World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

World heavyweight boxing championship

Article Id: WHEBN0018417834
Reproduction Date:

Title: World heavyweight boxing championship  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 1885 in sports, 1886 in sports, 1897 in sports, Civic Arena (Pittsburgh), List of The Flintstones episodes, Undisputed champion, The distance (boxing)
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

World heavyweight boxing championship

This is a chronological list of world heavyweight boxing champions since the introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry rules: Bare knuckle champions who fought under Jack Broughton's Rules or the London Prize Ring rules are not listed here

Championship recognition


Champions were recognized by public acclamation. A champion in that era was a fighter who had a notable win over another fighter and kept winning afterward. Retirements or disputed results could lead to a championship being split among several men for periods of time. With only minor exceptions, the heavyweight division remained free from dual title-holders until the 1960s.


Organizations that awarded world championships


Organizations that awarded world championships

List of champions

Reign began Reign ended Champion Recognition Nationality
August 29, 1885 September 7, 1892 John L. Sullivan Universal United States American
Sullivan defeated Paddy Ryan in 1882 for the bare knuckle championship of America. With the lack of legitimate challengers from outside America Sullivan gradually gained recognition as champion of the world. On August 29, 1885, he outpointed Dominick McCaffrey in Chester Park, Cincinnati, in a bout described as being "to decide the Marquess of Queensberry glove contest for the championship of the world"
September 7, 1892 March 17, 1897 James J. Corbett Universal United States American
James J. Corbett announced his retirement from boxing in 1895 and nominated his protégé Steve O'Donnell as his successor. Tradition demanded that O'Donnell win the world title in the ring so he was matched against the erratic Irish boxer Peter Maher. The bout took place at the Empire Athletic club, Maspeth, New York on 11 November 1895, Maher surprisingly defeated O'Donnell via first round knockout. The general public had little acceptance of the new champion and even Maher himself expressed a wish to fight Corbett for the "real" title. Maher defended his "world title" against the British-born Bob Fitzsimmons in Coahuila de Zaragoza, Mexico on February 21, 1896, and was himself the victim of a first round knockout. Fitzsimmons then fought another Irish fighter, Tom Sharkey of Dundalk on December 2, 1896, in San Francisco, the bout being billed for the heavyweight title. Sharkey was awarded victory by disqualification in round 8 by the referee, Wyatt Earp. Corbett announced his return to the ring late in 1896 and the claims of Maher, Fitzsimmons (until 1897) and Sharkey to be champion are usually ignored.
The champions of this version of the title were:
November 11, 1895 to February 21, 1896 Peter Maher Ireland Ireland
February 21, 1896 to December 2, 1896 Bob Fitzsimmons United Kingdom Great Britain
December 2, 1896 to 1897 Tom Sharkey Ireland Ireland.
March 17, 1897 June 9, 1899 Bob Fitzsimmons Universal United Kingdom British
Fitzsimmons became an American citizen in 1898.
June 9, 1899 May 13, 19051 James J. Jeffries Universal United States American
Jeffries was the first modern champion to relinquish the title, announcing his retirement and declaring that the winner of a match between Marvin Hart and Jack Root would be the next legitimate champion. Jeffries would return to the ring to face Jack Johnson.
July 3, 1905 February 23, 1906 Marvin Hart Universal United States American
February 23, 1906 December 26, 1908 Tommy Burns Universal Canada Canadian
December 26, 1908 April 5, 1915 Jack Johnson Universal United States American
Jack Johnson's refusal to honor an agreement made by his manager to defend against the British champion led the National Sporting Club in London, the most powerful body in boxing outside the USA, to withdraw recognition of Johnson as champion. They matched Canadian Sam Langford and the British champion William "Iron" Hague for their version of the title. Langford beat Hague on a fourth round knockout in London on May 24, 1909. Langford returned home to America and never pressed his claim to the title.
