World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Wu Han (historian)

Wu Han
Born (1909-08-11)11 August 1909
Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejiang, China
Died 11 October 1969(1969-10-11) (aged 60)
Cause of death Suicide
Alma mater Tsinghua University
Notable work Hai Rui Dismissed from Office
Political party China Democratic League
Communist Party of China
Spouse(s) Yuan Zhen (d. 18 March 1969)

Wu Han (Chinese civil war which eventually threw its weight behind the Communist Party of China. After 1949, he served as the Vice-Mayor of Beijing.

In November 1965, at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, he came under attack for a play he authored about an upright Ming dynasty official called Hai Rui Dismissed from Office, which was later branded as an anti-Mao allegory. His political downfall also resulted in the purge of Beijing Mayor Peng Zhen. He died in prison in 1969.


  • Biography 1
    • Early life and education 1.1
    • 1937 - 1953 1.2
    • Later years 1.3
  • See also 2
  • Sources 3


Early life and education

Wu Han was born in Hangzhou and then in Shanghai, where he was inspired by the lectures of Hu Shi. He entered Tsinghua University in 1931 and came under the influence of Tsiang Tingfu. Since he was responsible for the support of his brother and sister, he was unable to go abroad for study. Wu stayed at Tsinghua as a teaching assistant but began to publish important articles on Ming dynasty history using critical techniques to resolve old controversies and raise new questions.

1937 - 1953

When the war with Japan broke out in 1937, Wu joined National Southwestern Associated University in Kunming. While there, he wrote a full scale biography of the founder of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang, published in 1943, expanded and revised in 1947. He became a leading intellectual in the democratic movement of the 1940s, as well as a widely published essayist. Through his part in the China Democratic League he was enlisted in the founding of the People's Republic in 1949. When the new United Front was founded, as a member of the Democratic League, Wu was asked to take the position of Vice Mayor of Beijing in charge of education and cultural affairs for the 6 county municipal area that became a model for municipalities across the PRC. In the 1950s, Wu represented China abroad on cultural tours and popularized his research at home, using figures from history as models and allegorical figures. He became a member of the Chinese Communist Party secretly in the mid-50s; this was not known by his colleagues or by Party members except at the very highest level. It was only revealed in the Cultural Revolution by the Red Guard accusations after they found his files.

Later years

Wu wrote a series of articles and a play originally published in 1951 and revised many times, on the life of Hai Rui, a Ming dynasty official. In 1960 Wu's Beijing opera, Hai Rui Dismissed from Office became a great success. In November 1965 Yao Wenyuan, later one of the Gang of Four, fired one of the opening shots of the Cultural Revolution when he attacked Wu and his play on the grounds that Hai Rui was metaphorically equated with Peng Dehuai, and therefore Mao himself with the un-approachable Ming emperor. Wu admitted ideological mistakes but denied that his motives were counter-revolutionary.

Over the next months the controversy grew, and Wu was finally jailed. Although there were reports that Wu Han committed suicide while in prison in 1969, fellow prisoners later reported that he was beaten in prison about a year before he died. It is also thought his tuberculosis may have recurred so it cannot be established how he died.

See also


  • Mary G. Mazur. Wu Han, Historian: Son of China's Times. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7391-2456-7. Review, Diana Lin, H-Asia (May 2010) [1]
  • Mary G. Mazur, "Intellectual Activism in China During the 1940s: Wu Han in the United Front and the Democratic League," The China Quarterly 133 (1993): 27-55.
  • “Wu Han,” Howard L. Boorman, Richard C. Howard, eds. Biographical Dictionary of Republican China Vol 3 (New York,: Columbia University Press, 1970): 425-430.
  • Safire's Political Dictionary, William Safire, 1978, Random House. "Cultural Revolution," pp. 153–4.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.