World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Zhang Zhizhong

Not to be confused with fellow general Zhang Zizhong.
Zhang Zhizhong
General Zhang Zhizhong
Governor of Xinjiang
In office
March 1946 – June I947
Preceded by Tao Zhiyue
Succeeded by Masud Sabri
Personal details
Born 27 October 1890
Chaohu, Anhui
Died 6 April 1969
Alma mater Baoding Military Academy
Military service
Allegiance  Republic of China
 People's Republic of China
Years of service 1928–1939
Rank General 2nd Class
Commands 5th Army
9th Army Group
Battles/wars Battle of Shanghai (1932), (1937)
Battle of Changsha (1939), Ili Rebellion
Zhang Zhizhong
Traditional Chinese 張治中
Simplified Chinese 张治中

Zhang Zhizhong (27 October 1895 – April 1969) was a general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China. He was born in Chaohu, Anhui, and attended the Baoding Military Academy from which he graduated in 1916. He then served in the local warlord armies of Yunnan and Guangxi before heeding the call of Nationalist leader Sun Yat-sen and moving to Guangzhou to became an instructor at the Whampoa Academy. He participated in the Northern Expedition, and after the Nationalists established the new republican government in Nanjing, became the commandant of the Central Military Academy. He joined in Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's campaign against Yan Xishan and Feng Yuxiang, and led the 5th Army in the 1932 battle at Shanghai against Japan. Later as the head of the 9th Army Group (第九集團軍), Zhang supervised the defence of Shanghai against Japan in 1937. Zhang is generally regarded as one of Chiang's close confidants.

Later in the Second Sino-Japanese War, Zhang was later appointed Governor of Hunan and was responsible for the Great Fire of Changsha, a fire that got out of hand when he ordered key buildings razed in anticipation of a coming Japanese attack (which failed to materialize on time). He was relieved of his duty after this event and several individuals responsible for bad intelligence were executed. In 1940, he became the political director of the National Military Council.

He was Governor of Xinjiang from 1945–1948 during the Ili Rebellion.

In 1949 Zhang chose to remain on the mainland when Chiang and the remaining KMT forces fled to Taiwan. He joined the Communists afterwards.

Timeline of military career

  • 1929–1937: Commandant of the Central Military Academy
  • 1932: General Officer Commanding V Corps
  • 1937: General Officer Commanding Nanking-Shanghai Garrison
  • 1937: Commander in Chief 9th Army Group
  • 1937: Commander in Chief Central Forces 3rd War Area
  • 1940: Chief Aide-de-Camp to the Generalissimo
  • 1940–1945: Minister of Political Training
  • 1940–1945: Member of the National Military Council
  • 1940–1945: Secretary-General of the Youth Corps San Min Chu I
  • 1945–1949: Director of Nationalist North-western Headquarters
  • 1946–1947: Chairman of the Government of Xinjiang Province
  • 1954: Vice-Chairman of the National Defence Council, People's Republic of China


  • Zhang Zhizhong on
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.