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Smallholder Dairying in the Tropics

By Lindsay Falvey & Charan Chantalakhana

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Book Id: WPLBN0002170342
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File Size: 9.41 MB
Reproduction Date: 1999

Title: Smallholder Dairying in the Tropics  
Author: Lindsay Falvey & Charan Chantalakhana
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Agriculture, Dairy
Collections: Technology, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Quality Management, Geography, Business Development, Business Management, Management, Analytical Chemistry, Marketing Management, Sociology, Business Strategy, Authors Community, Leadership, Environmental Economics, Government, Finance, Engineering, Favorites from the National Library of China, Internal Medicine, Economy, Marketing, Public Aspect of Medicine, Finance Management, Economics, Commerce, Agriculture, Chemistry, Biology, Political Science, Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Historic and Rare), Medicine, Literature, Law, Most Popular Books in China, Science, Language, Social Sciences, History, Education
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Publisher: International Livestock Research Institute Cgiar, Nairobi
Member Page: Lindsay Falvey


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Falvey & Charan Chantalakhana, B. L. (1999). Smallholder Dairying in the Tropics. Retrieved from

Total consumption of milk in developing regions is projected to increase from 164 million metric tonnes in 1993 to 391 million metric tons by the year 2020 – a 138 percent increase! The expected increase in per capita consumption is from 38 to 62 kg/person. The triple effects of population increase, income growth and urbanisation will fuel this tremendous growth in demand. Milk provides quality protein and essential micronutrients needed for nutrient balance in marginal diets based on staple grain and root crops. The production of more milk in developing countries will help meet the needs of urban families at prices they can afford. With affordable prices, poor families, especially children, are more likely to consume the quality protein and essential micronutrients they need for healthy physical and mental development. Increasing dairy production is a major challenge for those engaged in international livestock development. Moreover, there are environmental concerns about livestock production in fragile landscapes, so increasing milk supply should be done in an environmentally sustainable manner. Research can help meet this challenge. Meeting the growing demand for milk offers both a major opportunity and a significant challenge to the smallholder dairy farmers who predominate in developing countries. The importance of smallholder dairying in developing countries has too often been overlooked. Milk is a "cash crop" for smallholders; converting low value forages and crop residues, and using family labour into a valued market commodity. Notwithstanding its importance, smallholder dairying has been poorly documented and understood. Professors Falvey and Chantalakhana and the authors have done us all a service in providing this comprehensive document about smallholder dairying. This volume covers the breadth of smallholder dairying with a mix of the practical aspects of interest to farmers and the scientific information needed by professionals interested in international development of smallholder dairying. It serves the needs of teachers and academics, advisors to the next generation of smallholder dairy farmers, scientists and the international development agencies concerned with technical issues and the social and economic benefits of dairying in the tropics. This book results from productive collaboration among institutions and scientists in developing and industrial countries. The Thailand Research Fund (TRF) of the Prime Minister’s office, Thailand and Institute of Land and Food Resources of the University of Melbourne, Australia, joined with ILRI in supporting publication of the book. We thank the editors, the chapter authors, and all those who made this work possible. We trust that this book will help improve smallholder dairy production in the tropical world. Hank Fitzhugh Director General International Livestock Research Institute Editors Professor Lindsay Falvey is Dean of the Institute of Land and Food Resources at the University of Melbourne, Australia’s largest faculty in the fields related to agriculture, food and the environment. Dr. Falvey has worked internationally in tens of countries specialising in livestock development and research. He has previously managed the international consulting groups MPW Australia and Coffey-MPW Pty Ltd for 15 years, worked as a livestock researcher in Thailand for a period of five years and in the tropics of Northern Australia for five years. Recipient of various awards and a Fellow of the Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering and of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, he has authored seven books and more than 100 journal papers. Professor Charan Chantalakhana was born in 1936 at Songkhla, Thailand. He joined the staff of Kasetsart University, Thailand in 1962, working on indigenous Thai cattle and swamp buffalo and their respective