World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Western Lombard dialect

Article Id: WHEBN0001982691
Reproduction Date:

Title: Western Lombard dialect  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Lombard language, Seveso, Moesa District, Florentine dialect, Champenois dialect
Collection: Endangered Romance Languages, Western Lombard Language
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Western Lombard dialect

Western Lombard
Milanes/Milanées, Insubrigh/Insübrich, lumbard ucidental
Native to Italy, Switzerland
Region Italy:
Lombardy (Province of Milan, Province of Monza, Province of Como, Province of Lecco, Province of Lodi, Province of Sondrio, Province of Varese, part of the Province of Pavia, a small part of the Province of Cremona)
Piedmont (Province of Novara, Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, a small part of the Province of Alessandria and the Province of Vercelli)
Switzerland:
Canton Ticino
Some valleys of Canton Grigioni
Native speakers
(this article does not contain any information regarding the number of speakers)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog west2343[2]
Linguasphere 51-AAA-odd ... 51-AAA-odj

Western Lombard is a Romance language spoken in Italy, in the Lombard provinces of Milan, Monza, Varese, Como, Lecco, Sondrio, a small part of Cremona (except Crema and its neighbours), Lodi and Pavia, and the Piedmont provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and a small part of Vercelli (Valsesia), and Switzerland (the Canton of Ticino and part of the Canton of Graubünden). After the name of the region involved, land of the former Duchy of Milan, this language is often referred to as Insubric (see Insubria and Insubres) or Milanese, or, after Clemente Merlo, Cisabduano (literally "of this side of Adda River").

Contents

  • Western Lombard and Italian 1
  • Grammar 2
    • Feminine 2.1
    • Masculine 2.2
  • Varieties 3
  • Writing 4
  • Literature 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Bibliography 8

Western Lombard and Italian

In Italian-speaking contexts, Western Lombard is often incorrectly called a dialect of Italian. Western Lombard and Standard Italian are very different.[3] Some speakers of Lombard varieties may have difficulty understanding each other and require a standard to communicate, but all Western Lombard varieties are mutually intelligible.[3] Western Lombard is relatively homogeneous (much more so than Eastern Lombard language), though it does present a number of variations,[4] mainly in relation to the vowels /o/, /ɔ/ and the development of /ts/ into /s/.

At the present time, Western Lombard has no official status in Lombardy or anywhere else. The only official language in Lombardy is Italian.

Grammar

The general lines of diachronics of Western Lombard plural declension are drawn here, with reference to Milanese orthography:

Feminine

The bulk of feminine words ends with the inflection -a; the feminine plural is non-inflected (la legora / i legor ; la cadrega / i cadregh). The final vowel finds its original length (in non-final syllable you can't hear the difference) that's often long when followed by a voiced consonant, short when followed by a voiceless consonant. When the stem ends with a particular group of consonants there can be the addition of a final -i or of a schwa between consonants (for example: in Milanese sing. scendra, plur. scendr > scender). For adjectives, the plural form and masculine form are often the same.

Masculine

The bulk of masculine nouns end without inflections and plural masculine is always non-inflected (el tramvaj/i tramvaj ; el lett/i lett ). When the word stem terminates with a particular group of consonants there can be, in both singular and plural forms, the addition of a schwa between consonants. When the addition of schwa appears unnatural, a final -o (pron. /u/) is added to singular nouns, -i for plurals.

The masculine words ending in -in, or, less commonly, in -ett, have plural itt (fiolin/fiolitt). The masculine words ending in -ll have plura -j derived from dropping of -ll- and the addition of -i (el sidell/i sidej ; el porscell/i porscej ; el cavall / i cavaj). The same occurs in the determinate article: singular ell > el, plural elli > ej > i.

Masculine words ending in -a are unvarying. These are proper names, words from ancient Greek or idiomatic words such as pirla, a derogatory term for a person.

Varieties

Western Lombard can be divided into four main varieties, referred by many Italian linguists as lombardo alpino (spoken in the provinces of Sondrio and of Verbania, Sopraceneri of Canton Ticino and Grigioni in Switzerland), lombardo-prealpino occidentale (spoken in the provinces of Como, Varese and Lecco, Lugano and its neighbors in Canton Ticino), basso-lombardo occidentale (Pavia and Lodi), and macromilanese (provinces of Milan, Monza, Novara and Valsesia of Vercelli). The boundaries are obviously schematic, since the political division in provinces and municipalities are usually independent from languages spoken.

Examples of Western Lombard language are:

Writing

The most important orthography in Western Lombard literature is the Classical Milanese orthography. It was used by Carlo Porta (1775–1821) and Delio Tessa (1886–1939). It was perfected by the Circolo Filologico di Milano. Other orthographies are the Ticinese, the Comasca, the Bosina, the Nuaresat, and the Lecchese.

Literature

Some texts in Western Lombard are available: various dictionaries, a few grammars, extensive literature (see Insubric literature), and a recent translation of the Gospels.

See also

References

  1. ^ Although the upper bound to the number of speakers is around 2,500,000, this figure more closely represents the number of people who can understand Western Lombard. Because of immigration from other parts of Italy, the use of Lombard is very rare in Lombardy and most people are not able to speak it fluently.
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Western Lombard".  
  3. ^ a b Ethnologue report for Lombard
  4. ^ Gian Battista Pellegrini, Carta dei dialetti d'Italia, Pacini, Pisa, 1977.

Bibliography

  • Andrea Rognoni, Grammatica dei dialetti della Lombardia, Oscar Mondadori, 2005.
  • AA. VV., Parlate e dialetti della Lombardia. Lessico comparato, Mondadori, Milano 2003.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.