Www

"WWW" and "The web" redirect here. For other uses of WWW, see WWW (disambiguation). For other uses of web, see Web (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with the Internet.

World Wide Web
Robert Cailliau
Invented by Tim Berners-Lee[1][2]
Company CERN
Availability Worldwide

The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3,[3] commonly known as the web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks.

Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist and at that time employee of CERN, a European research organisation near Geneva,[4] wrote a proposal in March 1989 for what would eventually become the World Wide Web.[1] The 1989 proposal was meant for a more effective CERN communication system but Berners-Lee eventually realised the concept could be implemented throughout the world.[5] Berners-Lee and Flemish computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed in 1990 to use hypertext "to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will",[6] and Berners-Lee finished the first website in December that year.[7] Berners-Lee posted the project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup on 7 August 1991.[8]

History

In the May 1970 issue of Popular Science magazine, Arthur C. Clarke predicted that satellites would someday "bring the accumulated knowledge of the world to your fingertips" using a console that would combine the functionality of the photocopier, telephone, television and a small computer, allowing data transfer and video conferencing around the globe.[9]

In March 1989, Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, and described a more elaborate information management system.[10]

With help from Robert Cailliau, he published a more formal proposal (on 12 November 1990) to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" (one word, also "W3") as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture.[6] This proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers, [so that] authorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available." While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, blogs, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom.[11]

The proposal was modeled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University. The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration.


A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first web server and also to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web:[12] the first web browser (which was a web editor as well); the first web server; and the first web pages,[13] which described the project itself.

The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones (computer technologist) of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina revealed in May 2013 that he has a copy of a page given to him by Berners-Lee during a visit to UNC in 1991 which is the oldest known web page. Jones stored it on a magneto-optical drive and on his NeXT computer.[14]

On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup.[15] This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet, although new users only access it after August 23. For this reason this is considered the internaut's day. Many newsmedia have reported that the first photo on the web was uploaded by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro; Gennaro has disclaimed this story, writing that media were "totally distorting our words for the sake of cheap sensationalism."[16]

The first server outside Europe was set up at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in Palo Alto, California, to host the SPIRES-HEP database. Accounts differ substantially as to the date of this event. The World Wide Web Consortium says December 1992,[17] whereas SLAC itself claims 1991.[18][19] This is supported by a W3C document titled A Little History of the World Wide Web.[20]

The crucial underlying concept of hypertext originated with older projects from the 1960s, such as the Hypertext Editing System (HES) at Brown University, Ted Nelson's Project Xanadu, and Douglas Engelbart's oN-Line System (NLS). Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush's microfilm-based "memex", which was described in the 1945 essay "As We May Think".[21]

Berners-Lee's breakthrough was to marry hypertext to the Internet. In his book Weaving The Web, he explains that he had repeatedly suggested that a marriage between the two technologies was possible to members of both technical communities, but when no one took up his invitation, he finally assumed the project himself. In the process, he developed three essential technologies:

  1. a system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web and elsewhere, the universal document identifier (UDI), later known as uniform resource locator (URL) and uniform resource identifier (URI);
  2. the publishing language HyperText Markup Language (HTML);
  3. the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).[22]

The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due.[23] Coming two months after the announcement that the server implementation of the Gopher protocol was no longer free to use, this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and towards the Web. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW for Unix and the X Windowing System.

Scholars generally agree that a turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction[24] of the Mosaic web browser[25] in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen. Funding for Mosaic came from the U.S. High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative and the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991, one of several computing developments initiated by U.S. Senator Al Gore.[26] Prior to the release of Mosaic, graphics were not commonly mixed with text in web pages and the web's popularity was less than older protocols in use over the Internet, such as Gopher and Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS). Mosaic's graphical user interface allowed the Web to become, by far, the most popular Internet protocol.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October 1994. It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which had pioneered the Internet; a year later, a second site was founded at INRIA (a French national computer research lab) with support from the European Commission DG InfSo; and in 1996, a third continental site was created in Japan at Keio University. By the end of 1994, while the total number of websites was still minute compared to present standards, quite a number of notable websites were already active, many of which are the precursors or inspiration for today's most popular services.

Connected by the existing Internet, other websites were created around the world, adding international standards for domain names and HTML. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of web standards (such as the markup languages in which web pages are composed), and has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web. The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. It thus played an important role in popularizing use of the Internet.[27] Although the two terms are sometimes conflated in popular use, World Wide Web is not synonymous with Internet.[28] The web is a collection of documents and both client and server software using Internet protocols such as TCP/IP and HTTP.

Tim Berners-Lee was knighted in 2004 by Queen Elizabeth II for his contribution to the World Wide Web.

Function

The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not the same. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the web is one of the services that runs on the Internet. It is a collection of text documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, usually accessed by web browsers from web servers. In short, the web can be thought of as an application "running" on the Internet.[29]

Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a web browser or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. The web browser then initiates a series of communication messages, behind the scenes, in order to fetch and display it. In the 1990s, using a browser to view web pages—and to move from one web page to another through hyperlinks—came to be known as 'browsing,' 'web surfing,' or 'navigating the web'. Early studies of this new behavior investigated user patterns in using web browsers. One study, for example, found five user patterns: exploratory surfing, window surfing, evolved surfing, bounded navigation and targeted navigation.[30]

The following example demonstrates how a web browser works. Consider accessing a page with the URL http://example.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web.

First, the browser resolves the server-name portion of the URL (example.org) into an Internet Protocol address using the globally distributed database known as the Domain Name System (DNS); this lookup returns an IP address such as 208.80.152.2. The browser then requests the resource by sending an HTTP request across the Internet to the computer at that particular address. It makes the request to a particular application port in the underlying Internet Protocol Suite so that the computer receiving the request can distinguish an HTTP request from other network protocols it may be servicing such as e-mail delivery; the HTTP protocol normally uses port 80. The content of the HTTP request can be as simple as the two lines of text GET /wiki/World_Wide_Web HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org

The computer receiving the HTTP request delivers it to web server software listening for requests on port 80. If the web server can fulfill the request it sends an HTTP response back to the browser indicating success, which can be as simple as HTTP/1.0 200 OK Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 followed by the content of the requested page. The Hypertext Markup Language for a basic web page looks like Example.org – The World Wide Web

The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known ...