crossbreds, exotic dairy cattle. Dr Charan was Dean of the Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkhla University, Thailand from 1978 to 1979, Vice-President of Kasetsart University, from 1986 to 1990 and Director of SARDI (Suwanvajokkasikit Animal Research and Development Institute) of Kasetsart University from 1992 to 1996. He has published widely in research journals and has written ten books concerning livestock, has served as a member of TAC/Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, is Vice-Chairman of the Board of Trustees of ILRI and is the Thailand Research Fund Senior Research Fellow for dairy research and development. Chapter Authors (in chapter order) Harm Schelhaas was born on a small dairy farm in the north of the Netherlands. He graduated in economics from the Free University in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. His career in the Dutch dairy industry included such posts as Chief of the Economic Department of the Federation of Dutch Dairy Co-operatives and the President of the Dutch Dairy Board, the central organisation of the Dutch dairy industry. He has been an active participant in the International Dairy Federation in Brussels, Belgium of which he is currently the first Vice-President. Peter de Leeuw, an agri-ecologist from the Netherlands, is Senior Associate Scientist with the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). He has more than 40 years’ experience of livestock systems research in West and eastern Africa. Amos Omore, a veterinary epidemiologist from Kenya, Steve Staal, an agriculturalist from the United States, and Bill Thorpe, a livestock systems scientist from the United Kingdom, work with ILRI’s Market-Oriented Smallholder Dairy project. John De Boer, from a United States smallholder dairy, continued his interest in dairying through his PhD research in Thailand and with the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, USA. He has consulted and developed collaborative research programmes in various countries, including advisory services to the National Dairy Research Institute in India. He has published over 20 articles and book chapters dealing with the socio-economics of dairying in the tropics. John Vercoe AM, FTSE, FAIAST, FASAP, was Chief Research Scientist, Tropical Animal Production, with CSIRO and the first Director of the Tropical Beef Center, where he is now a research fellow. An Honorary Professor at Central Queensland University, Australia he is known for quantifying the effects of heat stress, nutrition, parasitic diseases, and production potential on the growth rate of different genotypes of cattle in different environments. V.K. Taneja is presently Assistant Director General of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and is responsible for research in Animal Production and Breeding. He has been engaged in and published extensively on dairy breeding improvement over the past 25 years. Dr Taneja is also the National Coordinator for India of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Project on ‘Conservation and Use of Animal Genetic Resources in India and the Pacific’. Professor V.D. Mudgal, a Founder Director of the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes of Hisar, India and a member of the National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal, India has established projects in Australia, the United States and Singapore, and represented India at the First World Buffalo Congress held in Cairo in 1985. Vice President of the International Buffalo Federation (Asia), he has received various honours and has published more than 200 research papers and five books on nutrition and production. S.K. Ranjhan has more than 30 years in universities in India and the Philippines, is Golden Jubilee Awardee of the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries, Professor of Eminence Awardee of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Tanglaw Awardee of the Philippine Council of Agricultural Research and Distinguished Animal Scientist awardee of the President, India. He has published some 250 papers and 11 books. E. Zerbini is an Italian animal scientist at ILRI, now based at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), India. His research has focused on smallholder dairy production and use of dairy cows for work. Dr Alemu Gebre Wold, Ethiopian, is Senior Livestock Scientist at the Holetta Center of the Ethiopian Institute for Agricultural Research and conducts research on livestock physiology, nutrition and management and cow traction. I. Made Nitis, Indonesian, is Professor of Nutrition and Tropical Forage Production, Leader of R&D Three Strata Forage System, Editorial Board member of AAAP Journal and Scientific Adviser to IFS Sweden. He leads research and development on nutrition, forage, fodder and integrated farming systems for several international organisations and has published more than 150 papers, including 37 in scientific journals and has co-authored two books. Ross Humphreys is Professor Emeritus at the University of Queensland, Australia, where he has been Pro-Vice Chancellor of Biological Sciences and Head of the Department of Agriculture. He was Federal President of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science and has published more than 100 scientific papers and several books and chapters relating