World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Zhang Junmai

Article Id: WHEBN0008480826
Reproduction Date:

Title: Zhang Junmai  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Social democracy, Ramsay MacDonald, Ding Wenjiang, League of African Democratic Socialist Parties, One Nation Labour
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Zhang Junmai

Zhang Junmai

Zhang Junmai (Chinese: 张君劢; Wade–Giles: Chang Chun-mai; 1886–1969), also known by his courtesy name Carsun Chang, was a prominent Chinese philosopher, public intellectual and political figure. Zhang Junmai was a social democratic politician.[1]


A pioneering theorist of human rights in the Chinese context, Zhang established his own small "Third Force" democratic party during the Nationalist era.

Zhang supported German-style social democracy while opposing capitalism, communism, and guild socialism.[2] He supported socialization of major industries such as railroads and mines to be run by a combination of government officials, technicians, and consumers.[3] the development of a mixed economy in China, like that advocated by the Social Democratic Party of Germany under Philipp Scheidemann.[4]

Equipped with the traditional Confucian degree of xiucai or "accomplished scholar", Zhang went on to study at Waseda University in Japan where he came under the influence of Liang Qichao's theory of constitutional monarchy. In 1918 he accompanied Liang’s tour of post-war Europe, later going to Germany to study philosophy for a short time at Berlin University. While in Germany he came under the influence of the teachings of Rudolf Eucken (1846–1926) and Henri Bergson (1859–1941). With Hans Driesch, who was formerly Eucken's student, Zhang travelled throughout China in the early 1920s, serving as Driesch's Chinese translator as he lectured on Eucken's philosophical vision. Appointed a professor of philosophy at Beijing University, he instigated polemics over science and metaphysics (known in Chinese as the "worldview controversy.") He wrote extensively on what now forms part of modern neo-Confucianism.

With China Democratic League, a Third Force party with strong commitments to liberal doctrines of separation of powers, freedom of expression and human rights. After the war against Japan, Zhang became the chairman of the China Democratic Socialist Party.

Opposed to the Chinese communists, but also dissatisfied with Chiang Kai-shek's noncompliance with the constitution, Zhang Junmai went to the United States after 1949. The Democratic Socialist Party moved to Taiwan afterwards and continued resisting the implementation of a one-party dictatorship and oppression by the Kuomintang though its very survival in Taiwan was due to its tacit cooperation with the Kuomintang. Zhang Junmai reappeared in 1962 calling for the unity of the party, but returned to the United States before his death in 1969.


Zhang Junmai was the older brother of the prominent banker and politician Chang Kia-ngau (Zhang Jia'ao). His sister, Zhang Youyi, was an educator, banker, and the first wife of poet Xu Zhimo.

See also


  1. ^ Roger B. Jeans. Democracy and socialism in Republican China: the politics of Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang), 1906-1941. Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. Pp. 41.
  2. ^ Roger B. Jeans. Democracy and socialism in Republican China: the politics of Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang), 1906-1941. Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. Pp. 41, 47.
  3. ^ Roger B. Jeans. Democracy and socialism in Republican China: the politics of Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang), 1906-1941. Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. Pp. 44.
  4. ^ Roger B. Jeans. Democracy and socialism in Republican China: the politics of Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang), 1906-1941. Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. Pp. 44.


  • Junmai Zhang, The development of neo-confucian thought, New York: Bookman Associates, 1957
  • -- , Wang Yang-ming: idealist philosopher of sixteenth-century China, Jamaica, New York: St. John's University Press, 1962
  • -- , The Third Force in China (New York: Bookman Associates, 1952)
  • -- et al., A Manifesto on the Reappraisal of Chinese Culture; Our Joint Understanding of the Sinological Study Relating to World Cultural Outlook (n.p. [1957?])
  • Roger B. Jeans, Jr., Democracy and Socialism in Republican China: The Politics of Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang), 1906–1941, Lanham (Maryland) and Oxford (UK): Rowman & Littlefield, 1997
  • Xinzhong Yao, ed., RoutledgeCurzon Encyclopedia of Confucianism. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, Vol. 2, pp. 799–800.

External links

"Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang, 1877-1969)", Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.