World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Siege of Caizhou

Siege of Caizhou
Part of Mongol–Jin War and Jin–Song Wars
Date December 1233 – February 9, 1234
Location Caizhou, modern Runan, Northern China
  • Decisive Mongol victory
  • Emperor Aizong commits suicide, Emperor Modi killed in battle
  • Jin dynasty ends
Jin dynasty Mongol Empire
Song Dynasty
Commanders and leaders
Emperor Aizong of Jin
Emperor Modi of Jin
Ögedei Khan

The siege of Caizhou between 1233 and 1234 was fought between the Jurchen Jin dynasty and the Mongol Empire, allied with the Song Dynasty. It was the last major battle in the war between the Mongols and the Jin. They had fought for decades beginning in 1211, when the Mongols first invaded under the command of Genghis Khan.[1] The Jin capital of Zhongdu had been besieged in 1213,[2] then captured by the Mongols in 1215. In the intervening years, the Jin moved their capital to Kaifeng.[3] Ögedei Khan, the successor of Genghis, rose to power after his predecessor died in 1227.[4] In 1230, the war effort against the Jin recommenced.[5] Emperor Aizong, the Jurchen emperor, fled when the Mongols besieged the Jin capital of Kaifeng.[6] On February 26, 1233, he reached the town of Guide, and then moved on to the town of Caizhou,[6] now Ru'nan in Henan,[7] on August 3.[6] The Mongols arrived at Caizhou in December, 1233. The Song Dynasty had rebuffed Aizong's plea for assistance, and joined forces with the Mongols. Warnings that the Song would be invaded next were ignored.[6]

Aizong tried to retreat, and committed suicide when the likelihood of escaping from Caizhou was no longer plausible.[6] He was succeeded by Emperor Modi, a member of the royal family living in the town. Caizhou was breached by the Mongols on February 9, 1234.[6] Modi died in the ensuing battle on February 10, ending a reign that spanned less than two days after his enthronement on February 9.[6][8] The Jin dynasty came to a close with the fall of Caizhou.[9] The Song were eager to exploit the destruction of the Jin by annexing Henan. They did not succeed and were repelled by the Mongols.[10]


  • (hardcover); ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7 (paperback).


  1. ^ Franke 1994, p. 252.
  2. ^ Allsen 1994, p. 351.
  3. ^ Franke 1994, p. 254.
  4. ^ Allsen 1994, pp. 265-366.
  5. ^ Allsen 1994, p. 370.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Franke 1994, p. 264.
  7. ^ Mote 1999, p. 248.
  8. ^ Mote 1999, p. 215.
  9. ^ Franke 1994, p. 265.
  10. ^ Allsen 1994, p. 372.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.