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William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp

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William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp

The Right Honourable
The Earl Beauchamp
KCMG CB KStJ PC
First Commissioner of Works
In office
3 November 1910 – 6 August 1914
Monarch George V
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by Lewis Vernon Harcourt
Succeeded by The Lord Emmott
Lord President of the Council
In office
16 June 1910 – 3 November 1910
Monarch George V
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by The Viscount Wolverhampton
Succeeded by The Viscount Morley of Blackburn
In office
5 August 1914 – 25 May 1915
Monarch George V
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by The Viscount Morley of Blackburn
Succeeded by The Marquess of Crewe
Lord Steward of the Household
In office
31 July 1907 – 16 June 1910
Monarch Edward VII
George V
Prime Minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
H. H. Asquith
Preceded by The Earl of Liverpool
Succeeded by The Earl of Chesterfield
Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms
In office
18 December 1905 – 31 July 1907
Monarch Edward VII
Prime Minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Preceded by The Lord Belper
Succeeded by The Lord Denman
20th Governor of New South Wales
In office
18 May 1899 – 30 April 1901
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by The Viscount Hampden
Succeeded by Sir Harry Rawson
Personal details
Born 20 February 1872 (1872-02-20)
Died 14 November 1938(1938-11-14) (aged 66)
New York City, United States
Nationality British
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s) Lady Lettice Grosvenor (1876-1936)
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford

William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp KCMG, CB, KStJ, PC (20 February 1872 – 14 November 1938), styled Viscount Elmley until 1891, was a British Liberal politician. He was Governor of New South Wales between 1899 and 1901, a member of the Liberal administrations of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith between 1905 and 1915 and leader of the Liberal Party in the House of Lords between 1924 and 1931. When political enemies threatened to make public his homosexuality he resigned from office to go into exile. Lord Beauchamp is generally supposed to have been the model for Lord Marchmain in Evelyn Waugh's novel, Brideshead Revisited.

Contents

  • Background and education 1
  • Early career 2
  • Political career 3
  • Other public appointments 4
  • Homosexuality 5
  • Literary inspiration 6
  • Family 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9
  • Further reading 10

Background and education

Beauchamp was the eldest son of Frederick Lygon, 6th Earl Beauchamp, by his first wife, Lady Mary Catherine, daughter of Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope.[1] He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where he showed an interest in evangelism, joining the Christian Social Union.[2][3]

Early career

Beauchamp caricatured by Spy for Vanity Fair, 1899

Beauchamp succeeded his father in the earldom in 1891 at the age of 18, and was mayor of Worcester between 1895 and 1896.[1] A progressive in his ideas, he was surprised to be offered the post of Governor of New South Wales in May 1899. Though he was good at the job, and enjoyed the company of local artists and writers, he was unpopular in the colony due to a series of gaffes and misunderstandings, most notably over his reference to the 'birthstain' of Australia's convict origins.[2] His open association with the high church and Anglo-Catholicism caused increased perturbation in the Evangelical Council.[2] In Sydney, William Carr Smith, rector of St James' Church was his chaplain.[4] Beauchamp returned to Britain in 1900, saying that his duties had failed to stimulate him.

Political career

In 1902, Beauchamp joined the

Government offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Hampden
Governor of New South Wales
1899–1901
Succeeded by
Sir Harry Rawson
Political offices
Preceded by
The Lord Belper
Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms
1905–1907
Succeeded by
The Lord Denman
Preceded by
The Earl of Liverpool
Lord Steward
1907–1910
Succeeded by
The Earl of Chesterfield
Preceded by
The Viscount Wolverhampton
Lord President of the Council
1910
Succeeded by
The Viscount Morley of Blackburn
Preceded by
Lewis Vernon Harcourt
First Commissioner of Works
1910–1914
Succeeded by
The Lord Emmott
Preceded by
The Viscount Morley of Blackburn
Lord President of the Council
1914–1915
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Crewe
Party political offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Grey of Fallodon
Leader of the Liberals in the House of Lords
1924–1931
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Reading
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Rosebery
Chancellor of the University of London
1929–1931
Succeeded by
The Earl of Athlone
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Ducie
Lord Lieutenant of Gloucestershire
1911–1931
Succeeded by
The Duke of Beaufort
Preceded by
The Earl Brassey
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1913–1934
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Reading
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Frederick Lygon
Earl Beauchamp
1891–1938
Succeeded by
William Lygon
  • David Dutton, "William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp (1872-1938)", Journal of Liberal History, Issue 23, Summer 1999, p. 18
  • E David (ed.) Inside Asquith's Cabinet, John Murray, London, 1971
  • Mulvagh, Jane. Madresfield: The Real Brideshead. ISIS, Oxford, 2009. ISBN 9780753183380