April 5, 1915 July 4, 1919 Jess Willard Universal United States American
July 4, 1919 September 23, 1926 Jack Dempsey Universal United States American
September 23, 1926 July 31, 19282 Gene Tunney Universal United States American
Tunney announced his retirement from professional boxing on July 31, 1928, relinquishing the championship.
June 12, 1930 January 7, 1931 Max Schmeling Universal Germany German
Schmeling defeated Jack Sharkey to earn universal recognition as champion but was stripped of the NYSAC version of the title in 1931 for refusing a rematch with Sharkey. The NYSAC title remained vacant until the two men eventually did fight in 1932.
January 7, 1931 June 21, 1932 Max Schmeling NBA & IBU Germany German
June 21, 1932 June 29, 1933 Jack Sharkey Universal United States American
June 29, 1933 June 14, 1934 Primo Carnera Universal Italy Italian
June 14, 1934 June 13, 1935 Max Baer Universal United States American
In late 1934 the International Boxing Union ordered world champion Max Baer to defend his title against the reigning European champion, Pierre Charles of Belgium. When Baer instead opted to fight James J. Braddock they withdrew recognition of him as champion. The IBU matched Charles with the American heavyweight George Godfrey for their version of the title with the fight taking place in Brussels, Belgium on 2 October 1935. Godfrey won a fifteen round points decision but did not press any claim to the championship and was inactive for the next two years. The IBU then recognized Baer's successor, James J. Braddock, as champion.
June 13, 1935 June 22, 1937 James J. Braddock Universal United States American
June 22, 1937 March 1, 19492 Joe Louis Universal United States American
As of 2013, Louis still holds the record for holding the title longer than any man (11 years, 8 months and 8 days.)
June 22, 1949 September 27, 1950 Ezzard Charles NBA United States American
Charles won the vacant National Boxing Association championship in June 1949, but was not universally recognized as champion until June 1951.
June 6, 1950 June 16, 1951 Lee Savold EBU United States American
On the retirement of Joe Louis in March 1949, the European Boxing Union announced that a fight in May 1949 between Lee Savold of the USA and British champion Bruce Woodcock would determine their version of the world heavyweight title. The NYSAC and the British Boxing Board of Control (BBBofC) also decided to recognize the winner of the fight as their champion but it was postponed for over a year due to injuries Woodcock had suffered in a car crash. The NYSAC decided instead to recognize the winner of the upcoming bout in September 1950 between Ezzard Charles and Joe Louis as their champion. Louis was returning to the ring after an absence of 27 months. When the fight for the EBU and BBBofC world heavyweight titles eventually took place in June 1950, Savold defeated Woodcock in four rounds.
September 27, 1950 June 16, 1951 Ezzard Charles NBA & NYSAC United States American
June 16, 1951 July 18, 1951 Ezzard Charles Universal United States American
Following his defeat to Joe Louis in a non-title fight in June 1951, Lee Savold was no longer recognized as the world heavyweight champion by the EBU and the BBBofC, who both immediately transferred their recognition to Ezzard Charles. Charles therefore became universally recognized as world heavyweight champion.
July 18, 1951 September 23, 1952 Jersey Joe Walcott Universal United States American
September 23, 1952 April 27, 19562 Rocky Marciano Universal United States American
Marciano announced his retirement from professional boxing, relinquishing the championship.
November 30, 1956 June 26, 1959 Floyd Patterson Universal United States American
Patterson, Tommy Jackson and reigning Light Heavyweight champion Archie Moore were matched in a three-man event to fill the title vacated by Rocky Marciano. Patterson defeated Jackson by controversial split decision on June 8, 1956, then defeated Moore to win the vacant title. After defeating Moore, Patterson would fight Jackson a second time so as to settle any perceived disputes about his legitimacy as champion, winning by TKO on July 29, 1957.
June 26, 1959 June 20, 1960 Ingemar Johansson Universal Sweden Swedish
June 20, 1960 September 25, 1962 Floyd Patterson Universal United States American
September 25, 1962 February 25, 1964 Sonny Liston Universal United States American
February 25, 1964 June 19, 1964 Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) Universal United States American