The web browser parses the HTML, interpreting the markup (</tt>, <tt><p></tt> for paragraph, and such) that surrounds the words in order to draw the text on the screen. </p><p>Many web pages use HTML to reference the URLs of other resources such as images, other embedded media, <a href="/articles/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">scripts</a> that affect page behavior, and <a href="/articles/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">Cascading Style Sheets</a> that affect page layout. The browser will make additional HTTP requests to the web server for these other <a href="/articles/Internet_media_type" title="Internet media type">Internet media types</a>. As it receives their content from the web server, the browser progressively <a href="/articles/Layout_engine" title="Layout engine" class="mw-redirect">renders</a> the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML and these additional resources. </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Linking">Linking</span></h3> <p>Most web pages contain <a href="/articles/Hyperlinks" title="Hyperlinks" class="mw-redirect">hyperlinks</a> to other related pages and perhaps to downloadable files, source documents, definitions and other web resources. In the underlying HTML, a hyperlink looks like <a href="<i>http://example.org/wiki/Main_Page</i>"><i>Example.org, a free encyclopedia</i></a> </p><p>Such a collection of useful, related resources, interconnected via hypertext links is dubbed a <i>web</i> of information. Publication on the Internet created what <a href="/articles/Tim_Berners-Lee" title="Tim Berners-Lee">Tim Berners-Lee</a> first called the <i>WorldWideWeb</i> (in its original <a href="/articles/CamelCase" title="CamelCase">CamelCase</a>, which was subsequently discarded) in November 1990.<sup id="cite_ref-W90_6-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W90-6"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> </p><p>The hyperlink structure of the WWW is described by the <span>webgraph</span>: the nodes of the <span>webgraph</span> correspond to the web pages (or URLs) the directed edges between them to the <a href="/articles/Hyperlink" title="Hyperlink">hyperlinks</a>. </p><p>Over time, many web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear, relocate, or are replaced with different content. This makes hyperlinks obsolete, a phenomenon referred to in some circles as <a href="/articles/Link_rot" title="Link rot">link rot</a> and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called <a href="/articles/Dead_link" title="Dead link" class="mw-redirect">dead links</a>. The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted many efforts to archive web sites. The <a href="/articles/Internet_Archive" title="Internet Archive">Internet Archive</a>, active since 1996, is the best known of such efforts. </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Dynamic_updates_of_web_pages">Dynamic updates of web pages</span></h3> <div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/articles/Ajax_(programming)" title="Ajax (programming)">Ajax (programming)</a></div> <p><a href="/articles/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a> is a <a href="/articles/Scripting_programming_language" title="Scripting programming language" class="mw-redirect">scripting language</a> that was initially developed in 1995 by <a href="/articles/Brendan_Eich" title="Brendan Eich">Brendan Eich</a>, then of <a href="/articles/Netscape" title="Netscape">Netscape</a>, for use within web pages.<sup id="cite_ref-Hamilton_31-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hamilton-31"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup> The standardised version is <a href="/articles/ECMAScript" title="ECMAScript">ECMAScript</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Hamilton_31-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hamilton-31"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup> To make web pages more interactive, some web applications also use JavaScript techniques such as <a href="/articles/Ajax_(programming)" title="Ajax (programming)">Ajax</a> (<a href="/articles/Asynchronous_I/O" title="Asynchronous I/O">asynchronous</a> JavaScript and <a href="/articles/XML" title="XML">XML</a>). <a href="/articles/Client-side_scripting" title="Client-side scripting">Client-side script</a> is delivered with the page that can make additional HTTP requests to the server, either in response to user actions such as mouse movements or clicks, or based on lapsed time. The server's responses are used to modify the current page rather than creating a new page with each response, so the server needs only to provide limited, incremental information. Multiple Ajax requests can be handled at the same time, and users can interact with the page while data is being retrieved. Web pages may also regularly <a href="/articles/Polling_(computer_science)" title="Polling (computer science)">poll</a> the server to check whether new information is available.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup> </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="WWW_prefix">WWW prefix</span></h3> <p>Many hostnames used for the World Wide Web begin with <i>www</i> because of the long-standing practice of naming Internet hosts (servers) according to the services they provide. The <a href="/articles/Hostname" title="Hostname">hostname</a> for a <a href="/articles/Web_server" title="Web server">web server</a> is often <i>www</i>, in the same way that it may be <i>ftp</i> for an <a href="/articles/FTP_server" title="FTP server" class="mw-redirect">FTP server</a>, and <i>news</i> or <i>nntp</i> for a <a href="/articles/USENET" title="USENET" class="mw-redirect">USENET</a> <a href="/articles/News_server" title="News server">news server</a>. These host names appear as <a href="/articles/Domain_Name_System" title="Domain Name System">Domain Name System</a> or (DNS) <a href="/articles/Subdomain" title="Subdomain">subdomain</a> names, as in <tt>www.example.com</tt>. The use of 'www' as a subdomain name is not required by any technical or policy standard and many web sites do not use it; indeed, the first ever web server was called <tt>nxoc01.cern.ch</tt>.<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup> According to Paolo Palazzi,<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup> who worked at CERN along with Tim Berners-Lee, the popular use of 'www' subdomain was accidental; the World Wide Web project page was intended to be published at www.cern.ch while info.cern.ch was intended to be the CERN home page, however the dns records were never switched, and the practice of prepending 'www' to an institution's website domain name was subsequently copied. Many established websites still use 'www', or they invent other subdomain names such as 'www2', 'secure', etc.<strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-1"><!----></span></strong>. Many such web servers are set up so that both the domain root (e.g., example.com) and the <i>www</i> subdomain (e.g., www.example.com) refer to the same site; others require one form or the other, or they may map to different web sites. </p><p>The use of a subdomain name is useful for <a href="/articles/Load_balancing_(computing)" title="Load balancing (computing)">load balancing</a> incoming web traffic by creating a <a href="/articles/CNAME_record" title="CNAME record">CNAME record</a> that points to a cluster of web servers. Since, currently, only a subdomain can be used in a CNAME, the same result cannot be achieved by using the bare domain root.<strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-2"><!----></span></strong> </p><p>When a user submits an incomplete domain name to a web browser in its address bar input field, some web browsers automatically try adding the prefix "www" to the beginning of it and possibly ".com", ".org" and ".net" at the end, depending on what might be missing. For example, entering 'microsoft' may be transformed to <i>http://www.microsoft.com/</i> and 'openoffice' to <i>http://www.openoffice.org</i>. This feature started appearing in early versions of Mozilla <a href="/articles/Firefox" title="Firefox">Firefox</a>, when it still had the working title 'Firebird' in early 2003, from an earlier practice in browsers such as <a href="/articles/Lynx_(web_browser)" title="Lynx (web browser)">Lynx</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup> It is reported that Microsoft was granted a US patent for the same idea in 2008, but only for mobile devices.<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup> </p><p>In English, <a href="/articles/Pronunciation_of_%22www%22" title="Pronunciation of "www""><i>www</i> is usually read as</a> <i>double-u double-u double-u</i>.<strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-3"><!----></span></strong> Some users pronounce it <i>dub-dub-dub</i>, particularly in New Zealand. Stephen Fry, in his "Podgrammes" series of podcasts, pronounces it <i>wuh wuh wuh</i>.<strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-4"><!----></span></strong> The English writer <a href="/articles/Douglas_Adams" title="Douglas Adams">Douglas Adams</a> once quipped in <a href="/articles/The_Independent" title="The Independent">The Independent on Sunday</a> (1999): "The World Wide Web is the only thing I know of whose shortened form takes three times longer to say than what it's short for".<strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-5"><!----></span></strong> In Mandarin Chinese, <i>World Wide Web</i> is commonly translated via a <a href="/articles/Phono-semantic_matching" title="Phono-semantic matching">phono-semantic matching</a> to <i>wàn wéi wǎng</i> (<span lang="zh"><a href="/articles/%E4%B8%87%E7%BB%B4%E7%BD%91" class="extiw" title="wikt:万维网">万维网</a></span>), which satisfies <i>www</i> and literally means "myriad dimensional net",<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup> a translation that very appropriately reflects the design concept and proliferation of the World Wide Web. Tim Berners-Lee's web-space states that <i>World Wide Web</i> is officially spelled as three separate words, each capitalised, with no intervening hyphens.<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup> </p><p>Use of the www prefix is declining as <a href="/articles/Web_2.0" title="Web 2.0">Web 2.0</a> <a href="/articles/Web_application" title="Web application">web applications</a> seek to brand their domain names and make them easily pronounceable.<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup> As the <a href="/articles/Mobile_web" title="Mobile web" class="mw-redirect">mobile web</a> grows in popularity, services like <a href="/articles/Google_Mail" title="Google Mail" class="mw-redirect">Gmail</a>.com, <a href="/articles/MySpace" title="MySpace" class="mw-redirect">MySpace</a>.com, <a href="/articles/Facebook" title="Facebook">Facebook</a>.com and <a href="/articles/Twitter" title="Twitter">Twitter</a>.com are most often discussed without adding www to the domain (or, indeed, the .com). </p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Scheme_specifiers:_http_and_https">Scheme specifiers: http and https</span></h3> <p>The scheme specifier <i>http://</i> or <i>https://</i> at the start of a web <span>URI</span> refers to <a href="/articles/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol" title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">Hypertext Transfer Protocol</a> or <a href="/articles/HTTP_Secure" title="HTTP Secure">HTTP Secure</a> respectively. Unlike <i>www</i>, which has no specific purpose, these specify the communication protocol to be used for the request and response. The HTTP protocol is fundamental to the operation of the World Wide Web and the added encryption layer is HTTPS is essential when confidential information such as passwords or banking information are to be exchanged over the public Internet. Web browsers usually prepend http:// to addresses too, if omitted. </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Web_servers">Web servers</span></h2> <div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/articles/Web_server" title="Web server">Web server</a></div> <p>The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages on the request to clients. This means delivery of HTML documents and any additional content that may be included by a document, such as images, style sheets and scripts. </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Privacy">Privacy</span></h2> <div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/articles/Internet_privacy" title="Internet privacy">Internet privacy</a></div> <p>Every time a web page is requested from a web server the server can identify, and usually it logs, the IP address from which the request arrived. Equally, unless set not to do so, most web browsers record the web pages that have been requested and viewed in a <i>history</i> feature, and usually <a href="/articles/Web_cache" title="Web cache">cache</a> much of the content locally. Unless HTTPS encryption is used, web requests and responses travel in plain text across the internet and they can be viewed, recorded and cached by intermediate systems. </p><p>When a web page asks for, and the user supplies, <a href="/articles/Personally_identifiable_information" title="Personally identifiable information">personally identifiable information</a> such as their real name, address, e-mail address, etc., then a connection can be made between the current web traffic and that individual. If the website uses <a href="/articles/HTTP_cookie" title="HTTP cookie">HTTP cookies</a>, username and password authentication, or other tracking techniques, then it will be able to relate other web visits, before and after, to the identifiable information provided. In this way it is possible for a web-based organisation to develop and build a profile of the individual people who use its site or sites. It may be able to build a record for an individual that includes information about their leisure activities, their shopping interests, their profession, and other aspects of their <a href="/articles/Demographic_profile" title="Demographic profile">demographic profile</a>. These profiles are obviously of potential interest to marketeers, advertisers and others. Depending on the website's <span>terms and conditions</span> and the local laws that apply information from these profiles may be sold, shared, or passed to other organisations without the user being informed. For many ordinary people, this means little more than some unexpected e-mails in their in-box, or some uncannily relevant advertising on a future web page. For others, it can mean that time spent indulging an unusual interest can result in a deluge of further targeted marketing that may be unwelcome. Law enforcement, counter terrorism and espionage agencies can also identify, target and track individuals based on what appear to be their interests or proclivities on the web. </p><p><a href="/articles/Social_networking" title="Social networking" class="mw-redirect">Social networking</a> sites make a point of trying to get the user to truthfully expose their real names, interests and locations. This makes the social networking experience more realistic and therefore engaging for all their users. On the other hand, photographs uploaded and unguarded statements made will be identified to the individual, who may regret some decisions to publish these data. Employers, schools, parents and other relatives may be influenced by aspects of social networking profiles that the posting individual did not intend for these audiences. <span>On-line bullies</span> may make use of personal information to harass or <a href="/articles/Cyberstalking" title="Cyberstalking">stalk</a> users. Modern social networking websites allow fine grained control of the privacy settings for each individual posting, but these can be complex and not easy to find or use, especially for beginners.