂ].
Croatian
Silesian Gmina Istebna[11] These dialects merge /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ into [t͡ʃ].
Jablunkov[11]
Spanish[12] chocolate [t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈlät̪e̞] 'chocolate' See Spanish phonology
Swahili jicho [ʄit͡ʃo] 'eye'
Swedish Finland tjugo [t͡ʃʉːɡʉ] 'twenty'
Some rural Swedish dialects kärlek [t͡ʃæːɭeːk] 'love'
Tlingit jinkaat [ˈt͡ʃiŋkʰaːtʰ] 'ten'
Turkish uçak [ut͡ʃäk] 'airplane' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [t͡ʃəbʒəja] 'pepper' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian чотири [t͡ʃo̞ˈtɪrɪ] 'four' See Ukrainian phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'ik nacaq [ˈnat͡ʃaq] 'parka hood'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[13] chane [t͡ʃanɘ] '?'

Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Catalan, and Thai have a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/; this is technically postalveolar but it is less precise to use /t͡ʃ/.

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
t̠͡ɹ̠̊˔
t̠͜ɹ̠̊˔
t̠ɹ̠̊˔

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English General American[14][15] tree [t̠͡ɹ̠̊˔ʷiː] 'tree' Phonetic realization of the sequence /tr/; less commonly alveolar [t͡ɹ̝̊].[14] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[14][15]

Notes

  1. ^ Watson (2002:17)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b c Mangold (2005:51-52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  7. ^ Ladefoged (2005:158)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ Blevins (1994:492)
  11. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  12. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  13. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  14. ^ a b c Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188 and 192.
  15. ^ a b Wells (2008).

Bibliography

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232,  
  • Blevins, Juliette (1994), "The Bimoraic Foot in Rotuman Phonology and Morphology", Oceanic Linguistics 33 (2): 491–516,  
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie,  
  • Dubisz, Stanisław; Karaś, Halina; Kolis, Nijola (1995), Dialekty i gwary polskie, Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna,  
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge,  
  •  
  •  
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259,  
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114,  
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121,  
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264,  
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman,  
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