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Wong Kar-wai

Wong Kar-wai
Origin Hong Kong
Born (1958-07-17) 17 July 1958
Shanghai, China
  • Director
  • screenwriter
  • producer
Years active 1982–present
Wong Kar-wai
Traditional Chinese 王家衛
Simplified Chinese 王家卫

Wong Kar-wai, BBS (born 17 July 1958) is a Hong Kong Second Wave filmmaker, internationally renowned as an auteur for his visually unique, highly stylised, emotionally resonant work, including Days of Being Wild (1990), Ashes of Time (1994), Chungking Express (1994), Fallen Angels (1995), Happy Together (1997), 2046 (2004) and The Grandmaster (2013). His film In the Mood for Love (2000), starring Maggie Cheung and Tony Leung, garnered widespread critical acclaim. Wong's films frequently feature protagonists who yearn for romance in the midst of a knowingly brief life and scenes that can often be described as sketchy, digressive, exhilarating, and containing vivid imagery.[1]

Wong was the first Chinese director to win the Best Director Award of Cannes Film Festival (for his work Happy Together in 1997). Wong was the President of the Jury at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival, which makes him the only Chinese person to preside over the jury at the Cannes Film Festival. He was also the President of the Jury at the 63rd Berlin International Film Festival in February 2013.[2]

Wong was listed at number three on the British Film Institute's Sight & Sound Top Ten Directors list of modern times.[3]

In 2006, Wong accepted the National Order of the Legion of Honour: Knight (Lowest Degree) from the French Government. In 2013, Wong accepted Order of Arts and Letters: Commander (Highest Degree) by the French Minister of Culture.[4]


  • Biography 1
    • Early life and career beginnings (1958–1989) 1.1
      • As Tears Go By 1.1.1
    • Developing style (1990–1995) 1.2
      • Days of Being Wild 1.2.1
      • Ashes of Time 1.2.2
      • Chungking Express 1.2.3
      • Fallen Angels 1.2.4
    • International recognition (1996–2000) 1.3
      • Happy Together 1.3.1
      • In the Mood For Love 1.3.2
    • 21st century work (2001–present) 1.4
      • 2046 1.4.1
      • My Blueberry Nights and The Grandmaster 1.4.2
    • Personal life 1.5
  • Casting 2
  • Filmography 3
    • Feature films 3.1
    • Short films 3.2
  • Awards and nominations 4
  • References 5
    • Notes 5.1
    • Citations 5.2
    • Sources 5.3
  • External links 6


Early life and career beginnings (1958–1989)

Hong Kong in 1965, shortly after Wong's family emigrated there from Shanghai

Wong Kar-wai was born on 17 July 1958 in Shanghai, the youngest of three siblings.[5][6] His father was a sailor and his mother was a housewife.[7] By the time Wong was five years old, the seeds of the Cultural Revolution were beginning to take effect in mainland China and his parents decided to relocate to British-ruled Hong Kong.[6] The two older children were meant to join them later, but the borders closed before they had a chance and Wong did not see his brother or sister again for ten years.[8] [9] In Hong Kong, the family settled in the Tsim Sha Tsui district, and his father got work managing a night club.[6] Being an only child in a new city, and speaking only Mandarin, Wong has said he felt isolated during his childhood; he struggled to learn Cantonese and English, only becoming fluent in these new languages when he was a teenager.[10]

As a youth, Wong was frequently taken to the cinema by his mother and exposed to a variety of films.[6] He later said: "The only hobby I had as a child was watching movies".[11] At school he was interested in graphic design, and earned a diploma in the subject from Hong Kong Polytechnic in 1980. After graduating, Wong was accepted onto a training course with the TVB television network, where he learned the processes of media production.[10] He soon began a screenwriting career, firstly with TV series and soap operas, such as Don't Look Now (1981), before progressing to film scripts.[12] He worked as part of a team, contributing to films of a wide range of genres including romance, comedy, thriller, and crime.[13] Wong had little enthusiasm for these early projects, described by film scholar Gary Bettinson as "occasionally diverting and mostly disposable", but continued to write throughout the 1980s on films including Just for Fun (1983), Rosa (1986), and The Haunted Cop Shop of Horrors (1987).[6] He is credited with ten screenplays between 1982 and 1987, but claims to have worked on about fifty more without official credit.[14] Wong spent two years co-writing the screenplay for Patrick Tam's action film Final Victory (1987),[15] for which he was nominated at the 7th Hong Kong Film Awards.[16]