<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup> </p><p>Photographs and videos posted onto websites have caused particular problems, as they can add a person's face to an on-line profile. With modern and potential <a href="/articles/Facial_recognition_system" title="Facial recognition system">facial recognition technology</a>, it may then be possible to relate that face with other, previously anonymous, images, events and scenarios that have been imaged elsewhere. Because of image caching, mirroring and copying, it is difficult to remove an image from the World Wide Web. </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Intellectual_property">Intellectual property</span></h2> <p><strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-7"><!----></span></strong> </p> <div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/articles/Intellectual_property" title="Intellectual property">Intellectual property</a></div> <p>The intellectual property rights for any creative work initially rests with its creator. Web users who want to publish their work onto the World Wide Web, however, need to be aware of the details of the way they do it. If artwork, photographs, writings, poems, or technical innovations are published by their creator onto a privately owned web server, then they may choose the <a href="/articles/Copyright" title="Copyright">copyright</a> and other conditions freely themselves. This is unusual though; more commonly work is uploaded to websites and servers that are owned by other organizations. It depends upon the terms and conditions of the site or service provider to what extent the original owner automatically signs over rights to their work by the choice of destination and by the act of uploading.<strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-8"><!----></span></strong> </p><p>Some users of the web erroneously assume that everything they may find online is freely available to them as if it was in the <a href="/articles/Public_domain" title="Public domain">public domain</a>, which is not always the case. Content owners that are aware of this widespread belief, may expect that their published content will probably be used in some capacity somewhere without their permission. Some content publishers therefore embed <a href="/articles/Digital_watermarking" title="Digital watermarking">digital watermarks</a> in their media files, sometimes charging users to receive unmarked copies for legitimate use. <a href="/articles/Digital_rights_management" title="Digital rights management">Digital rights management</a> includes forms of access control technology that further limit the use of digital content even after it has been bought or downloaded.<strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-9"><!----></span></strong> </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Security">Security</span></h2> <p>The web has become criminals' preferred pathway for spreading <a href="/articles/Malware" title="Malware">malware</a>. Cybercrime carried out on the web can include <a href="/articles/Identity_theft" title="Identity theft">identity theft</a>, fraud, espionage and <a href="/articles/Intelligence_gathering" title="Intelligence gathering" class="mw-redirect">intelligence gathering</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Ben-Itzhak_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ben-Itzhak-41"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup> Web-based <a href="/articles/Vulnerability_(computing)" title="Vulnerability (computing)">vulnerabilities</a> now outnumber traditional computer security concerns,<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup> and as measured by <a href="/articles/Google" title="Google">Google</a>, about one in ten web pages may contain malicious code.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup> Most web-based <a href="/articles/Attack_(computing)" title="Attack (computing)">attacks</a> take place on legitimate websites, and most, as measured by <a href="/articles/Sophos" title="Sophos">Sophos</a>, are hosted in the United States, China and Russia.<sup id="cite_ref-Sophos-Q1-2008_45-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sophos-Q1-2008-45"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup> The most common of all malware <a href="/articles/Threat_(computer)" title="Threat (computer)">threats</a> is <a href="/articles/SQL_injection" title="SQL injection">SQL injection</a> attacks against websites.<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46"><span>[</span>46<span>]</span></a></sup> Through HTML and URIs the web was vulnerable to attacks like <a href="/articles/Cross-site_scripting" title="Cross-site scripting">cross-site scripting</a> (XSS) that came with the introduction of JavaScript<sup id="cite_ref-FGHR_47-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FGHR-47"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup> and were exacerbated to some degree by Web 2.0 and Ajax <a href="/articles/Web_design" title="Web design">web design</a> that favors the use of scripts.<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48"><span>[</span>48<span>]</span></a></sup> Today by one estimate, 70% of all websites are open to XSS attacks on their users.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup> </p><p>Proposed solutions vary to extremes. Large security vendors like <a href="/articles/McAfee" title="McAfee">McAfee</a> already design governance and compliance suites to meet post-9/11 regulations,<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></a></sup> and some, like <a href="/articles/Finjan" title="Finjan">Finjan</a> have recommended active real-time inspection of code and all content regardless of its source.<sup id="cite_ref-Ben-Itzhak_41-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ben-Itzhak-41"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup> Some have argued that for enterprise to see security as a business opportunity rather than a cost center,<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></a></sup> "ubiquitous, always-on digital rights management" enforced in the infrastructure by a handful of organizations must replace the hundreds of companies that today secure data and networks.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52"><span>[</span>52<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/articles/Jonathan_Zittrain" title="Jonathan Zittrain">Jonathan Zittrain</a> has said users sharing responsibility for computing safety is far preferable to locking down the Internet.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-53"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></a></sup> </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Standards">Standards</span></h2> <div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/articles/Web_standards" title="Web standards">Web standards</a></div> <p>Many formal standards and other technical specifications and software define the operation of different aspects of the World Wide Web, the Internet, and computer information exchange. Many of the documents are the work of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), headed by Berners-Lee, but some are produced by the <a href="/articles/Internet_Engineering_Task_Force" title="Internet Engineering Task Force">Internet Engineering Task Force</a> (IETF) and other organizations. </p><p>Usually, when web standards are discussed, the following publications are seen as foundational: </p> <ul> <li> Recommendations for <a href="/articles/Markup_languages" title="Markup languages" class="mw-redirect">markup languages</a>, especially <a href="/articles/HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a> and <a href="/articles/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a>, from the W3C. These define the structure and interpretation of <a href="/articles/Hypertext" title="Hypertext">hypertext</a> documents. </li> <li> Recommendations for <a href="/articles/Style_sheet_(web_development)" title="Style sheet (web development)">stylesheets</a>, especially <a href="/articles/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">CSS</a>, from the W3C. </li> <li> Standards for <a href="/articles/ECMAScript" title="ECMAScript">ECMAScript</a> (usually in the form of <a href="/articles/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a>), from <a href="/articles/Ecma_International" title="Ecma International">Ecma International</a>. </li> <li> Recommendations for the <a href="/articles/Document_Object_Model" title="Document Object Model">Document Object Model</a>, from W3C. </li> </ul> <p>Additional publications provide definitions of other essential technologies for the World Wide Web, including, but not limited to, the following: </p> <ul> <li> <i>Uniform Resource Identifier</i> (<span>URI</span>), which is a universal system for referencing resources on the Internet, such as hypertext documents and images. URIs, often called URLs, are defined by the IETF's <a class="external mw-magiclink-rfc" rel="nofollow" href="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986">RFC 3986</a> / STD 66: <i>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</i>, as well as its predecessors and numerous <a href="/articles/URI_scheme" title="URI scheme">URI scheme</a>-defining <a href="/articles/Request_For_Comments" title="Request For Comments" class="mw-redirect">RFCs</a>; </li> <li> <i>HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)</i>, especially as defined by <a class="external mw-magiclink-rfc" rel="nofollow" href="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">RFC 2616</a>: <i>HTTP/1.1</i> and <a class="external mw-magiclink-rfc" rel="nofollow" href="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617">RFC 2617</a>: <i>HTTP Authentication</i>, which specify how the browser and server authenticate each other. </li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Accessibility">Accessibility</span></h2> <div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/articles/Web_accessibility" title="Web accessibility">Web accessibility</a></div> <p>There are methods available for accessing the web in alternative mediums and formats, so as to enable use by individuals with disabilities. These disabilities may be visual, auditory, physical, speech related, cognitive, neurological, or some combination therin. Accessibility features also help others with temporary disabilities like a broken arm or the aging population as their abilities change.<sup id="cite_ref-WAI_54-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WAI-54"><span>[</span>54<span>]</span></a></sup> The Web is used for receiving information as well as providing information and interacting with society. The <a href="/articles/World_Wide_Web_Consortium" title="World Wide Web Consortium">World Wide Web Consortium</a> claims it essential that the Web be accessible in order to provide equal access and <a href="/articles/Equal_opportunity" title="Equal opportunity">equal opportunity</a> to people with disabilities.<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55"><span>[</span>55<span>]</span></a></sup> Tim Berners-Lee once noted, "The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect."<sup id="cite_ref-WAI_54-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WAI-54"><span>[</span>54<span>]</span></a></sup> Many countries regulate <a href="/articles/Web_accessibility" title="Web accessibility">web accessibility</a> as a requirement for websites.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56"><span>[</span>56<span>]</span></a></sup> International cooperation in the W3C <a href="/articles/Web_Accessibility_Initiative" title="Web Accessibility Initiative">Web Accessibility Initiative</a> led to simple guidelines that web content authors as well as software developers can use to make the Web accessible to persons who may or may not be using <a href="/articles/Assistive_technology" title="Assistive technology">assistive technology</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-WAI_54-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WAI-54"><span>[</span>54<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57"><span>[</span>57<span>]</span></a></sup> </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Internationalization">Internationalization</span></h2> <p>The W3C <a href="/articles/Internationalization_and_localization" title="Internationalization and localization">Internationalization</a> Activity assures that web technology will work in all languages, scripts, and cultures.<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58"><span>[</span>58<span>]</span></a></sup> Beginning in 2004 or 2005, <a href="/articles/Unicode" title="Unicode">Unicode</a> gained ground and eventually in December 2007 surpassed both <a href="/articles/ASCII" title="ASCII">ASCII</a> and Western European as the Web's most frequently used <a href="/articles/Character_encoding" title="Character encoding">character encoding</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup> Originally <a class="external mw-magiclink-rfc" rel="nofollow" href="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986">RFC 3986</a> allowed resources to be identified by <a href="/articles/URI" title="URI" class="mw-redirect">URI</a> in a subset of US-ASCII. <a class="external mw-magiclink-rfc" rel="nofollow" href="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987">RFC 3987</a> allows more characters—any character in the <a href="/articles/Universal_Character_Set" title="Universal Character Set">Universal Character Set</a>—and now a resource can be identified by <span>IRI</span> in any language.<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60"><span>[</span>60<span>]</span></a></sup> </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Statistics">Statistics</span></h2> <p>Between 2005 and 2010, the number of web users doubled, and was expected to surpass two billion in 2010.<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61"><span>[</span>61<span>]</span></a></sup> Early studies in 1998 and 1999 estimating the size of the web using capture/recapture methods showed that much of the web was not indexed by search engines and the web was much larger than expected.