Further reading

  • Portrait of the 7th Earl (1899), by Sir Leslie Ward for Vanity Fair. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
  • Brideshead RevisitedArticle on Lygon's influence on the plot for

Portraits

  • (Lady) Selina Hastings. "Country house high jinks". Review of Jane Mulvagh's book, published 4 June 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2008. Article includes a portrait of the 7th Earl circa 1920 with five of his seven children (his eldest and youngest son are apparently missing; all four daughters and his favourite son Hugh are in the portrait).

Book reviews

  • Cameron Hazlehurst, 'Beauchamp, seventh Earl (1872–1938)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 7, Melbourne University Press, 1979, pp 235–236.
  • Peter Rivendell. William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
  •  "Beauchamp, William Lygon, 7th Earl".  

Biographies

External links

  1. ^ a b thepeerage.com William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp
  2. ^ a b c d "Beauchamp, seventh Earl (1872–1938)", Australian Dictionary of Biography
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Paula Byrne (9 August 2009). "Sex scandal behind Brideshead Revisited".  
  4. ^ "CanonN W. I. Carr Smith".  
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27877. p. 541. 23 January 1906.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27873. p. 182. 9 January 1906.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28046. p. 5281. 30 July 1907.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28386. p. 4366. 21 June 1910.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28435. p. 7979. 8 November 1910.
  10. ^ http://www.liberalhistory.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/23_dutton_biographies.pdf
  11. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28862. p. 6165. 4 August 1914.
  12. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1906/dec/14/workmens-compensation-bill#S4V0167P0_19061214_HOL_209
  13. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1914/apr/28/the-housing-of-the-working-classes#S5LV0015P0_19140428_HOL_82
  14. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1910/jul/25/mines-accidents-rescue-and-aid-bill#S5LV0006P0_19100725_HOL_67
  15. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1908/dec/15/coal-mines-eight-hours-bill#S4V0198P0_19081215_HOL_17
  16. ^ "Glasgow University jubilee" The Times (London). Friday, 14 June 1901. (36481), p. 10.
  17. ^ a b A. L. Rowse, Homosexuals in History (1977), pp. 222-223 ISBN 0-88029-011-0
  18. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (24 May 2008). "Evelyn Waugh: a blueprint for Brideshead".  
  19. ^ "Lady Sibell Rowley" (obituary) Daily Telegraph, 16 November 2005.
  20. ^ "Obituaries: Lady Dorothy Heber Percy". Daily Telegraph. 17 Nov 2001. 
  21. ^ "The scandal that shook Brideshead. "..back in England Lady Beauchamp was even more isolated. Estranged from all her children, save for Dickie, she led a pitiful existence: alone, confused, ill and in thrall to her bullying brother. Lady Beauchamp's children never made peace with her. She died in 1936, five years after her husband's flight. She was only 59."

References

Of the Earl's seven children, all but the second son Hugh (who was homosexual) married, but only two left issue.

Lady Beauchamp died in 1936, aged 59, estranged from all her children except her youngest child.[21] Lord Beauchamp died of cancer in New York City, aged 66. He was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, William.