As Tears Go By

Andy Lau starred in Wong's debut, the crime film As Tears Go By (1988)

By 1987 the Hong Kong film industry was at a peak, enjoying a considerable level of prosperity and productivity.[11] New directors were needed to maintain this success, and – through his links in the industry – Wong was invited to become a partner on a new independent company, In-Gear, and given the opportunity to direct his own picture. Gangster films were enormously popular at the time, in the wake of John Woo's highly-successful A Better Tomorrow (1986), and Wong decided to follow suit.[11][15] Specifically, unlike Hong Kong's other crime films, he chose to focus on young gangsters.[17] The film, named As Tears Go By, tells the story of a conflicted youth who has to watch over his hot-headed friend – a plot that has been compared to Martin Scorsese's Mean Streets (1971).[note 1]

Because he was well acquainted with the producer, Alan Tang, Wong was given considerable freedom in the making of As Tears Go By.[17] His cast included what he considered some of "the hottest young idols in Hong Kong":[11] the singer Andy Lau (for whom the film was intended as a star vehicle), Maggie Cheung, and Jacky Cheung.[18] As Tears Go By was released in June 1988, "packaged as a commercial enterprise" according to Bettinson, and the film was popular with audiences. It was also a critical success, with several journalists describing Wong as one of Hong Kong's "new wave" filmmakers.[15] While it was a conventional crime film,[19] critic David Bordwell said that Wong "[stood] out from his peers by abandoning the kinetics of comedies and action movies in favour of more liquid atmospherics."[20] As Tears Go By received no attention from Western critics upon its initial release,[17] but was selected to be screened during Directors' Fortnight of the 1989 Cannes Film Festival.[12]

Developing style (1990–1995)

Days of Being Wild

"I could have continued making films like As Tears Go By for the rest of eternity but I wanted to do something more personal after that. I wanted to break the structure of the average Hong Kong film."

—Wong on the transition from his first film to Days of Being Wild (1990)[15]

For his follow-up film, Wong decided to move away from the crime trend in Hong Kong cinema, to which he felt indifferent. He was eager to make something more unusual, and the success of As Tears Go By made this possible.[15] Developing a more personal project than his previous film,[21] Wong picked the 1960s as a setting – evoking an era that he remembered well and had a "special feeling" for.[22] Days of Being Wild focusses on a disillusioned young adult named Yuddy and those around him. There is no straightforward plot or obvious genre,[23] but Stephen Teo sees it as a film about the "longing for love".[22] Andy Lau, Maggie Cheung, and Jacky Cheung rejoined Wong for his second film, while Leslie Cheung was cast in the central role.[24] Hired as cinematographer was Christopher Doyle, who became one of Wong's most important collaborators, photographing his next six films.[25]

With its popular stars, Days of Being Wild was expected to be a mainstream picture; instead it was a character piece, more concerned with mood and atmosphere than narrative.[11][26] Released in December 1990, the film earned little at the box office and divided critics.[15] Despite this, it won five Hong Kong Film Awards, and received some attention internationally.[27] With its experimental narrative, expressive camerawork, and themes of lost time and love, Days of Being Wild is described by Brunette as the first typical "Wong Kar-wai film".[28] It has since gained a reputation as one of Hong Kong's finest releases.[29] Its initial failure was disheartening for the director, and he could not gain funding for his next project – a planned sequel.[11][30]

Ashes of Time

Struggling to get support for his work, in 1992 Wong formed his own production company, Jet Tone Films, with Jeff Lau.[31] In need of further backing, Wong accepted a studio's offer that he make a wuxia (ancient martial arts) film based on the popular novel The Legend of the Condor Heroes by Jin Yong.[11][32] Wong was enthusiastic about the idea, claiming he had long wanted to make a costume drama.[11] He eventually took little from the book other than three characters,[33] and in 1992 began experimenting with several different narrative structures to weave what he called "a very complex tapestry".[34] Filming began with another all-star cast: Leslie, Maggie, and Jacky Cheung returned alongside, Brigitte Lin, Carina Lau, Charlie Young, and Tony Leung Chiu-wai − the latter of which became one of Wong's key collaborators.[35]