The WBA and the NYSAC withdrew their recognition of Clay (now known as Muhammad Ali) as champion for agreeing to an immediate rematch against former champion Sonny Liston, a violation of the organization's rules at the time. The WBC and other organizations continued to recognize him. (See Ali versus Liston.)
June 19, 1964 February 6, 1967 Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) WBC United States American
March 5, 1965 February 6, 1967 Ernie Terrell WBA & NYSAC United States American
Terrell defeated Eddie Machen to win the vacant WBA championship. He would defend the title twice before losing to Muhammad Ali.
February 6, 1967 April 29, 1967 Muhammad Ali Universal United States American
The WBA, WBC, the NYSAC and several other US state boxing commissions withdrew recognition of Ali as champion for his refusal to be inducted into the United States Army subsequent to being drafted in early 1967.
March 4, 1968 February 16, 1970 Joe Frazier NYSAC United States American
Frazier defeated Buster Mathis in a bout recognized by the athletic commissions of Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania as for the "world" championship title. Similar 'world championship' recognition would be bestowed upon him by the athletic commission of Texas after a victory over Dave Zyglewicz on April 22, 1969.
April 27, 1968 February 16, 1970 Jimmy Ellis WBA United States American
Ellis was the champion of an eight-man championship tournament sponsored under the auspices of the WBA to fill the vacant title. Participants included Ellis, Leotis Martin, Jerry Quarry, Oscar Bonavena, Karl Mildenberger, Thad Spencer, former WBA champion Ernie Terrell and former undisputed champion Floyd Patterson. Joe Frazier was offered the opportunity to participate, but declined the invitation.
February 16, 1970 January 22, 1973 Joe Frazier Universal United States American
Frazier and WBA champion Jimmy Ellis fought on February 16, 1970 to unify the Heavyweight championship. Frazier entered the ring recognized as the 'world champion' by several American state boxing commissions, Ellis entered as the champion recognized by the World Boxing Association, and the World Boxing Council, whose title had remained vacant following its withdrawal of recognition from Muhammad Ali, awarded championship recognition to the winner, Frazier. Frazier ultimately would defeat Ali on March 8, 1971 to assert unquestioned claim to the title. (see Fight of the Century)
January 22, 1973 October 30, 1974 George Foreman Universal United States American
October 30, 1974 February 15, 1978 Muhammad Ali Universal United States American
February 15, 1978 March 18, 19783 Leon Spinks Universal United States American
March 18, 1978 September 15, 19783 Leon Spinks WBA United States American
For the first time, a sanctioning organization withdrew its recognition of a champion based on his refusal to box against its designated 'mandatory challenger,' Ken Norton. Spinks had instead agreed to a return match against Muhammad Ali.
March 18, 1978 June 9, 1978 Ken Norton WBC United States American
In an unprecedented move in the Heavyweight division, Norton was immediately recognized as the WBC's champion when Leon Spinks signed a contract to fight former champion Muhammad Ali. At the time, Norton had been designated the WBC's 'mandatory challenger' based on a victory over Jimmy Young. Upon being named champion Norton was required to defend the title against the organization's new mandatory challenger, Larry Holmes. Norton would lose that bout, and the title.
June 9, 1978 December 11, 19831 Larry Holmes WBC United States American
Holmes relinquished his WBC title to assume the championship of the International Boxing Federation, a newly formed organization which had splintered off from the WBA.
September 15, 1978 April 27, 19791 Muhammad Ali WBA United States American
Believing his career over, Ali relinquished his WBA title in exchange for a payment from promoter Don King, who was trying to stage a bout between then-WBC champ Larry Holmes and John Tate for the undisputed title. The bout never materialized, but Ali would return to the ring in 1980 and lose to Holmes.
October 20, 1979 March 31, 1980 John Tate WBA United States American
March 31, 1980 December 10, 1982 Mike Weaver WBA United States American
December 10, 1982 September 23, 1983 Michael Dokes WBA United States American
September 23, 1983 December 1, 1984 Gerrie Coetzee WBA South Africa South African