to forage use and species adaptation based on his work in some 30 countries. Ron Leng pioneered practical nitrogen metabolism research and development. He has received various awards including the Order of Australia for his contribution to ruminant nutrition and production in developing countries, particularly India. Elected a Fellow of the Australian Society of Animal Production in 1996, he has authored over 200 journal papers and several books aimed at farmers, commercial industry and students. Suneerat Aiumlamai, a Thai veterinarian whose doctorate is from Sweden, has worked in breeding and management at the bull station and in judging dairy cows for the Dairy Farming Promotion Organisation of Thailand and is currently at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. She is also Project Co-ordinator for Dairy Health and Socio-economics. She has published some 40 papers on dairy reproduction and farm management. B.M.A. Oswin Perera is a veterinarian and ruminant reproduction specialist. A staff member of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, [WHERE] he moved to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Australia in 1988. His current activities include assistance to member states of FAO and IAEA to strengthen nuclear and related techniques in applied livestock research. Canagasaby Devendra was Senior Program Officer of the Animal Production Systems Program for Asia in the Canadian International Development Research Centre. He has consulted to the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), FAO and ILRI and is an International Dairy Awardee of the American Dairy Science Association. He is the author of seven books and approximately 360 publications. Dougal Gilmour has worked for decades in dairy extension in Australia. He managed a dairy project in Haryana, India, for three years, advised a dairy project in Jiangsu Province in the People’s Republic of China, worked with dairy extension officers in the north-east of Thailand and with officials of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Cambodia setting up training programmes for extension workers. Thirapong Thirapatsakun, a Thai veterinarian, has worked in mastitis control for smallholder dairying in the tropics, raw milk quality improvement and drug residue detection, and has been Superintendent of the Farm Animal Teaching Hospital at Nakornpathom, Thailand. He is Foundation Chairman and a charter member of Thai Quality Milk Society. B.K. Ganguly, P. Bandopadhyay and S. Kumar are staff-members of the National Dairy Development Board of India engaged in Operation Flood. B.K. Ganguly specialises in programme impact evaluation, including field studies in dairy areas. P. Bandyopadhyay oversees dairy research and development and technology transfer to co-operative dairies. Surender Kumar is experienced in the erection and commissioning of milk plants and NDDB’s research and development (Plant Technology). Bill Malcolm teaches agricultural management economics in the Department of Food Science and Agribusiness of the Institute of Land and Food Resources at the University of Melbourne, Australia. He has carried out research and written numerous books and papers in the areas of agricultural economics, business management and agricultural marketing applied to the agriculture of both industrialised and newly industrialising countries. N.V. Belavadi, a veterinarian with the Indian National Dairy Development Board, specialises in the Anand model of dairy co-operatives, and has consulted for overseas smallholder dairy projects on behalf of the FAO. M.K. Niyogi, a veterinarian and animal husbandry expert, specialises in extension services to co-operatives and planning, market research and management information systems. Suntraporn Na Phuket served the Thai Ministry for over 25 years, was Director of the World Bank Livestock Project and has received the Thai Regional Society of Agricultural Science Award of Honor for contributions to dairying including the smallholder Friesian x local Brahman breeding programme. He has assisted change in government programmes in several countries in Asia during 15 years as livestock specialist of the Asian Development Bank. Adrian R. Egan is Professor of Agriculture (Animal Science) with the Institute of Land and Food Resources at The University of Melbourne, Australia. A ruminant nutritionist, he has focused on factors affecting growth, reproduction and lactation. Through an international research network in Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Nigeria and China, he assessed fibrous crop residues as primary dietary components in smallholder situations. Charan Chantalakhana. Refer to Editors section above. Lindsay Falvey. Refer to Editors section above.