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62"><span>[</span>62<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63"><span>[</span>63<span>]</span></a></sup> According to a 2001 study, there were a massive number, over 550 billion, of documents on the Web, mostly in the invisible Web, or <a href="/articles/Deep_Web" title="Deep Web">Deep Web</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64"><span>[</span>64<span>]</span></a></sup> A 2002 survey of 2,024 million web pages<sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65"><span>[</span>65<span>]</span></a></sup> determined that by far the most web content was in the English language: 56.4%; next were pages in German (7.7%), French (5.6%), and Japanese (4.9%). A more recent study, which used web searches in 75 different languages to sample the web, determined that there were over 11.5 billion web pages in the <a href="/articles/Surface_Web" title="Surface Web">publicly indexable web</a> as of the end of January 2005.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66"><span>[</span>66<span>]</span></a></sup> As of March 2009<sup class="plainlinks noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/World_Wide_Web&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, the indexable web contains at least 25.21 billion pages.<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67"><span>[</span>67<span>]</span></a></sup> On 25 July 2008, Google software engineers Jesse Alpert and Nissan Hajaj announced that <a href="/articles/Google_Search" title="Google Search">Google Search</a> had discovered one trillion unique URLs.<sup id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68"><span>[</span>68<span>]</span></a></sup> As of May 2009<sup class="plainlinks noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/World_Wide_Web&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, over 109.5 million domains operated.<sup id="cite_ref-NI_69-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NI-69"><span>[</span>69<span>]</span></a></sup> <strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-10"><!----></span></strong> Of these 74% were commercial or other domains operating in the <code>.com</code> <a href="/articles/Generic_top-level_domain" title="Generic top-level domain">generic top-level domain</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-NI_69-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NI-69"><span>[</span>69<span>]</span></a></sup> </p><p>Statistics measuring a website's popularity are usually based either on the number of <a href="/articles/Page_view" title="Page view">page views</a> or on associated server '<a href="/articles/Hit_(internet)" title="Hit (internet)" class="mw-redirect">hits</a>' (file requests) that it receives. </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Speed_issues">Speed issues</span></h2> <p>Frustration over <a href="/articles/Network_congestion" title="Network congestion">congestion</a> issues in the Internet infrastructure and the high <a href="/articles/Latency_(engineering)" title="Latency (engineering)">latency</a> that results in slow browsing has led to a pejorative name for the World Wide Web: the <i>World Wide Wait</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70"><span>[</span>70<span>]</span></a></sup> Speeding up the Internet is an ongoing discussion over the use of <a href="/articles/Peering" title="Peering">peering</a> and <a href="/articles/Quality_of_service" title="Quality of service">QoS</a> technologies. Other solutions to reduce the congestion can be found at <a href="/articles/W3C" title="W3C" class="mw-redirect">W3C</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71"><span>[</span>71<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/articles/Guideline" title="Guideline">Guidelines</a> for web response times are:<sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72"><span>[</span>72<span>]</span></a></sup> </p> <ul> <li> 0.1 second (one tenth of a second). Ideal response time. The user does not sense any interruption. </li> <li> 1 second. Highest acceptable response time. Download times above 1 second interrupt the user experience. </li> <li> 10 seconds. Unacceptable response time. The user experience is interrupted and the user is likely to leave the site or system. </li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Caching">Caching</span></h2> <div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/articles/Web_cache" title="Web cache">Web cache</a></div> <p>If a user revisits a web page after only a short interval, the page data may not need to be re-obtained from the source web server. Almost all web browsers <a href="/articles/Browser_cache" title="Browser cache" class="mw-redirect">cache</a> recently obtained data, usually on the local hard drive. HTTP requests sent by a browser will usually ask only for data that has changed since the last download. If the locally cached data are still current, they will be reused. Caching helps reduce the amount of web traffic on the Internet. The decision about expiration is made independently for each downloaded file, whether image, <a href="/articles/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">stylesheet</a>, <a href="/articles/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a>, HTML, or other <a href="/articles/Web_resource" title="Web resource">web resource</a>. Thus even on sites with highly dynamic content, many of the basic resources need to be refreshed only occasionally. Web site designers find it worthwhile to collate resources such as CSS data and JavaScript into a few site-wide files so that they can be cached efficiently. This helps reduce page download times and lowers demands on the Web server. </p><p>There are other components of the Internet that can cache web content. Corporate and academic <a href="/articles/Firewall_(networking)" title="Firewall (networking)" class="mw-redirect">firewalls</a> often cache Web resources requested by one user for the benefit of all. (See also <a href="/articles/Web_proxy#Caching" title="Web proxy" class="mw-redirect">caching proxy server</a>.) Some <a href="/articles/Search_engines" title="Search engines" class="mw-redirect">search engines</a> also store cached content from websites. Apart from the facilities built into web servers that can determine when files have been updated and so need to be re-sent, designers of dynamically generated web pages can control the HTTP headers sent back to requesting users, so that transient or sensitive pages are not cached. <a href="/articles/Online_banking" title="Online banking">Internet banking</a> and news sites frequently use this facility. Data requested with an <a href="/articles/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol" title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">HTTP</a> 'GET' is likely to be cached if other conditions are met; data obtained in response to a 'POST' is assumed to depend on the data that was POSTed and so is not cached. </p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2> <div class="noprint tright portal" style="border:solid #aaa 1px;margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em;"> <table style="background:#f9f9f9;font-size:85%;line-height:110%;max-width:175px;"> <tr valign="middle"><td style="text-align:center;">Internet portal</td></tr></table></div> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Electronic_publishing" title="Electronic publishing">Electronic publishing</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Lists_of_websites" title="Lists of websites">Lists of websites</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Prestel" title="Prestel">Prestel</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Streaming_media" title="Streaming media">Streaming media</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Web_1.0" title="Web 1.0">Web 1.0</a> </li> <li> <span>Webgraph</span> </li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2> <div class="reflist references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> <ol class="references"> </ol></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2> <table class="metadata mbox-small plainlinks" style="border:1px solid #aaa; background-color:#f9f9f9;"> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="http://read.images.worldlibrary.org/articles/images/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/30px-Commons-logo.svg.png" width="30" height="40" srcset="http://read.images.worldlibrary.org/articles/images/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/45px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, /articles/images/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/59px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x" /></td> <td class="mbox-text plainlist" style=""> Commons has media related to <i><b><a href="/articles/Category:W3C" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:W3C">W3C</a></b></i>.</td> </tr> </table> <ul> <li> Niels Brügger, ed. <i>Web History</i> (2010) 362 pages; Historical perspective on the World Wide Web, including issues of culture, content, and preservation. </li> <li> <strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-83"><!----></span></strong><strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-84"><!----></span></strong> </li> <li> <strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-85"><!----></span></strong> </li> <li> <strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-86"><!----></span></strong><strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-87"><!----></span></strong> </li> <li> <strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-88"><!----></span></strong><strong class="error"><span class="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-89"><!----></span></strong> </li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2> <table class="metadata mbox-small plainlinks" style="border:1px solid #aaa; background-color:#f9f9f9;"> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="http://read.images.worldlibrary.org/articles/images/thumb/d/df/-logo-en-noslogan.svg/40px--logo-en-noslogan.svg.png" width="40" height="40" srcset="http://read.images.worldlibrary.org/articles/images/thumb/d/df/-logo-en-noslogan.svg/60px--logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 1.5x, /articles/images/thumb/d/df/-logo-en-noslogan.svg/80px--logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 2x" /></td> <td class="mbox-text plainlist" style=""> has a book on the topic of: <i><b><a href="/articles/Nets,_Webs_and_the_Information_Infrastructure" class="extiw" title=":Nets, Webs and the Information Infrastructure">Nets, Webs and the Information Infrastructure</a></b></i></td> </tr> </table> <ul> <li> Early archive of the first Web site </li> <li> Internet Statistics: Growth and Usage of the Web and the Internet </li> <li> Living Internet A comprehensive history of the Internet, including the World Wide Web. </li> <li> DMOZ </li> <li> World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) </li> <li> W3C Recommendations Reduce "World Wide Wait" </li> <li> World Wide Web Size Daily estimated size of the World Wide Web. </li> <li> Antonio A. Casilli, Some Elements for a Sociology of Online Interactions </li> <li> The Erdős Webgraph Server offers weekly updated graph representation of a constantly increasing fraction of the WWW. </li> </ul> <table cellspacing="0" class="navbox" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><td style="padding:2px;"><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit;"><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="3"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/articles/Template:Telecommunications" title="Template:Telecommunications"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">v</span></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><span><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">t</span></span></li><li class="nv-edit"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/Template:Telecommunications&action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">e</span></a></li></ul></div><div style="font-size:110%;"><span>Telecommunications</span></div></th></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/History_of_telecommunication" title="History of telecommunication">History</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Beacon#For_defensive_communications" title="Beacon">Beacon</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/History_of_broadcasting" title="History of broadcasting">Broadcasting</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Communications_satellite#History" title="Communications satellite">Communications satellite</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Computer_network#History" title="Computer network">Computer network</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Drums_in_communication" title="Drums in communication">Drums</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Electrical_telegraph#History" title="Electrical telegraph">Electrical telegraph</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Fax#History" title="Fax">Fax</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Heliograph#History" title="Heliograph">Heliographs</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Hydraulic_telegraph#Greek_hydraulic_semaphore_system" title="Hydraulic telegraph">Hydraulic telegraph</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/History_of_the_Internet" title="History of the Internet">Internet</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Mass_media#History" title="Mass media">Mass media</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/History_of_mobile_phones" title="History of mobile phones">Mobile phone</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Optical_communication" title="Optical communication">Optical telecommunication</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Semaphore_line#History" title="Semaphore line">Optical telegraphy</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Photophone" title="Photophone">Photophone</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/History_of_the_prepaid_mobile_phone" title="History of the prepaid mobile phone">Prepaid mobile phone</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/History_of_radio" title="History of radio">Radio</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Radiotelephone" title="Radiotelephone">Radiotelephone</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Communications_satellite" title="Communications satellite">Satellite communications</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Smoke_signal" title="Smoke signal">Smoke signals</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/History_of_telecommunication" title="History of telecommunication">Telecommunications history</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telegraphy" title="Telegraphy">Telegraphy</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/History_of_the_telephone" title="History of the telephone">Telephone</a> </li> <li> <i><a href="/articles/The_Telephone_Cases" title="The Telephone Cases">The Telephone Cases</a></i> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/History_of_television" title="History of television">Television</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Timeline_of_communication_technology" title="Timeline of communication technology">Timeline of