December 11, 1983 September 21, 1985 Larry Holmes IBF United States American
March 9, 1984 August 31, 1984 Tim Witherspoon WBC United States American
August 31, 1984 March 22, 1986 Pinklon Thomas WBC United States American
December 1, 1984 April 29, 1985 Greg Page WBA United States American
April 29, 1985 January 17, 1986 Tony Tubbs WBA United States American
September 21, 1985 February 19, 19873 Michael Spinks IBF United States American
Spinks recognition as IBF champion was withdrawn when he signed to fight popular Heavyweight Gerry Cooney rather than the organization's #1 contender, Tony Tucker. He would retain wide recognition as 'the' champion in the division (including Ring Magazine recognition until his loss to Mike Tyson on June 27, 1988.
January 17, 1986 December 12, 1986 Tim Witherspoon WBA United States American
March 22, 1986 November 22, 1986 Trevor Berbick WBC Canada Canadian
Jamaican-born Berbick was a naturalized Canadian citizen and former Canadian heavyweight champion.
November 22, 1986 March 7, 1987 Mike Tyson WBC United States American
December 12, 1986 March 7, 1987 James "Bonecrusher" Smith WBA United States American
March 7, 1987 August 1, 1987 Mike Tyson WBA & WBC United States American
May 30, 1987 August 1, 1987 Tony Tucker IBF United States American
Tucker, the organization's #1 rated challenger, was matched against James "Buster" Douglas for the vacant championship. Winning the bout, Tucker was immediately matched with Mike Tyson to unify the IBF, WBA and WBC titles. Tucker's reign as Heavyweight champion holds distinction as the shortest ever.
August 1, 1987 May 6, 1989 Mike Tyson Universal United States American
While Tyson held recognition as champion by the IBF, WBA and WBC, he was not universally recognized as champion until June 27, 1988, when he defeated the holder of Ring Magazine championship recognition, Michael Spinks.
May 6, 1989 January 11, 1991 Francesco Damiani WBO Italy Italian
Damiani defeated Johnny DuPlooy to become the first champion recognized by the fledgling World Boxing Organization, which had splintered off from the WBC in 1988. Despite this however, public perceptions of Mike Tyson as the division's 'true' champion was unaffected.
May 6, 1989 February 11, 1990 Mike Tyson IBF, WBA & WBC United States American
February 11, 1990 October 25, 1990 James "Buster" Douglas IBF, WBA & WBC United States American
October 25, 1990 November 13, 1992 Evander Holyfield IBF, WBA & WBC United States American
January 11, 1991 December 24, 19913 Ray Mercer WBO United States American
May 15, 1992 February 3, 19933 Michael Moorer WBO United States American
November 13, 1992 December 14, 19923 Riddick Bowe IBF, WBA & WBC United States American
Bowe's recognition as champion by the WBC was withdrawn when he refused to meet the organization's mandatory challenger, Lennox Lewis.
December 14, 1992 November 6, 1993 Riddick Bowe IBF & WBA United States American
December 14, 1992 September 24, 1994 Lennox Lewis WBC United Kingdom British
Following precedent set in 1978 when it awarded championship recognition to Ken Norton, following its withdrawal of recognition to Riddick Bowe as its champion, the World Boxing Council designated Lewis as champion, based on his October 31, 1992 victory over Donovan Ruddock in a bout to determine its next 'mandatory challenger.'
June 7, 1993 October 29, 1993 Tommy Morrison WBO United States American
October 29, 1993 March 19, 1994 Michael Bentt WBO United States American
November 6, 1993 April 22, 1994 Evander Holyfield IBF & WBA United States American
March 19, 1994 March 11, 1995 Herbie Hide WBO United Kingdom British
April 22, 1994 November 5, 1994 Michael Moorer IBF & WBA United States American
September 24, 1994 September 2, 1995 Oliver McCall WBC United States American
November 5, 1994 March 4, 19953 George Foreman IBF & WBA United States American
Foreman's recognition as WBA champion was withdrawn when he signed to fight popular German heavyweight Axel Schulz rather than the organization's #1 contender, Tony Tucker.
March 4, 1995 June 28, 19953 George Foreman IBF United States American
The IBF withdrew its recognition of Foreman when he declined a rematch with Axel Schulz. Schultz was matched with Francois Botha for the vacant title. The bout took place on December 9, 1995 in Stuttgart, Germany and resulted in a split decision points victory for Botha. Botha however tested positive for illegal anabolic steroids in a post-fight drugs test and the result was changed to a no-contest. Although some record books continue to list Botha as a world champion, the IBF state that they do not regard that he was ever champion.