  1. William Lygon, 8th Earl Beauchamp (3 July 1903 – 3 January 1979), the last Earl Beauchamp. His widow, Mona, née Else Schiewe, died 1989.
  2. Hon. Hugh Patrick Lygon (2 November 1904 – 19 August 1936, Rothenburg, Bavaria), said to be the model for Sebastian in Brideshead Revisited.
  3. Lady Lettice Lygon (16 Jun 1906–1973) who married 1930 (div. 1958) Sir Richard Charles Geers Cotterell, 5th Bt. (1907–1978) and had issue.
  4. Lady Sibell Lygon (10 October 1907 – 31 October 2005) who married 11 February 1939 (bigamously) and 1949 (legally) Michael Rowley (d. 19 September 1952), stepson of her maternal uncle the 2nd Duke of Westminster.[19]
  5. Lady Mary Lygon (12 February 1910 – 27 September 1982) who married 1937 (div) HH Prince Vsevolod Ivanovich of Russia, and had no issue.
  6. Lady Dorothy Lygon (22 February 1912 – 13 November 2001) [20] who married 1985 (sep) Robert Heber-Percy (d. 1987) of Faringdon, Berkshire. They had no issue.
  7. Hon. Richard Edward Lygon (25 December 1916 – 1970) who married 1939 Patricia Janet Norman; their younger daughter Rosalind Lygon, now Lady Morrison (b. 1946), inherited Madresfield Court in 1979.

On 26 July 1902, Lord Beauchamp married Lady Lettice Grosvenor, daughter of Victor Grosvenor, Earl Grosvenor, and Lady Sibell Lumley, and granddaughter of the 1st Duke of Westminster. They had three sons and four daughters:

Family

Lord Beauchamp is generally supposed to have been the model for Lord Marchmain in Evelyn Waugh's novel, Brideshead Revisited.[18] In his 1977 book, Homosexuals in History, historian A. L. Rowse suggests that Beauchamp's failed appointment as Governor of New South Wales was the inspiration for Hilaire Belloc's satirical children's poem, Lord Lundy which has as its final line a command from his aged grandfather "Go out and govern New South Wales!". Nevertheless, says Rowse, "Lord Lundy's chronic weakness was tears. This was not Lord Beauchamp's weakness: he enjoyed life, was always gay."[17]

Literary inspiration

After sufficient evidence had been gathered by the Duke, Beauchamp was made an offer to separate from his wife Lettice (without a divorce), retire on a pretence, and then leave the country. Beauchamp refused and, shortly afterwards, the Countess Beauchamp obtained a divorce.[3] There was no public scandal, but Lord Beauchamp resigned all his offices except that of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and went into exile on the continent (fearing arrest if he did not), briefly contemplating suicide.[3]

[3] In 1930, while on a trip to Australia, it became common knowledge in London society that one of the men escorting him,

In 1931, Lord Beauchamp was "outed" as homosexual.[17] Although Beauchamp's homosexuality was an open secret in parts of high society, and one that his political opponents had refrained from using against him despite its illegality, Lady Beauchamp was oblivious to it, and professed a confusion as to what homosexuality was when her husband's was revealed. He had numerous affairs at Madresfield and Walmer Castle, with his partners ranging from servants to socialites, and including local men.[3]

Homosexuality

In June 1901, he received the honorary Doctor of Laws (DLL) from the University of Glasgow.[16]

Lord Beauchamp was made Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports in 1913 and a Knight of the Garter in 1914. He was also Chancellor of the University of London and a Six Master (Governor of RGS Worcester).

Beauchamp as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, 1920

Other public appointments

[15] and reduced working hours for miners.[14] and improved safety standards[13] an expansion in rural housing provision, an agricultural minimum wage,[12] from 1924 to 1931, supporting the ailing party with his substantial fortune. While serving in Parliament, Beauchamp also voiced his support for a range of progressive measures such as workmen's compensation,House of Lords formed by Asquith in May 1915. Lord Beauchamp never returned to ministerial office but was Liberal Leader in the coalition government However, he was not a member of the [11] He was again Lord President of the Council from 1914 to 1915.[10]

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