communication technology</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Submarine_communications_cable#Early_history:_telegraph_and_coaxial_cables" title="Submarine communications cable">Undersea telegraph line</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Videoconferencing#History" title="Videoconferencing">Videoconferencing</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Videophone#Early_history" title="Videophone">Videophone</a> </li> <li> <span>Videotelephony</span> </li> </ul> </div></td><td class="navbox-image" rowspan="15" style="width:0%;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px;"><div>Pioneers</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Edwin_Howard_Armstrong" title="Edwin Howard Armstrong">Edwin Howard Armstrong</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/John_Logie_Baird" title="John Logie Baird">John Logie Baird</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Alexander_Graham_Bell" title="Alexander Graham Bell">Alexander Graham Bell</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Tim_Berners-Lee" title="Tim Berners-Lee">Tim Berners-Lee</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Jagadish_Chandra_Bose" title="Jagadish Chandra Bose">Jagadish Chandra Bose</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Vint_Cerf" title="Vint Cerf">Vint Cerf</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Claude_Chappe" title="Claude Chappe">Claude Chappe</a> </li> <li> <span>Lee De Forest</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Philo_Farnsworth" title="Philo Farnsworth">Philo Farnsworth</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Reginald_Fessenden" title="Reginald Fessenden">Reginald Fessenden</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Elisha_Gray" title="Elisha Gray">Elisha Gray</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Guglielmo_Marconi" title="Guglielmo Marconi">Guglielmo Marconi</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Alexander_Stepanovich_Popov" title="Alexander Stepanovich Popov">Alexander Stepanovich Popov</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Johann_Philipp_Reis" title="Johann Philipp Reis">Johann Philipp Reis</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Nikola_Tesla" title="Nikola Tesla">Nikola Tesla</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Camille_Papin_Tissot" title="Camille Papin Tissot">Camille Papin Tissot</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Alfred_Vail" title="Alfred Vail">Alfred Vail</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Charles_Wheatstone" title="Charles Wheatstone">Charles Wheatstone</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Vladimir_K._Zworykin" title="Vladimir K. Zworykin">Vladimir K. Zworykin</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Network_topology" title="Network topology">Network topology</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_link" title="Telecommunications link">Links</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Node_(networking)" title="Node (networking)">Nodes</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Terminal_(telecommunication)" title="Terminal (telecommunication)">Terminal node</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Transmission_medium" title="Transmission medium">Transmission<br/> media</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Coaxial_cable" title="Coaxial cable">Coaxial cable</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Free-space_optical_communication" title="Free-space optical communication">Free-space optical</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Optical_fiber" title="Optical fiber">Optical fiber</a> </li> <li> <span>Radio waves</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telephone_line" title="Telephone line">Telephone lines</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Microwave#Communication" title="Microwave">Terrestrial microwave</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Switching</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Circuit_switching" title="Circuit switching">Circuit switching</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Packet_switching" title="Packet switching">Packet switching</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telephone_exchange" title="Telephone exchange">Telephone exchange</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Network_switch" title="Network switch">Network switch</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Multiplexing" title="Multiplexing">Multiplexing</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Multi-user_MIMO#SDMA" title="Multi-user MIMO">Space-division multiplexing</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Frequency-division_multiplexing" title="Frequency-division multiplexing">Frequency-division multiplexing</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Time-division_multiplexing" title="Time-division multiplexing">Time-division multiplexing</a> </li> <li> <span>Polarization-division multiplexing</span> </li> <li> <span>Orbital angular momentum multiplexing</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Code_division_multiple_access" title="Code division multiple access">Code division multiplexing</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Telecommunications_network" title="Telecommunications network">Networks</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/ARPANET" title="ARPANET">ARPANET</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/BITNET" title="BITNET">BITNET</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Computer_network" title="Computer network">Computer</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Ethernet" title="Ethernet">Ethernet</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/FidoNet" title="FidoNet">FidoNet</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Internet" title="Internet">Internet</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Integrated_Services_Digital_Network" title="Integrated Services Digital Network">ISDN</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Local_area_network" title="Local area network">LAN</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Mobile_telephony" title="Mobile telephony">Mobile</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Next-generation_network" title="Next-generation network">NGN</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Public_switched_telephone_network" title="Public switched telephone network">Public Switched Telephone</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Radio_network" title="Radio network">Radio</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_equipment" title="Telecommunications equipment">Telecommunications equipment</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Television_network" title="Television network">Television</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telex" title="Telex">Telex</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Wide_area_network" title="Wide area network">WAN</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Wireless_network" title="Wireless network">Wireless</a> </li> <li> <strong class="selflink">World Wide Web</strong> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Geography" title="Geography">Geographic</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"></div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/articles/Template:Africa_topic" title="Template:Africa topic"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">v</span></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><span><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">t</span></span></li><li class="nv-edit"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/Template:Africa_topic&action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">e</span></a></li></ul></div><div style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Africa" title="Telecommunications in Africa" class="mw-redirect">Telecommunications in Africa </a></div></th></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Sovereign_state" title="Sovereign state">Sovereign states</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Algeria" title="Telecommunications in Algeria">Algeria</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Angola" title="Telecommunications in Angola">Angola</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Benin" title="Telecommunications in Benin">Benin</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Botswana" title="Telecommunications in Botswana">Botswana</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Burkina_Faso" title="Telecommunications in Burkina Faso">Burkina Faso</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Burundi" title="Telecommunications in Burundi" class="mw-redirect">Burundi</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Cameroon" title="Telecommunications in Cameroon">Cameroon</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Cape_Verde" title="Telecommunications in Cape Verde">Cape Verde</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Central_African_Republic" title="Telecommunications in the Central African Republic">Central African Republic</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Chad" title="Telecommunications in Chad">Chad</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Comoros" title="Telecommunications in Comoros">Comoros</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo" title="Telecommunications in the Democratic Republic of the Congo">Democratic Republic of the Congo</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Republic_of_the_Congo" title="Telecommunications in the Republic of the Congo">Republic of the Congo</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Djibouti" title="Telecommunications in Djibouti">Djibouti</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Egypt" title="Telecommunications in Egypt">Egypt</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Equatorial_Guinea" title="Telecommunications in Equatorial Guinea">Equatorial Guinea</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Eritrea" title="Telecommunications in Eritrea">Eritrea</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Ethiopia" title="Telecommunications in Ethiopia">Ethiopia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Gabon" title="Telecommunications in Gabon">Gabon</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Gambia" title="Telecommunications in the Gambia">The Gambia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Ghana" title="Telecommunications in Ghana">Ghana</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Guinea" title="Telecommunications in Guinea">Guinea</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Guinea-Bissau" title="Telecommunications in Guinea-Bissau">Guinea-Bissau</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Ivory_Coast" title="Telecommunications in Ivory Coast">Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Kenya" title="Telecommunications in Kenya">Kenya</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Lesotho" title="Telecommunications in Lesotho">Lesotho</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Liberia" title="Telecommunications in Liberia" class="mw-redirect">Liberia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Libya" title="Telecommunications in Libya" class="mw-redirect">Libya</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Madagascar" title="Telecommunications in Madagascar">Madagascar</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Malawi" title="Telecommunications in Malawi">Malawi</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Mali" title="Telecommunications in Mali">Mali</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Mauritania" title="Telecommunications in Mauritania">Mauritania</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Mauritius" title="Telecommunications in Mauritius">Mauritius</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Morocco" title="Telecommunications in Morocco">Morocco</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Mozambique" title="Telecommunications in Mozambique">Mozambique</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Namibia" title="Telecommunications in Namibia">Namibia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Niger" title="Telecommunications in Niger">Niger</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Nigeria" title="Telecommunications in Nigeria">Nigeria</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Rwanda" title="Telecommunications in Rwanda">Rwanda</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_S%C3%A3o_Tom%C3%A9_and_Pr%C3%ADncipe" title="Telecommunications in São Tomé and Príncipe">São Tomé and Príncipe</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Senegal" title="Telecommunications in Senegal">Senegal</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Seychelles" title="Telecommunications in Seychelles">Seychelles</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Sierra_Leone" title="Telecommunications in Sierra Leone">Sierra Leone</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Somalia" title="Telecommunications in Somalia" class="mw-redirect">Somalia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_South_Africa" title="Telecommunications in South Africa">South Africa</a> </li> <li> <span>South Sudan</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Sudan" title="Telecommunications in Sudan">Sudan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Swaziland" title="Telecommunications in Swaziland">Swaziland</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Tanzania" title="Telecommunications in Tanzania">Tanzania</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Togo" title="Telecommunications in Togo">Togo</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Tunisia" title="Telecommunications in Tunisia">Tunisia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Uganda" title="Telecommunications in Uganda" class="mw-redirect">Uganda</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Zambia" title="Telecommunications in Zambia">Zambia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Zimbabwe" title="Telecommunications in Zimbabwe">Zimbabwe</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/articles/List_of_states_with_limited_recognition" title="List of states with limited recognition">States with limited<br/>recognition</a></div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <span>Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Somaliland" title="Telecommunications in Somaliland">Somaliland</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/articles/Dependent_territory" title="Dependent territory">Dependencies</a> and<br/>other territories</div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"><div> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Canary_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the Canary Islands" class="mw-redirect">Canary Islands</a> / <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Ceuta" title="Telecommunications in Ceuta" class="mw-redirect">Ceuta</a> / <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Melilla" title="Telecommunications