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents About the Authors Acknowledgements Foreward Chapter 1: The dairy industry in a changing world H. Schelhaas Introduction Four specific features of the dairy industry Milk production The processing industry in Western countries Dairy policy Consumption of dairy products in Western countries The international dairy markets Conclusions Suggested reading Chapter 2: Dairy production systems in the tropics P. N. de Leeuw, A. Omore, S. Staal and W. Thorpe Global overview of tropical dairy production Sub-Saharan Africa Asia Central and South America Dairy production systems in sub-Saharan Africa Dairy production systems in Asia Dairy production systems in Latin America Dual-purpose systems Intensive milk production Conclusions References Chapter 3: Socio-economic aspects of smallholder dairy farmers A. J. De Boer Introduction Smallholder dairy farming systems Types of systems Post-milking considerations Technological change and technology transfer for smallholder dairying Background Methods On-farm trials Change, dynamics and opportunities Impact of economic liberalisation Need for development of capital markets Stresses and opportunities Policy and project issues Institutional support for smallholder dairy development activities Projects Summary and conclusions References Chapter 4: Climatic and environmental factors affecting dairy productivity J. E. Vercoe Background Introduction Thermal equilibrium Heat load Heat dissipation Reducing heat load Enhancing heat dissipation Effects of heat stress Other environmental constraints (parasites and diseases) The tropical dairy cow Suggested Reading Chapter 5: Dairy breeds and selection V. K. Taneja Introduction Dairy cattle Breeds Some new crossbreeds Performance potential of dairy cattle breeds Selection schemes Grading up to local cattle with improved indigenous breeds Selection within indigenous breeds Crossbreeding Synthesis of crossbred strains Buffalo Breeds Performance potential of buffalo breeds Selection schemes in buffalo Artificial insemination and embryo transfer References and suggested reading Chapter 6: Milking buffalo V.D. Mudgal Introduction Milk production Socio-economic impact Erosion of genetic resources and breeding Feeding buffalo Buffalo management Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer technology References Chapter 7: Dairy feeding systems S.K. Ranjhan Feed resources and utilisation Feeding dairy cattle and buffalo Supplementation with green forages Supplementation with concentrates Supplementation with specific nutrients Formulation of Rations Feeding dairy calves Feeding dairy calves from birth to three months Feeding dairy calves from three months to maturity Feeding dry calf starters and roughages Feeding dairy cows Feeding dry cows Balanced concentrate mixture Feeding for reproduction References Chapter 8: Feeding dairy cows for draught Zerbini and Alemu Gebre Wold Introduction Energy Energy metabolism and partition Energy requirements Efficiency of energy utilisation Nutrition Feed intake Digestion Nitrogen balance Body condition, body weight and reproduction Milk production Productivity Productivity index (output/input) Herd productivity Practical feeding Feed quality and feeding Feeding strategies Conclusions References Chapter 9: Production of forage and fodder I.M. Nitis Introduction Existing forage and fodder production systems Agroforestry Forage and fodder in food crops Forage under plantation crops Forage and fodder under forest Forage and fodder on fallow land Forage and fodder in natural grassland Forage and fodder on critical land Yield of forage and fodder Potential yield and lopping yield Sustainable yield Predicting potential yield Means and ways of increasing yield Land preparation and plant species Land preparation Choice of plant species Planting material Planting system Fertiliser application Types of fertiliser Renovation Developments in production systems Companion, alley, relay and related cropping systems Pastures and intensive systems Conclusion References Chapter 10: Forage Utilization L.R. Humphreys Objectives for forage utilisation The response of the pasture to cutting or grazing The delivery of nutrients from the forage Adjusting animal demand and forage supply Providing continuity of forage supply Conclusion References Chapter 11: Feeding strategies for improving milk production R. Leng Introduction Feed resources available to smallholder dairy farmers The basic concepts An approach to improving nutrition of lactating animals Background - the use of NPN and bypass protein in ruminant diets Protein digestion in ruminants Efficiency of microbial growth on protein Factors that influence the availability of bypass protein Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen The requirements for ammonia for microbial activity Protein (or Amino Acid) requirements of ruminants Metabolisable protein available to ruminants Research illustrating the responses of cattle to urea molasses blocks and bypass protein meal supplementation Growth studies Studies with lactating cows/buffalo Constraints to application of the bypass protein technology Practical application of bypass protein in village societies Treatment of crop residues to improve digestibility Economic considerations Sociological considerations Research needs Increasing milk production following optimisation of the efficiency of utilisation of the basal feed resource References Chapter 12: Dairy management and animal health S. Aiumlamai Introduction Practical health care Newborn calf: First three days Calves from three days to one month One month of age to weaning (3–4 months) Calves 4–12 months of age Heifers 12–18 months of age Pregnant heifers: prepartum (24–36 months) At parturition After calving: seven days postpartum Milking Dry period Replacement heifers Culling Housing and environmental control in the tropics Dairy cattle diseases Conclusion References