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Ziyarids

Ziyarid dynasty
زیاریان
Emirate

931–1090
 

Map of the Ziyarid dynasty, lighter blue shows their greatest extent for a small period of time.
Capital
Languages Persian
Caspian languages
Religion Zoroastrianism (931–935)[1]
Sunni Islam (935-1090)
Political structure Emirate
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Established 931
 -  Disestablished 1090
History of Iran
ANCIENT
Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 BCE
Elam 2700–539 BCE
Mannaeans 850–616 BCE
IMPERIAL
Median Empire 678–550 BCE
  (Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE
Atropatene 320s BC – 3rd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312–63 BCE
Parthian Empire 247 BCE – 224 CE
Sasanian Empire 224–651
  (Dabuyid dynasty 642–759/760)
  (Paduspanids 665–1598)
  (Bavand dynasty 665–1349)
MIDDLE AGES
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
Justanids
791–974
Samanid Dynasty
819–999
Saffarid Dynasty
867–1002
Ziyarid Dynasty
928–1043
Sallarid dynasty
941–1062
Sajid dynasty
889/890–929
Buyid Dynasty
934–1055
Ilyasids
932–968
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Kakuyids 1008–1141
Great Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Atabegs of Yazd 1141–1319
Ghurid Dynasty 1148–1215
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Mihrabanids 1236–1537
Kurt Dynasty 1244–1396
Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335
Chobanid Dynasty
1335–1357
Muzaffarid Dynasty
1335–1393
Jalayirid Dynasty
1336–1432
Sarbadars
1337–1376
Afrasiab dynasty 1349–1504
Timurid Empire 1370–1405
Qara Qoyunlu
1406–1468
Timurid Dynasty
1405–1507
Agh Qoyunlu
1468–1508
EARLY MODERN
Safavid Empire 1501–1736
  (Hotaki Dynasty 1722–1729)
Afsharid Empire 1736–1747
Zand Dynasty
1760–1794
Afsharid Dynasty
1747–1796
Qajar Empire 1796–1925
MODERN
Pahlavi Dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government 1979–1980
Islamic Republic 1980–present
History of Greater Iran
Until the rise of modern nation-states
Pre-modern

The Ziyarids, also spelled Zeyarids (Persian: زیاریان or آل زیار‎) were a Dailamite[2] dynasty that ruled in the Caspian sea provinces of Gorgan and Mazandaran from 931 to 1090[3] (also known as Tabarestan). The founder of the dynasty was Mardavij (from 927 to 935), who took advantage of a rebellion in the Samanid army of Iran to seize power in northern Iran. He soon expanded his domains and captured the cities of Hamadan,[4] Isfahan,[5] and half of the Kermanshah province,[6] and by 934 his troops even penetrated into Ahvaz.[7] His goal was to conquer Baghdad, remove the caliphate, be crowned in Ctesiphon and restore the Sassanid Empire.[8]

Perhaps among the more interesting things from this era is that we know that Abu Rayhan Biruni, the great scientist of the Middle Ages, was supported by Qabus, the ruler of the Ziyarid state, in 1000 in Gorgan. In fact he dedicated his work Chronology to Qabus around 1000 and observed eclipses of the moon from there.[9]


Another feature is the tower Gonbad e Ghaboos built during this era. The tomb is one of the earliest architectural monuments with a dated inscription surviving in post-Islamic Iran. The tomb, built of fired brick, is an enormous cylinder capped by a conical roof. The circular plan, broken by 10 flanges, is 17 m in diameter, and the walls are 5.2 , thick. The height from base to tip is 49 m. Legend has it, that the body of Qabus was enclosed in a glass coffin which was suspended by chains from the interior dome inside the tower.

Family tree

 
 
 
 
Vardan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ziyar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mardavij
928-934
 
 
 
Vushmgir
934-967
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Farhad
 
Behsutun
967-976
 
Qabus
976-1012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manuchihr
1012-1031
 
Dara
 
Eskandar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anushirvan
1031-1043
 
 
 
 
 
Keykavous
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gilanshah
 

Art and architecture

One of the most famous architectural works of Ziyarid is the Gonbad Kavous (literally Dome of Qabus).


See also

References

External links

  • Ziyarid architecture
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