Set during the Song dynasty, Ashes of Time concerns a desert-exiled assassin who is called upon by several different characters while nursing a broken heart.[36] It was a difficult production and the project was not completed for two years, at a cost of HK$47 million.[37] Upon release in September 1994,[32] audiences were confused by the film's vague plotting and atypical take on wuxia.[38] Film scholar Martha P. Nochimson has called it "the most unusual martial arts film ever made", as fast-paced action scenes are replaced with character ruminations and story becomes secondary to the use of colour, landscape, and imagery.[39] As such Ashes of Time was a commercial failure,[35] but critics were generally appreciative of Wong's "refusal to be loyal to [the wuxia] genre".[34] The film won several local awards, along with Best Cinematography for Christopher Doyle at the Venice Film Festival.[21][40] In 2008, Wong reworked the film and re-released it as Ashes of Time Redux.[note 2]

Chungking Express

Tony Leung Chiu-wai, Wong's frequent leading man

During the long production of Ashes of Time, Wong faced a two-month break as he waited for equipment to re-record sound for some scenes.[42] He was in a negative state, feeling heavy pressure from his backers and worrying about another failure,[43] and so decided to start a new project: "I thought I should do something to make myself feel comfortable about making films again. So I made Chungking Express, which I made like a student film."[11] Conceived and completed within only six weeks, the new project ended up being released two months before Ashes of Time.[8][44]

Chungking Express is split into two distinct parts – both set in contemporary Hong Kong and focusing on lonely policemen (Takeshi Kaneshiro and Tony Leung Chiu-wai) who each fall for a woman (Brigitte Lin and Faye Wong).[45] Wong was keen to experiment with "two crisscrossing stories in one movie"[44] and worked spontaneously, filming at night what he had written that day.[11] Peter Brunette notes that Chungking is considerably more fun and lighthearted than the director's previous efforts, but deals with the same themes.[42] At the 1995 Hong Kong Film Awards it was named Best Picture, and Wong received Best Director.[46] Miramax picked-up the film for American distribution, which brought Wong to international attention.[21] Stephen Schneider includes it in his book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die with the summary: "While other films by Wong may pack more emotional resonance, Chungking Express gets off on sheer innocence, exuberance, and cinematic freedom, a striking triumph of style over substance".[47]

Fallen Angels

"Whereas Chungking was sunshiny and suffused with bright, lovely daytime colors, Fallen Angels is more about neon, and night time, and grunge."

"Chungking Express and Fallen Angels together are the bright and dark of Hong Kong."

—Journalist Han Ong conversing with Wong[11]

Wong continued to work without break, expanding his ideas from Chungking Express into another film about alienated young adults in contemporary Hong Kong. Chungking had originally been conceived as three stories, but when time ran out Wong developed the third as a new project instead: Fallen Angels.[48] Although it contained new characters, Wong conceived both films as complimentary studies of Hong Kong; he later said, "to me Chungking Express and Fallen Angels are one film that should be three hours long."[11]

Fallen Angels is broadly considered a crime thriller, and contains scenes of extreme violence, but is atypical of the genre and heavily infused with Wong's fragmented, experimental style.[49] The loose plot again involves two distinct, subtly overlapping narratives, and is dominated by frantic visuals.[50] The film mostly occurs at night and explores the dark side of Hong Kong, which Wong planned intentionally to balance the sweetness of Chungking: "It's fair to show both sides of a coin".[11] Takeshi Kaneshiro and Charlie Young were cast again, but new to Wong's films were Leon Lai, Michelle Reis and Karen Mok. Upon release in September 1995, several critics felt that the film was too similar to Chungking Express and some complained that Wong had become self-indulgent.[51] Film historians Zhang Yingjin and Xiao Zhiwei commented: "While not as groundbreaking as its predecessors, the film is still different and innovative enough to confirm [Wong's] presence on the international scene"[52]

International recognition (1996–2000)