March 11, 1995 May 1, 19961 Riddick Bowe WBO United States American
April 8, 1995 September 7, 1996 Bruce Seldon WBA United States American
Seldon, the WBA's #2 contender at the time it withdrew championship recognition of George Foreman, defeated Tony Tucker, the #1 rated contender, to win the vacant title.
September 2, 1995 March 16, 1996 Frank Bruno WBC United Kingdom British
March 16, 1996 September 7, 1996 Mike Tyson WBC United States American
June 22, 1996 November 8, 1997 Michael Moorer IBF United States American
June 29, 1996 February 17, 19971 Henry Akinwande WBO United Kingdom British
Akinwande had been ranked the WBC's #2 contender when he won the WBO title. The WBC, as part of its long-standing policy following the formation of the WBO, removed Akinwande from its ratings altogether. In exchange for the opportunity to be matched against reigning WBC champion Lennox Lewis, Akinwande would relinquish his WBO title.
September 7, 1996 September 24, 19961 Mike Tyson WBA & WBC United States American
Tyson and former WBC champion Lennox Lewis had reached a tentative agreement to fight following his match with Bruce Seldon. Prior to the Tyson-Seldon bout, however, a finalized bout contract could not be agreed to. Lewis, believing the tentative agreement was legally enforcable, filed suit against Tyson. As part of a legal settlement which ensued, Tyson relinquished his WBC title.
September 24, 1996 November 9, 1996 Mike Tyson WBA United States American
November 9, 1996 November 8, 1997 Evander Holyfield WBA United States American
February 7, 1997 November 13, 1999 Lennox Lewis WBC United Kingdom British
Lewis defeated former WBC champion Oliver McCall to win the vacant championship title.
June 28, 1997 June 26, 1999 Herbie Hide WBO United Kingdom British
November 8, 1997 November 13, 1999 Evander Holyfield IBF & WBA United States American
June 26, 1999 April 1, 2000 Vitali Klitschko WBO Ukraine Ukrainian
November 13, 1999 April 29, 20001 Lennox Lewis IBF, WBA & WBC United Kingdom British
In addition to the titles unified by Lewis and Evander Holyfield, the winner received recognition as champion by the International Boxing Organization. In early 2000, WBA #1 contender John Ruiz filed suit against Lewis and the World Boxing Association, claiming the WBA was violating its own rules by not forcing a bout between Ruiz and Lewis. A New Jersey court ruled in favor of Ruiz, ordering Lewis to either meet Ruiz in his next defense or relinquish the WBA title. Lewis, opting to fight a more lucrative bout against contender Michael Grant, notified the WBA that he had signed a contract to fight Grant, and would relinquish his title "effective upon entering the ring."
April 1, 2000 October 14, 2000 Chris Byrd WBO United States American
April 29, 2000 April 22, 2001 Lennox Lewis IBF & WBC United Kingdom British
August 12, 2000 March 3, 2001 Evander Holyfield WBA United States American
October 14, 2000 March 8, 2003 Wladimir Klitschko WBO Ukraine Ukrainian
March 3, 2001 March 1, 2003 John Ruiz WBA United States American
By beating Holyfield, Ruiz became the first person in history of Hispanic ancestry to become heavyweight champion as recognized by one of the major governing boxing bodies.
April 22, 2001 November 17, 2001 Hasim Rahman IBF & WBC United States American
November 17, 2001 September 5, 20021 Lennox Lewis IBF & WBC United Kingdom British
Lewis relinquished the IBF title at the request of promoter Don King, who wished to stage a championship bout between former champion Evander Holyfield and Chris Byrd for the vacant title. King reportedly paid Lewis $1 million (USD) in consideration.
September 5, 2002 February 6, 20042 Lennox Lewis WBC United Kingdom British
December 14, 2002 April 22, 2006 Chris Byrd IBF United States American
Byrd defeated former champion Evander Holyfield to win the vacant title.
March 1, 2003 February 20, 20041 Roy Jones Jr. WBA United States American
Upon defeating John Ruiz, Jones simultaneously held the WBA's Heavyweight and Light Heavyweight championship titles. At his request, the WBA suspended its own rules addressing such situations, designating Jones as its Heavyweight "Champion in Recess," and subsequently staging a bout for its "interim" championship title. Jones was subsequently given until February 29, 2004 to decide which of his titles he would defend. On February 20, 2004, he relinquished his Heavyweight title to focus on lower weight divisions.