Chapter 13: Management of reproduction O. Perera The importance of reproduction in dairy production Reproductive events Puberty Sexual cycles and mating Pregnancy and parturition The postpartum period Reproductive efficiency Effects of genotype Effects of nutrition and environment Effects of management practices Effects of breeding management Infertility and sterility Delayed puberty Anoestrus Repeat breeding Infectious causes Accidents and miscellaneous causes Male fertility, natural breeding and artificial insemination Male fertility Natural breeding Artificial insemination (AI) Modern reproductive technologies and potential applications Oestrus synchronisation Embryo transfer (ET) Hormone assay Ultrasonic imaging Management of reproduction for optimum efficiency Genotypes, records and general management Heat detection and mating Care of pregnant and parturirnt animals The postpartum period References and suggested reading Chapter 14: Herd recording I. Risstrom Introduction Organising herd recording Data handling and processing Identification of cattle Breeding records Milk production records Recording for health Use of the system in the United States References and suggested reading Chapter 15: Dairying in integrated farming systems C. Devendra p>Introduction Types of integrated systems Economic importance of animals Socio-economic benefits of dairying in integrated systems Sri Lanka India Major constraints to dairy production Conclusion References and suggested reading Chapter 16: Milking D. Gilmour Introduction Anatomy of the udder Udder support Inside the udder Blood supply to the udder Nerves in the udder Milk secretion and ejection Milk secretion Milk ejection Interfering with milk ejection Milk secretion and milking practices Frequency of milking Milking routine The milking process Hygiene Suggested reading Chapter 17: Mastitis Management T. Thirapatsakun Introduction What is mastitis? Why mastitis management? Milk quality concerns Effects on milk production Effects on milk composition Economic importance Public health significance How does mastitis occur? Detection of mastitis Physical examination Strip test Paddle test to detect somatic cells Laboratory tests Collection of milk samples Natural defence mechanisms Teat sphincter and keratin Somatic cells Antibodies Nutrition Control of mastitis Background problem Mastitis control strategy Recommended milking procedures Recommendations for milking equipment Control of contagious mastitis Control of environmental mastitis Control of mastitis caused by other micro-organisms Role of mastitis therapy Chapter 18: Processed milk products B.K. Ganguly, P. Bandopadhyay and S. Kumar Introduction Preservation and processing at household level Small-scale processing units Traditional milk conservation and processing practices in the Indian subcontinent References Chapter 19: Dairy trade and marketing B. Malcolm Introduction World dairy trade Trace policy World dairy production, trade and prices Milk in tropical countries Milk production Milk consumption Dairy industry development Dairy industry in tropical Asia Dairy marketing in the tropics Prospects Conclusion Suggested reading Chapter 20: Smallholder dairy co-operatives N.V. Belavadi and M.K. Niyogi Smallholder dairying and development The Indian experience Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers' Union (Amul) Anand pattern co-operatives National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) Operation Flood Programme Dairy co-operative development under Operation Flood Dairy co-operatives in other tropical countries Bangladesh Sri Lanka Social impact Conclusion Suggested reading Chapter 21: Successful smallholder dairy projects S.R. Na Phuket Introduction Experience in smallholder dairy development projects and programmes Features Project performance and impacts Factors affecting the success of dairy development Future strategies for sustainable dairy development Sustainable development Suggested Reading Chapter 22: Sustainability of smallholder dairy production A.R. Egan Introduction The context of sustainability Issues Risk factors Sustainability and carrying capacity Sustainability and the feedbase Sustainability and production per hectare Sustainability and production per head Waste management Conclusions References Chapter 23: Research priorities for smallholder dairying C. Chantalakhana Problems and constraints of smallholder dairying Institutional support Technical factors Government policies Socio-economic factors Dairy research priorities concerning technical factors Research priorities in dairy feeding Research priorities in dairy breeding Research priorities in dairy management and health care Dairy research priorities concerning socio-economic factors and policies Appropriate technologies for smallholder dairying (SHD) Strengthening of national research and international collaboration References Chapter 24: The future for smallholder dairying L. Falvey Introduction Forces for the future Modelling smallholder dairying Stage of development The role of market protection Dairying in economic development Trends in large and smallholder systems Technological changes Continuing need for smallholders International finance and smallholder dairying Characteristics of the future Suggested reading Index


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