Happy Together

Leslie Cheung, star of Happy Together (1997) and two other Wong films

While his reputation grew steadily throughout the early 1990s, Wong's international standing was "thoroughly consolidated" with the 1997 romantic drama Happy Together (1997).[53] Its development was influenced by the Handover of Hong Kong from Britain to China, which occurred that year. In the lead-up, Wong was frequently asked his opinion and was widely expected to address the event in his next film. He later explained, "Since I didn't know what to respond, the best way of avoiding the question was to go and shoot elsewhere."[54] Inspired by his love of South American literature, he decided to set his next film in Argentina.[55] The issues of the Handover were nevertheless important: knowing that homosexuals in Hong Kong faced uncertainty after 1997, Wong decided to focus on a relationship between two men.[56][note 3] He was keen to present the relationship as ordinary and universal, as he felt Hong Kong's previous LGBT films had not.[60]

Happy Together tells the story of a couple (Tony Leung Chiu-wai and Leslie Cheung) who travel to Buenos Aires in an effort to save their relationship. Wong decided to change the structure and style from his previous films, as he felt he had become predictable.[11] Teo, Brunette, and Jeremy Tambling all see Happy Together as a marked change from his earlier work: the story is more linear and understandable, there are only three characters (with no women at all), and while it still has Doyle's "exuberant" photography it is more stylistically restrained.[61] After a difficult production period – where a six-week shoot was dragged out to four months – the film was released in May 1997 to great critical acclaim.[62] It competed for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, where Wong became Hong Kong's first winner of the Best Director Award[63] (an achievement he downplayed: "it makes no difference, it’s just something you can put on an ad.")[11]

In the Mood For Love

Maggie Cheung, star of In the Mood For Love and three other Wong films

In his 2005 monograph, Brunette gives the opinion that Happy Together marked "a new stage in [Wong's] artistic development", and along with its successor – In the Mood For Love (2000) – showcases the director at "the zenith of his cinematic art."[64] The latter film emerged from a highly complicated production history that lasted two years. Several different titles and projects were planned by Wong before they evolved into the final result: a romantic melodrama[65] set in 1960s Hong Kong that is seen as an unofficial sequel to Days of Being Wild.[66][note 4] Wong decided to return to the era that fascinated him, and reflected his own background by focussing on Shanghainese émigrés.[68][69]

Maggie Cheung and Tony Leung Chiu-wai play the lead characters, who move into an apartment building on the same day in 1962 and discover that their spouses are having an affair; over the next four years they develop a strong attraction. Teo writes that the film is a study of "typical Chinese reserve and repressed desire",[70] while Schneider describes how the "strange relationship" is choreographed with "the grace and rhythm of a waltz" and depicted in "a dreamlike haze by an eavesdropping camera".[71] The shoot lasted 15 months, with both Cheung and Leung reportedly driven to breaking point.[72] Wong shot more than 30 times the footage he eventually used, and only finished editing it the morning before its Cannes premiere.[73] At the festival, In the Mood For Love received the Technical Grand Prize and Best Actor for Leung.[74] Critics praised the film,[75] and in subsequent years it has been included on lists of the greatest films of all time.[76][77] Wong said after its release: "In the Mood For Love is the most difficult film in my career so far, and one of the most important. I am very proud of it."[78]

21st century work (2001–present)


While In The Mood For Love took two years to complete, its sequel – 2046 – took double that time.[79] The film was actually conceived first,[80] when Wong picked the title as a reference to the final year of China's "One country, two systems" promise to Hong Kong.[note 5] Although his plans changed and a new film developed, he simultaneously shot material for 2046, with the first footage dating back to December 1999. Wong immediately continued with the project once In The Mood For Love was complete, reportedly becoming obsessed with it.[80] In Bettinson's account, it "became a behemoth, impossible to finish".[81]

2046 continues the story of Chow Mo-wan, Leung's character from In the Mood For Love, though he is considered much colder and very different.[79][82] Wong found that he did not want to leave the character, and commenced where he left off in 1966; nevertheless, he claimed "It's another story, abut how a man faces his future due to a certain past".[83] His plans were vague and according to Teo, he set "a new record in his own method of free-thinking, time-extensive and improvisatory filmmaking" with the production.[84] Scenes were shot in Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Macau, and Bangkok.[66] Actresses Zhang Ziyi and Gong Li were cast to play the women who consume Mo-wan, as the character plans a science fiction novel titled 2046. The film premiered at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival, but Wong delivered the print 24 hours late and still was not happy: he continued editing until the film's October release.[85] It was Wong's most expensive and longest-running project to date.[86] 2046 was a commercial failure in Hong Kong,[87] but western critics gave positive reviews.[88] Ty Burr of The Boston Globe praised in as an "enigmatic, rapturously beautiful meditation on romance and remembrance",[89] while Steve Erikson of Los Angeles Magazine called it Wong's masterpiece.[90]