in Melilla" class="mw-redirect">Melilla</a> / <span>Plazas de soberanía</span> <small style="font-size:85%;">(Spain)</small> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Madeira" title="Telecommunications in Madeira" class="mw-redirect">Madeira</a> <small style="font-size:85%;">(Portugal)</small> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Mayotte" title="Telecommunications in Mayotte">Mayotte</a> / <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_R%C3%A9union" title="Telecommunications in Réunion">Réunion</a> <small style="font-size:85%;">(France)</small> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Saint_Helena" title="Telecommunications in Saint Helena" class="mw-redirect">Saint Helena</a> / <span>Ascension Island</span> / <span>Tristan da Cunha</span> <small style="font-size:85%;">(United Kingdom)</small> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Western_Sahara" title="Telecommunications in Western Sahara">Western Sahara</a> </li> </ul> </div></div></td></tr></table><div> </div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/articles/Template:Asia_topic" title="Template:Asia topic"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">v</span></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><span><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">t</span></span></li><li class="nv-edit"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/Template:Asia_topic&action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">e</span></a></li></ul></div><div style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Asia" title="Telecommunications in Asia" class="mw-redirect">Telecommunications in Asia </a></div></th></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/List_of_sovereign_states" title="List of sovereign states">Sovereign states</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Afghanistan" title="Telecommunications in Afghanistan" class="mw-redirect">Afghanistan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Armenia" title="Telecommunications in Armenia">Armenia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Azerbaijan" title="Telecommunications in Azerbaijan">Azerbaijan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Bahrain" title="Telecommunications in Bahrain">Bahrain</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Bangladesh" title="Telecommunications in Bangladesh">Bangladesh</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Bhutan" title="Telecommunications in Bhutan">Bhutan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Brunei" title="Telecommunications in Brunei">Brunei</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Burma" title="Telecommunications in Burma">Burma (Myanmar)</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Cambodia" title="Telecommunications in Cambodia">Cambodia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_China" title="Telecommunications in China">China</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Cyprus" title="Telecommunications in Cyprus">Cyprus</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_East_Timor" title="Telecommunications in East Timor">East Timor (Timor-Leste)</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Egypt" title="Telecommunications in Egypt">Egypt</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Georgia_(country)" title="Telecommunications in Georgia (country)">Georgia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_India" title="Telecommunications in India">India</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Indonesia" title="Telecommunications in Indonesia" class="mw-redirect">Indonesia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Iran" title="Telecommunications in Iran" class="mw-redirect">Iran</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Iraq" title="Telecommunications in Iraq">Iraq</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Israel" title="Telecommunications in Israel">Israel</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Japan" title="Telecommunications in Japan" class="mw-redirect">Japan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Jordan" title="Telecommunications in Jordan">Jordan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Kazakhstan" title="Telecommunications in Kazakhstan">Kazakhstan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_North_Korea" title="Telecommunications in North Korea">North Korea</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_South_Korea" title="Telecommunications in South Korea">South Korea</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Kuwait" title="Telecommunications in Kuwait">Kuwait</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Kyrgyzstan" title="Telecommunications in Kyrgyzstan">Kyrgyzstan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Laos" title="Telecommunications in Laos">Laos</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Lebanon" title="Telecommunications in Lebanon">Lebanon</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Malaysia" title="Telecommunications in Malaysia">Malaysia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Maldives" title="Telecommunications in the Maldives">Maldives</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Mongolia" title="Telecommunications in Mongolia">Mongolia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Nepal" title="Telecommunications in Nepal">Nepal</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Oman" title="Telecommunications in Oman">Oman</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Pakistan" title="Telecommunications in Pakistan">Pakistan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Philippines" title="Telecommunications in the Philippines">Philippines</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Qatar" title="Telecommunications in Qatar">Qatar</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Russia" title="Telecommunications in Russia">Russia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Saudi_Arabia" title="Telecommunications in Saudi Arabia">Saudi Arabia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Singapore" title="Telecommunications in Singapore">Singapore</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Sri_Lanka" title="Telecommunications in Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Syria" title="Telecommunications in Syria">Syria</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Tajikistan" title="Telecommunications in Tajikistan">Tajikistan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Thailand" title="Telecommunications in Thailand">Thailand</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Turkey" title="Telecommunications in Turkey">Turkey</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Turkmenistan" title="Telecommunications in Turkmenistan">Turkmenistan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_United_Arab_Emirates" title="Telecommunications in the United Arab Emirates">United Arab Emirates</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Uzbekistan" title="Telecommunications in Uzbekistan">Uzbekistan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Vietnam" title="Telecommunications in Vietnam">Vietnam</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Yemen" title="Telecommunications in Yemen">Yemen</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/List_of_states_with_limited_recognition" title="List of states with limited recognition">States with limited recognition</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <span>Abkhazia</span> </li> <li> <span>Nagorno-Karabakh</span> </li> <li> <span>Northern Cyprus</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Palestinian_territories" title="Telecommunications in the Palestinian territories" class="mw-redirect">Palestine</a> </li> <li> <span>South Ossetia</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Taiwan" title="Telecommunications in Taiwan">Taiwan</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Other <a href="/articles/Dependent_territory" title="Dependent territory">dependent territories</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <span>British Indian Ocean Territory</span> </li> <li> <span>Christmas Island</span> </li> <li> <span>Cocos (Keeling) Islands</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Hong_Kong" title="Telecommunications in Hong Kong" class="mw-redirect">Hong Kong</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Macau" title="Telecommunications in Macau">Macau</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr></table><div> </div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/articles/Template:Europe_topic" title="Template:Europe topic"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">v</span></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><span><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">t</span></span></li><li class="nv-edit"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/Template:Europe_topic&action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">e</span></a></li></ul></div><div style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Europe" title="Telecommunications in Europe">Telecommunications in Europe </a></div></th></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Sovereign_state" title="Sovereign state">Sovereign states</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Albania" title="Telecommunications in Albania">Albania</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Andorra" title="Telecommunications in Andorra">Andorra</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Armenia" title="Telecommunications in Armenia">Armenia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Austria" title="Telecommunications in Austria">Austria</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Azerbaijan" title="Telecommunications in Azerbaijan">Azerbaijan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Belarus" title="Telecommunications in Belarus">Belarus</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Belgium" title="Telecommunications in Belgium">Belgium</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina" title="Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina">Bosnia and Herzegovina</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Bulgaria" title="Telecommunications in Bulgaria">Bulgaria</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Croatia" title="Telecommunications in Croatia">Croatia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Cyprus" title="Telecommunications in Cyprus">Cyprus</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Czech_Republic" title="Telecommunications in the Czech Republic">Czech Republic</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Denmark" title="Telecommunications in Denmark">Denmark</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Estonia" title="Telecommunications in Estonia">Estonia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Finland" title="Telecommunications in Finland">Finland</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_France" title="Telecommunications in France">France</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Georgia_(country)" title="Telecommunications in Georgia (country)">Georgia</a> </li> <li> <span>Germany</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Greece" title="Telecommunications in Greece">Greece</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Hungary" title="Telecommunications in Hungary">Hungary</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Iceland" title="Telecommunications in Iceland">Iceland</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Republic_of_Ireland" title="Telecommunications in the Republic of Ireland">Ireland</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Italy" title="Telecommunications in Italy">Italy</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Kazakhstan" title="Telecommunications in Kazakhstan">Kazakhstan</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Latvia" title="Telecommunications in Latvia">Latvia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Liechtenstein" title="Telecommunications in Liechtenstein">Liechtenstein</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Lithuania" title="Telecommunications in Lithuania">Lithuania</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Luxembourg" title="Telecommunications in Luxembourg">Luxembourg</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Republic_of_Macedonia" title="Telecommunications in the Republic of Macedonia">Macedonia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Malta" title="Telecommunications in Malta">Malta</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Moldova" title="Telecommunications in Moldova">Moldova</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Monaco" title="Telecommunications in Monaco">Monaco</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Montenegro" title="Telecommunications in Montenegro">Montenegro</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Netherlands" title="Telecommunications in the Netherlands">Netherlands</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Norway" title="Telecommunications in Norway">Norway</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Poland" title="Telecommunications in Poland">Poland</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Portugal" title="Telecommunications in Portugal">Portugal</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Romania" title="Telecommunications in Romania" class="mw-redirect">Romania</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Russia" title="Telecommunications in Russia">Russia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_San_Marino" title="Telecommunications in San Marino">San Marino</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Serbia" title="Telecommunications in Serbia">Serbia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Slovakia" title="Telecommunications in Slovakia">Slovakia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Slovenia" title="Telecommunications in Slovenia">Slovenia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Spain" title="Telecommunications in Spain">Spain</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Sweden" title="Telecommunications in Sweden">Sweden</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Switzerland" title="Telecommunications in Switzerland">Switzerland</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Turkey" title="Telecommunications in Turkey">Turkey</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Ukraine" title="Telecommunications in Ukraine">Ukraine</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_United_Kingdom" title="Telecommunications in the United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/articles/List_of_states_with_limited_recognition" title="List of states with limited recognition">States with limited<br/>recognition</a></div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <span>Abkhazia</span> </li> <li> <span>Kosovo</span> </li> <li> <span>Nagorno-Karabakh</span> </li> <li> <span>Northern Cyprus</span> </li> <li> <span>South