March 8, 2003 October 9, 20031 Corrie Sanders WBO South Africa South African
February 20, 2004 December 17, 2005 John Ruiz WBA United States American
On December 13, 2003, Ruiz defeated former WBC champion Hasim Rahman for the WBA's "interim championship." When Roy Jones Jr. relinquished his status as "Champion in Recess," Ruiz was recognized as champion on the basis of that victory. On April 30, 2005, Ruiz would be defeated by James Toney in a championship defense, but ten days later it was announced that post-fight drug testing determined Toney had taken the anabolic steroid nandrolone, a violation of its rules. The bout's result was subsequently changed to a "no contest" by the New York State Athletic Commission, whereupon the WBA announced its recognition of Ruiz as champion would continue.
April 10, 2004 April 1, 2006 Lamon Brewster WBO United States American
April 24, 2004 November 9, 20051 Vitali Klitschko WBC Ukraine Ukrainian
During this period Klitschko suffered a number of injuries. Ultimately the WBC designated him as its "Champion in Recess," and ordered a bout between former WBC champion Hasim Rahman and Monte Barrett for its "interim championship." Klitschko, continued to be dogged by repeated injuries, would subsequently 'retire' from boxing, relinquishing his title.
November 9, 2005 August 12, 2006 Hasim Rahman WBC United States American
On August 13, 2005, Rahman defeated Monte Barrett to win designation as the organization's "interim" champion. When Vitali Klitschko, the WBC's "Champion in Recess," relinquished the title three months later, Rahman was deemed 'elevated' to 'full' championship recognition.
December 17, 2005 April 14, 2007 Nikolai Valuev WBA Russia Russian
April 1, 2006 November 4, 2006 Siarhei Liakhovich WBO Belarus Belarusian
April 22, 2006 February 23, 2008 Wladimir Klitschko IBF Ukraine Ukrainian
In addition to the IBF championship, upon defeating Chris Byrd Klitschko was recognized as champion by the International Boxing Organization.
August 12, 2006 March 8, 2008 Oleg Maskaev WBC Russia Russian
Born in Kazakhstan to Russian parents, Maskaev emigrated to the USA in 1999 and acquired US citizenship in 2004. He did not become a Russian citizen until September 2006.
November 4, 2006 June 2, 2007 Shannon Briggs WBO United States American
April 14, 2007 June 20, 20093 Ruslan Chagaev WBA Uzbekistan Uzbekistani
During this period Chagaev suffered injuries, including a complete tear of his Achilles tendon while training for a mandatory title defense scheduled for July 5, 2008 against Nikolai Valuev. Following this injury, the WBA designated Chagaev its "Champion in Recess," and ordered a bout between Nikolai Valuev and former WBA champion John Ruiz for its "vacant" championship. Chagaev would return to the ring, but refused to fight the second champion. Ultimately the WBA withdrew championship recognition of Chagaev.
June 2, 2007 February 23, 2008 Sultan Ibragimov WBO Russia Russian
February 23, 2008 July 2, 2011 Wladimir Klitschko IBF & WBO Ukraine Ukrainian
March 8, 2008 October 11, 2008 Samuel Peter WBC Nigeria Nigerian
August 30, 2008 November 7, 2009 Nikolai Valuev WBA Russia Russian
On August 30, 2008, Valuev defeated former WBA champion John Ruiz to win vacant title. Upon Chagaev's return to the ring, the WBA mandated that he box Valuev no later than June 26, 2009. When Chagaev failed to do so, Valuev was 'elevated' to full championship recognition, and Chagaev's recognition as champion was withdrawn.
October 11, 2008 Present Vitali Klitschko WBC Ukraine Ukrainian
November 7, 2009 July 2, 2011 David Haye WBA United Kingdom British
July 2, 2011 Present Wladimir Klitschko IBF, WBO & WBA ('Super' Champion) Ukraine Ukrainian
All of the major heavyweight titles are held by the Klitschko brothers.
August 27, 2011 October 5, 2013 Alexander Povetkin WBA ('Regular' Champion) Russia Russian


  1. Relinquished championship title.
  2. Retired as champion, relinquishing title.
  3. Championship recognition withdrawn by sanctioning organization due to champion's failure or refusal to defend title against the organization's #1 ranked contender.

See also


  • World Title Lineages

External links

  • Statistical comparison of eras and heavyweight boxing champions
  • Jack Johnson

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.