Wong at the 2008 Toronto Film Festival

My Blueberry Nights and The Grandmaster

Wong next worked on the anthology film Eros (2004), providing one of three short films (the others directed by Michelangelo Antonioni and Steven Soderbergh) that centre on the theme of lust. Wong's segment, titled "The Hand", starred Gong Li as a 1960s call girl and Chang Chen as her potential client. Although Eros was not well received, Wong's segment was often called the most successful.[91]

Wong Kar-wai's first full English-language film, My Blueberry Nights (2007), opened the 2007 Cannes Film Festival as one of 22 films in competition. The lead, American singer-songwriter Norah Jones, made her acting debut in the film. His next film, The Grandmaster was released in 2013. It stars Tony Leung Chiu-wai as Wing Chun teacher Ip Man.

Personal life

Wong and his wife, Esther, have one child – a son named Cheng.[9] The director is known for always appearing in sunglasses, which James Motram of The Independent says adds "to the alluring sense of mystery that swirls around the man and his movies."[8][9]


Wong frequently re-casts actors who he has worked with on previous movies:

Actor As Tears Go By
Days of Being Wild
Ashes of Time
Chungking Express
Fallen Angels
Happy Together
In the Mood for Love
Eros: "The Hand"
My Blueberry Nights
The Grandmaster
The Ferryman
Chang Chen N N N N
Jacky Cheung N N N
Leslie Cheung N N N
Maggie Cheung N N N N N
Takeshi Kaneshiro N N N
Andy Lau N N
Carina Lau N N N
Tony Leung Chiu-Wai N N N N N N N N
Gong Li N N
Brigitte Lin N N
Rebecca Pan N N
Faye Wong N N
Charlie Yeung N N
Zhang Ziyi N N


Feature films

Year Title Chinese title
1988 As Tears Go By 旺角卡門
1990 Days of Being Wild 阿飛正傳
1994 Chungking Express 重慶森林
Ashes of Time 東邪西毒
1995 Fallen Angels 墮落天使
1997 Happy Together 春光乍洩
2000 In the Mood for Love 花樣年華
2004 2046 2046
2007 My Blueberry Nights 藍莓之夜
2013 The Grandmaster 一代宗師
2016 Blossoms

Short films

Year Title Chinese title
1996 wkw/tk/1996@7'55"
2000 Hua yang de nian hua 花樣的年華
2001 The Hire: The Follow
2002 Six Days
2004 "The Hand"
2007 "I Travelled 9000 km to Give It to You"
There's Only One Sun