Ossetia</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Transnistria" title="Telecommunications in Transnistria">Transnistria</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/articles/Dependent_territory" title="Dependent territory">Dependencies</a> and<br/>other territories</div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <span>Åland</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Faroe_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the Faroe Islands">Faroe Islands</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Gibraltar" title="Telecommunications in Gibraltar" class="mw-redirect">Gibraltar</a> </li> <li> <span>Guernsey</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Jersey" title="Telecommunications in Jersey">Jersey</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Isle_of_Man" title="Telecommunications in the Isle of Man" class="mw-redirect">Isle of Man</a> </li> <li> <span>Svalbard</span> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Other entities</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_European_Union" title="Telecommunications in the European Union" class="mw-redirect">European Union</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr></table><div> </div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/articles/Template:North_America_topic" title="Template:North America topic"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">v</span></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><span><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">t</span></span></li><li class="nv-edit"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/Template:North_America_topic&action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">e</span></a></li></ul></div><div style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_North_America" title="Telecommunications in North America" class="mw-redirect">Telecommunications in North America </a></div></th></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Sovereign states</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Antigua_and_Barbuda" title="Telecommunications in Antigua and Barbuda">Antigua and Barbuda</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Bahamas" title="Telecommunications in the Bahamas">Bahamas</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Barbados" title="Telecommunications in Barbados">Barbados</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Belize" title="Telecommunications in Belize">Belize</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Canada" title="Telecommunications in Canada">Canada</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Costa_Rica" title="Telecommunications in Costa Rica">Costa Rica</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Cuba" title="Telecommunications in Cuba">Cuba</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Dominica" title="Telecommunications in Dominica">Dominica</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Dominican_Republic" title="Telecommunications in the Dominican Republic">Dominican Republic</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_El_Salvador" title="Telecommunications in El Salvador">El Salvador</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Grenada" title="Telecommunications in Grenada">Grenada</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Guatemala" title="Telecommunications in Guatemala">Guatemala</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Haiti" title="Telecommunications in Haiti">Haiti</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Honduras" title="Telecommunications in Honduras">Honduras</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Jamaica" title="Telecommunications in Jamaica">Jamaica</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Mexico" title="Telecommunications in Mexico">Mexico</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Nicaragua" title="Telecommunications in Nicaragua">Nicaragua</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Panama" title="Telecommunications in Panama">Panama</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis" title="Telecommunications in Saint Kitts and Nevis">Saint Kitts and Nevis</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Saint_Lucia" title="Telecommunications in Saint Lucia">Saint Lucia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines" title="Telecommunications in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines">Saint Vincent and the Grenadines</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Trinidad_and_Tobago" title="Telecommunications in Trinidad and Tobago">Trinidad and Tobago</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_United_States" title="Telecommunications in the United States" class="mw-redirect">United States</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Dependencies and<br>other territories</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Anguilla" title="Telecommunications in Anguilla">Anguilla</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Aruba" title="Telecommunications in Aruba">Aruba</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Bermuda" title="Telecommunications in Bermuda">Bermuda</a> </li> <li> <span>Bonaire</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_British_Virgin_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the British Virgin Islands">British Virgin Islands</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Cayman_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the Cayman Islands">Cayman Islands</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Cura%C3%A7ao" title="Telecommunications in Curaçao">Curaçao</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Greenland" title="Telecommunications in Greenland">Greenland</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Guadeloupe" title="Telecommunications in Guadeloupe">Guadeloupe</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Martinique" title="Telecommunications in Martinique">Martinique</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Montserrat" title="Telecommunications in Montserrat">Montserrat</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Navassa_Island" title="Telecommunications in Navassa Island" class="mw-redirect">Navassa Island</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Puerto_Rico" title="Telecommunications in Puerto Rico">Puerto Rico</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Saint_Barth%C3%A9lemy" title="Telecommunications in Saint Barthélemy" class="mw-redirect">Saint Barthélemy</a> </li> <li> <span>Saint Martin</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Saint_Pierre_and_Miquelon" title="Telecommunications in Saint Pierre and Miquelon">Saint Pierre and Miquelon</a> </li> <li> <span>Saba</span> </li> <li> <span>Sint Eustatius</span> </li> <li> <span>Sint Maarten</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Turks_and_Caicos_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the Turks and Caicos Islands">Turks and Caicos Islands</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_United_States_Virgin_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the United States Virgin Islands">United States Virgin Islands</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr></table><div> </div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/articles/Template:Oceania_topic" title="Template:Oceania topic"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">v</span></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><span><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">t</span></span></li><li class="nv-edit"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/Template:Oceania_topic&action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">e</span></a></li></ul></div><div style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Oceania" title="Telecommunications in Oceania" class="mw-redirect">Telecommunications in Oceania </a></div></th></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Sovereign_state" title="Sovereign state">Sovereign states</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Australia" title="Telecommunications in Australia">Australia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Fiji" title="Telecommunications in Fiji">Fiji</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Kiribati" title="Telecommunications in Kiribati">Kiribati</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Marshall_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the Marshall Islands" class="mw-redirect">Marshall Islands</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Federated_States_of_Micronesia" title="Telecommunications in the Federated States of Micronesia">Federated States of Micronesia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Nauru" title="Telecommunications in Nauru">Nauru</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_New_Zealand" title="Telecommunications in New Zealand">New Zealand</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Palau" title="Telecommunications in Palau">Palau</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Papua_New_Guinea" title="Telecommunications in Papua New Guinea" class="mw-redirect">Papua New Guinea</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Samoa" title="Telecommunications in Samoa">Samoa</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Solomon_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the Solomon Islands">Solomon Islands</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Tonga" title="Telecommunications in Tonga">Tonga</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Tuvalu" title="Telecommunications in Tuvalu">Tuvalu</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Vanuatu" title="Telecommunications in Vanuatu">Vanuatu</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/articles/Dependent_territory" title="Dependent territory">Dependencies</a> and<br/>other territories</div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_American_Samoa" title="Telecommunications in American Samoa">American Samoa</a> </li> <li> <span>Christmas Island</span> </li> <li> <span>Cocos (Keeling) Islands</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Cook_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the Cook Islands">Cook Islands</a> </li> <li> <span>Easter Island</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_French_Polynesia" title="Telecommunications in French Polynesia">French Polynesia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Guam" title="Telecommunications in Guam" class="mw-redirect">Guam</a> </li> <li> <span>Hawaii</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_New_Caledonia" title="Telecommunications in New Caledonia">New Caledonia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Niue" title="Telecommunications in Niue" class="mw-redirect">Niue</a> </li> <li> <span>Norfolk Island</span> </li> <li> <span>Northern Mariana Islands</span> </li> <li> <span>Pitcairn Islands</span> </li> <li> <span>Tokelau</span> </li> <li> <span>Wallis and Futuna</span> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr></table><div> </div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/articles/Template:South_America_topic" title="Template:South America topic"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">v</span></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><span><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">t</span></span></li><li class="nv-edit"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/Template:South_America_topic&action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">e</span></a></li></ul></div><div style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_South_America" title="Telecommunications in South America" class="mw-redirect">Telecommunications in South America </a></div></th></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/List_of_sovereign_states" title="List of sovereign states">Sovereign states</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Argentina" title="Telecommunications in Argentina" class="mw-redirect">Argentina</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Bolivia" title="Telecommunications in Bolivia">Bolivia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Brazil" title="Telecommunications in Brazil">Brazil</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Chile" title="Telecommunications in Chile">Chile</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Colombia" title="Telecommunications in Colombia" class="mw-redirect">Colombia</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Ecuador" title="Telecommunications in Ecuador">Ecuador</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Guyana" title="Telecommunications in Guyana">Guyana</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Paraguay" title="Telecommunications in Paraguay">Paraguay</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Peru" title="Telecommunications in Peru">Peru</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Suriname" title="Telecommunications in Suriname">Suriname</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Trinidad_and_Tobago" title="Telecommunications in Trinidad and Tobago">Trinidad and Tobago</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Uruguay" title="Telecommunications in Uruguay">Uruguay</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Venezuela" title="Telecommunications in Venezuela">Venezuela</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/articles/Dependent_territory" title="Dependent territory">Dependencies</a> and<br/>other territories</div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Aruba" title="Telecommunications in Aruba">Aruba</a> </li> <li> <span>Bonaire</span> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_Cura%C3%A7ao" title="Telecommunications in Curaçao">Curaçao</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_the_Falkland_Islands" title="Telecommunications in the Falkland Islands">Falkland Islands</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_French_Guiana" title="Telecommunications in French Guiana">French Guiana</a> </li> <li> <a href="/articles/Telecommunications_in_South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands" title="Telecommunications in South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands" class="mw-redirect"><span style="white-space:normal;">South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands</span></a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr></table><div></div></td></tr></table></td></tr></table> <table cellspacing="0" class="navbox" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><td style="padding:2px;"><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks hlist collapsible collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit;"><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/articles/Template:Web_syndication" title="Template:Web syndication"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">v</span></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><span><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">t</span></span></li><li