Awards and nominations

Year Title Role Notes
1988 As Tears Go By Director, Screenwriter Screened at 1989 Cannes Film Festival for International Critics' Week
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Director
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
1990 Days of Being Wild Director, Screenwriter Asia Pacific Film Festival for Best Director
Golden Horse Award for Best Director
Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
Golden Horse Film Festival for 100 Greatest Chinese-Language Films (#4)
Hong Kong Film Award for Best 100 Chinese Motion Pictures (#3)
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Film
1994 Chungking Express Producer, Director, Screenwriter Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Film
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Director
Nominated—Independent Spirit Award for Best Foreign Film
1994 Ashes of Time Producer, Director, Screenwriter Nominated—Venice International Film Festival for Golden Lion
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
1995 Fallen Angels Producer, Director, Screenwriter Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
1997 Happy Together Producer, Director, Screenwriter Cannes Film Festival for Best Director
Arizona International Film Festival for Audience Award – Most Popular Foreign Film
Nominated—Cannes Film Festival for Palme d'Or
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Director
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
Nominated—Independent Spirit Award for Best Foreign Film
2000 In the Mood for Love Producer, Director, Screenwriter Cannes Film Festival for Technical Grand Prize
Argentinian Film Critics Association Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
Belgian Syndicate of Cinema Critics for Grand Prix
British Independent Film Awards for Best Foreign Independent Film
César Award for Best Foreign Film
European Film Awards for Best Non-European Film
German Film Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
Montreal World Film Festival for Grand Prix des Amériques
National Society of Film Critics for Best Foreign Language Film
New York Film Critics Circle Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
Time (magazine) for Top Ten Lists of the Best Films of 2000
Valdivia International Film Festival for Best Picture
Nominated—Australian Film Institute for Best Foreign Language Film
Nominated—BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language
Nominated—Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
Nominated—Cannes Film Festival for Palme d'Or
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Film
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Director
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
Nominated—Independent Spirit Award for Best Foreign Film
2004 2046 Producer, Director, Screenwriter European Film Awards for Best Non-European Film
Film Society of Lincoln Center - Film Comment for Best Film of the Year (#2)
International Federation of Film Critics for FIPRESCI Award
New York Film Critics Circle Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
San Sebastián International Film Festival for Best Foreign Language Film
Nominated—Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
Nominated—Cannes Film Festival for Palme d'Or
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Film
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Nominated—Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Foreign Language Film
2008 My Blueberry Nights Producer, Director, Screenwriter 2007 Cannes Film Festival Opening Film
Nominated—Cannes Film Festival for Palme d'Or
2013 The Grandmaster Producer, Director, Screenwriter Asian Film Awards for Best Film
Asian Film Awards for Best Director
Denver Film Critics Society Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
Golden Horse Award for Audience Award
Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
Hong Kong Film Award for Best Screenplay
Hong Kong Film Directors’ Guild Award for Best Film
Hong Kong Film Directors’ Guild Award for Best Director
Nominated—Asia Pacific Film Festival for Best Film
Nominated—Asia Pacific Film Festival for Best Director
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Film
Nominated—Golden Horse Award for Best Director
Nominated—Golden Rooster Awards for Best Film
Nominated—Golden Rooster Awards for Best Director
Nominated—National Board of Review Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
Nominated—Phoenix Film Critics Society for Best Foreign Language Film



  1. ^ Wong later admitted that he borrowed Robert De Niro's character from Scorcese's film, but claimed that he was mainly inspired by the experiences he had as a young man when he was friends with a low-level gangster.[17]
  2. ^ In an interview, Wong explained the reasoning and difficulties behind the restoration: "The laboratory where we stored all our negatives went bankrupt overnight following the Asian economic crisis in 1997. So on short notice we had to retrieve all the materials ... we noticed that some of the original negatives and sound tapes had deteriorated into pieces. We decided to rescue the film ... We spent the first few years searching for missing materials ... [Eventually] we realized that a 100-percent restoration of the original version was out of the question, so we trimmed out the parts that were beyond repair and replaced them with other options. From there we embarked on another five-year journey from restoration to redux".[41]
  3. ^ Lisa Stokes and Michael Hoover believe Happy Together is even more strongly linked to the Handover, as they argue that the relationship of the main characters represents that of China and Hong Kong.[57] Jeffrey Tambling agrees this is a viable interpretation.[58] Wong has denied this, but admits that the title is a reference to his hope that "we could all be happy together after 1997".[59]
  4. ^ In the Mood For Love is set two years after Days of Being Wild, and in both films Maggie Cheung's character is named Su Li-zhen.[67]
  5. ^ The Chinese government stated in 1997 that for 50 years Hong Kong was guaranteed to stay the same and keep its capitalist economy. Wong said: "2046 is the last year of this promise and I thought it would be interesting to use these numbers to make a film about promises."[79]