class="nv-edit"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="/articles/Template:Web_syndication&action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;;">e</span></a></li></ul></div><div style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/articles/Web_syndication" title="Web syndication">Web syndication</a></div></th></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div> <dl> <dt>History </dt> <dd> <a href="/articles/History_of_blogging" title="History of blogging">Blogging</a> </dd> <dd> <a href="/articles/History_of_podcasting" title="History of podcasting">Podcasting</a> </dd> <dd> <a href="/articles/Video_blog" title="Video blog">Video blogging</a> </dd> <dd> <a href="/articles/History_of_web_syndication_technology" title="History of web syndication technology">Web syndication technology</a> </dd> </dl> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Niche_blogging" title="Niche blogging">Types</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"></div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/Art_blog" title="Art blog">Art</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Mormon_blogosphere" title="Mormon blogosphere">Bloggernacle</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Classical_music_blog" title="Classical music blog">Classical music</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Corporate_blog" title="Corporate blog">Corporate</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Dream_diary" title="Dream diary">Dream diary</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Edublog" title="Edublog">Edublog</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Electronic_journal" title="Electronic journal">Electronic journal</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Fake_blog" title="Fake blog">Fake</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/List_of_family-and-homemaking_blogs" title="List of family-and-homemaking blogs">Family</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Fashion_blog" title="Fashion blog">Fashion</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Food_porn" title="Food porn">Food</a> </li> <li><span>Health</span> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Glossary_of_blogging#Blawg" title="Glossary of blogging">Law</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Lifelog" title="Lifelog">Lifelog</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Litblog" title="Litblog">Litblog</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/MP3_blog" title="MP3 blog">MP3</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/News_blog" title="News blog" class="mw-redirect">News</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Photoblog" title="Photoblog">Photoblog</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Police_blog" title="Police blog">Police</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Political_blog" title="Political blog">Political</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Prayer_blog" title="Prayer blog">Prayer</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Project_blog" title="Project blog">Project</a> </li> <li><span>Reverse</span> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Travel_blog" title="Travel blog" class="mw-redirect">Travel</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Warblog" title="Warblog">Warblog</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr></table><div></div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Technology</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"></div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">General</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/BitTorrent" title="BitTorrent">BitTorrent</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Feed_URI_scheme" title="Feed URI scheme">Feed URI scheme</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Features</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/Linkback" title="Linkback">Linkback</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Permalink" title="Permalink">Permalink</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Ping_(blogging)" title="Ping (blogging)">Ping</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Pingback" title="Pingback">Pingback</a> </li> <li><span>Reblogging</span> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Refback" title="Refback">Refback</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Rollback_(data_management)" title="Rollback (data management)">Rollback</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Trackback" title="Trackback">Trackback</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Mechanism</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/Conversation_threading" title="Conversation threading">Conversation threading</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Geotagging" title="Geotagging">Geotagging</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/RSS_enclosure" title="RSS enclosure">RSS enclosure</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/FeedSync#Examples" title="FeedSync">Synchronization</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Memetics" title="Memetics">Memetics</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/Atom_(standard)" title="Atom (standard)">Atom feed</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Data_feed" title="Data feed">Data feed</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Photofeed" title="Photofeed">Photofeed</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Product_feed" title="Product feed">Product feed</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/RDF_feed" title="RDF feed" class="mw-redirect">RDF feed</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Web_feed" title="Web feed">Web feed</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/RSS" title="RSS">RSS</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/GeoRSS" title="GeoRSS">GeoRSS</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Media_RSS" title="Media RSS">MRSS</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/RSS_TV" title="RSS TV">RSS TV</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Social</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/Livemark" title="Livemark" class="mw-redirect">Livemark</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Mashup_(web_application_hybrid)" title="Mashup (web application hybrid)">Mashup</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Inter-process_communication" title="Inter-process communication"><sup>.</sup> pooling</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Reference_(computer_science)" title="Reference (computer science)">Referencing</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/RSS_editor" title="RSS editor">RSS editor</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/RSS_tracking" title="RSS tracking">RSS tracking</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Streaming_media" title="Streaming media">Streaming media</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Standard</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/OML" title="OML">OML</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/OPML" title="OPML">OPML</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/RSS_Advisory_Board" title="RSS Advisory Board">RSS Advisory Board</a> <a href="/articles/Usenet" title="Usenet">Usenet</a>: <a href="/articles/.net" class="extiw" title="wikt:.net">.net</a> </li> <li><strong class="selflink">World Wide Web</strong> + (<a href="/articles/-let" class="extiw" title="wikt:-let">-let</a>) </li> <li><a href="/articles/XBEL" title="XBEL">XBEL</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/XOXO" title="XOXO">XOXO</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr></table><div></div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Form</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"></div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/Category:Audio_podcasts" title="Category:Audio podcasts">Audio podcast</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Enhanced_podcast" title="Enhanced podcast" class="mw-redirect">Enhanced podcast</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Mobilecast" title="Mobilecast" class="mw-redirect">Mobilecast</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Narrowcasting" title="Narrowcasting">Narrowcast</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Peercasting" title="Peercasting">Peercast</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Screencast" title="Screencast">Screencast</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Slidecasting" title="Slidecasting">Slidecasting</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Videocast" title="Videocast" class="mw-redirect">Videocast</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Web_series" title="Web series">Web series</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><span>Anonymous blogging</span> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Collaborative_blog" title="Collaborative blog">Collaborative blog</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Columnist" title="Columnist">Columnist</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Instant_messaging" title="Instant messaging">Instant messaging</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Liveblogging" title="Liveblogging">Liveblogging</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Microblogging" title="Microblogging">Microblog</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Mobile_blogging" title="Mobile blogging">Mobile blogging</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Roblog" title="Roblog">Roblog</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Spam_blog" title="Spam blog">Spam blog</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Video_blog" title="Video blog">Video blogging</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr></table><div></div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Media</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"></div><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0;"><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/articles/Alternative_media" title="Alternative media">Alternative media</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><span>Carnivals</span> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Blog_fiction" title="Blog fiction">Fiction</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Journalism" title="Journalism">Journalism</a> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/Citizen_journalism" title="Citizen journalism">Citizen</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Database_journalism" title="Database journalism">Database</a> </li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Online_diary" title="Online diary">Online diary</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/List_of_search_engines#Blog" title="List of search engines">Search engines</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Sideblog" title="Sideblog">Sideblog</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Blog_software" title="Blog software">Software</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Web_directory" title="Web directory">Web directory</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Micromedia</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/Comparison_of_feed_aggregators" title="Comparison of feed aggregators">Aggregation</a> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/News_aggregator" title="News aggregator">News</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Poll_aggregator" title="Poll aggregator">Poll</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Review_aggregator" title="Review aggregator">Review</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Search_aggregator" title="Search aggregator">Search</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Video_aggregator" title="Video aggregator">Video</a> </li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Atom_(standard)" title="Atom (standard)">Atom</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/AtomPub" title="AtomPub" class="mw-redirect">AtomPub</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Broadcatching" title="Broadcatching">Broadcatching</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Hashtag" title="Hashtag">Hashtag</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/NewsML" title="NewsML">NewsML</a> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/NewsML_1" title="NewsML 1">1</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/NewsML-G2" title="NewsML-G2">G2</a> </li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Social_communication" title="Social communication">Social communication</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Social_software" title="Social software">Social software</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Web_Slice" title="Web Slice">Web Slice</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td colspan="2"></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Related</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em;"> <ul> <li><a href="/articles/Blogosphere" title="Blogosphere">Blogosphere</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Escribitionist" title="Escribitionist">Escribitionist</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Glossary_of_blogging" title="Glossary of blogging">Glossary of blogging</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Pay_per_click" title="Pay per click">Pay per click</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Posting_style" title="Posting style">Posting style</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Slashdot_effect" title="Slashdot effect">Slashdot effect</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Spam_in_blogs" title="Spam in blogs">Spam in blogs</a> </li> <li><a href="/articles/Uses_of_podcasting" title="Uses of podcasting">Uses of podcasting</a> </li> </ul> </div></td></tr></table><div></div></td></tr></table></td></tr></table> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span id="coordinates"><a href="/articles/Geographic_coordinate_system" title="Geographic coordinate system">Coordinates</a>: <span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=World_Wide_Web¶ms=46_13_57_N_6_02_42_E_type:landmark_source:kolossus-frwiki"><span class="geo-default"><span class="geo-dms" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location"><span class="latitude">46°13′57″N</span> <span class="longitude">6°02′42″E</span></span></span><span class="geo-multi-punct"> / </span><span class="geo-nondefault"><span class="geo-dec" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location">46.23250°N 6.04500°E</span><span style="display:none"> / <span class="geo">46.23250; 6.04500</span></span></span></a></span></span></span> </p><p><span id="interwiki-ur-fa"></span> </p> <div style='width: 100%; margin-top: 25px;'> <div class='citationalSource' style='text-align: center; float: right;padding-bottom: 10px;'></div> </div> <div class='citationalSource' style='width: 100%; margin-top: 75px;'> <div style='text-align: center; float: right;'> This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. 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