  1. ^ Bordwell, Kristin Thompson, David (2010). Film History: An Introduction (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. p. 651.  
  2. ^ "The International Jury 2013". berlinale. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  3. ^ "Sight & Sound | Modern Times". BFI. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012. 
  4. ^ "Wong Kar-wai Awarded France’s Biggest Cultural Honor". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  5. ^ "Wong Kar-wai – Biography". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Bettinson 2014, p. 2.
  7. ^ Teo 2005, p. 10.
  8. ^ a b c Mottram, James (6 December 2014). "Wong Kar-Wai interview: the revered film director on returning to his first love - kung fu". The Independent. Retrieved 27 January 2015. 
  9. ^ a b c "Wong Kar-Wai". Film4. Retrieved 27 January 2015. 
  10. ^ a b Bettinson 2014, p. 2; Teo 2005, p. 13.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Ong, Han (Winter 1998). "Interview with Wong Kar-wai". Bomb Magazine 62. Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Brunette 2005, p. xvi.
  13. ^ Teo 2005, p. 13.
  14. ^ Stokes & Hoover 1999, p. 26.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Bettinson 2014, p. 3.
  16. ^ "Zui hou sheng li – Awards". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  17. ^ a b c d Brunette 2005, p. 3.
  18. ^ Brunette 2005, p. 1.
  19. ^ Teo 2005, p. 15.
  20. ^ Brunette 2005, pp. 5–6.
  21. ^ a b c Brunette 2005, p. xvii.
  22. ^ a b Teo 2005, p. 34.
  23. ^ Teo 2005, p. 44; Brunette 2005, p. 18.
  24. ^ Brunette 2005, p. 16.
  25. ^ Teo 2005, p. 44.
  26. ^ Teo 2005, p. 35.
  27. ^ Brunette 2005, p. 30; Bettinson 2014, p. 4.
  28. ^ Brunette 2005, pp. 17–19, 24.
  29. ^ Brunette 2005, p. 30.
  30. ^ Teo 2005, p. 31.
  31. ^ Bettinson 2014, pp. 4–5.
  32. ^ a b Teo 2005, p. 65.
  33. ^ Teo 2005, p. 69.
  34. ^ a b Brunette 2005, p. 32.
  35. ^ a b Dissanayake 2003, p. 1.
  36. ^ Brunette 2005, pp. 33–34.
  37. ^ Brunette 2005, p. 40; Dissanayake 2003, p. 1.
  38. ^ Brunette 2005, p. 31; Dissanayake 2003, p. 1.
  39. ^ Nochimson 2010, p. 341.
  40. ^ "Ashes of Time – Awards". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2 September 2015. 
  41. ^ "Christopher Doyle and Wong Kar-wai". Interview. 25 November 2008. 
  42. ^ a b Brunette 2005, p. 46.
  43. ^ Teo 2005, p. 48.
  44. ^ a b Teo 2005, p. 49.
  45. ^ Nochimson 2010, p. 337.
  46. ^ "Chungking Express – Awards". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  47. ^ Schneider 2009, p. 835.
  48. ^ Brunette 2005, p. 58.
  49. ^ Brunette 2005, p. 61; Nochimson 2010, p. 342; Biancorosso 2010, p. 230.
  50. ^ Brunette 2005, pp. 58, 61; Nochimson 2010, p. 342.
  51. ^ Teo 2005, p. 83; Brunette 2005, pp. 57, 60, 70.
  52. ^ Zhang & Xiao 1999, p. 368.
  53. ^ Stringer 2002, p. 400.
  54. ^ Stokes & Hoover 1999, pp. 269–270; Brunette 2005, p. 76.
  55. ^ Stokes & Hoover 1999, p. 269.
  56. ^ Teo 2005, p. 99.
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  • Bettinson, Gary (2014). The Sensuous Cinema of Wong Kar-wai: Film Poetics and the Aesthetic of Disturbance. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.  
  • Biancorosso, Giorgio (2010). "Global Music/Local Cinema: Two Wong Kar-wai Pop Compilations". In Kam, Louie. Hong Kong Culture: Word and Image. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. pp. 229–245.  
  • Brunette, Peter (2005). Wong Kar-wai. Champagne, IL: University of Illinois Press.  
  • Dissanayake, Wimal (2003). Wong Kar-wai's Ashes of Time. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.  
  • Kemp, Philip (ed.) (2011). Cinema: The Whole Story. London: Thames & Hudson.  
  • Martin, Daniel (2014). "Body of Action, Face of Authenticity: Symbolic Stars in the Transnational Marketing and Reception of East Asian Cinema". In Leung, Wing-fai; Willis, Andy. East Asian Film Stars. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 19–34.  
  • Nochimson, Martha P. (2010). World on Film. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.  
  • Schneider, Steven Jay (ed.) (2009).  
  • Stokes, Lisa Odham; Hoover, Michael (1999). City on Fire: Hong Kong Cinema. London: Verso.  
  • Stringer, Julian (2002). "Wong Kar-wai". In Tasker, Yvonne. Fifty Contemporary Filmmakers. London: Routledge. pp. 395–402.  
  • Tambling, Jeremy (2003). Wong Kar-wai's Happy Together. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.  
  • Teo, Stephen (2005). Wong Kar-wai. London: British Film Institute.  
  • Zhang, Yingjin; Xiao, Zhiwei (1999). Encyclopedia of Chinese Film. London: Routledge.  

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