World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Smithsonian Institution

After rebuke, congressman apologizes for 'Schindler's List' remarks

The Smithsonian Institution ( ), established in 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government. Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.[1] Termed "the nation's attic"[2] for its eclectic holdings of 137 million items,[3] the Institution's Washington, D.C. nucleus of nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo—many of them historical or architectural landmarks—is the largest such complex in the world. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, New York City, Virginia, Panama and elsewhere, and 168 other museums are Smithsonian affiliates. The Institution's thirty million annual visitors[4] are admitted without charge; funding comes from the Institution's own endowment, private and corporate contributions, membership dues, government support, and retail, concession and licensing revenues.[3] Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines.


  • Plot 1
  • Cast 2
  • Themes 3
  • Production 4
    • Development 4.1
    • Casting 4.2
    • Filming 4.3
    • Cinematography 4.4
    • Music 4.5
  • Symbolism 5
    • The girl in red 5.1
    • Candles 5.2
    • Other symbolism 5.3
  • Release 6
  • Reception 7
    • Critical response 7.1
    • Assessment by other film makers 7.2
    • Reaction of the Jewish community 7.3
  • Accolades 8
  • Controversies 9
  • See also 10
  • Notes 11
  • Citations 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14


The "Castle" (1847), the Institution's first building and still its headquarters

British scientist James Smithson (d. 1829) left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; however, when Hungerford died childless in 1835,[5] the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men.", in accordance with Smithson's will.[6] Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836.[7] The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest; Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns (about $500,000 at the time).[8][9]

Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."[7][9] Unfortunately the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative (and ex-President) John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest[10] and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning.[11] Finally, on August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian.[7]


Early development

Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, before long it also became the depository for various Washington and U.S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U.S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842. The voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, and diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, and ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific. These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens.

The Institution became a magnet for natural scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. Many scientists of a variety of disciplines work at the various Smithsonian museums, which have become centers for research.

When the Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it (which was named the Freer Gallery), it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual. The gallery opened in 1923.

Capital campaign

In 2011, the Smithsonian undertook its first-ever capital fundraising campaign. The $1.5 billion effort raised $1 billion at the three-year mark. Smithsonian officials made the campaign public in October 2014 in an effort to raise the remaining $500 million. More than 60,000 individuals and organizations donated money to the campaign by the time it went public. This included 192 gifts of at least $1 million. Members of the boards of directors of various Smithsonian museums donated $372 million. The Smithsonian said that funds raised will go toward completion of the National Museum of African American History and Culture builidng, and renovations of the National Air and Space Museum, National Museum of American History, and the Renwick Gallery. A smaller amount of funds will go to educational initiatives and digitization of collections.[12]


Aircraft on display at the National Air and Space Museum, including a Ford Trimotor and Douglas DC-3 (top and second from top).

Nineteen museums and galleries, as well as the National Zoological Park, comprise the Smithsonian museums.[13] Eleven are on the National Mall, the strip of land that runs between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol. Other museums are located elsewhere in Washington, D.C., with two more in New York City and one in Chantilly, Virginia.

The Smithsonian has close ties with 168 other museums in 39 states, Panama and Puerto Rico.[13] These museums are known as Smithsonian Affiliated museums. Collections of artifacts are given to these museums in the form of long-term loans. The Smithsonian also has a large number of traveling exhibitions. In 2008, 58 of these traveling exhibitions went to 510 venues across the country.[13]


Among the Smithsonian's most famous items are the Hope Diamond and the ruby slippers. For Go Skateboarding Day in 2013—June 21—the Institution accepted professional skateboarder Tony Hawk's first skateboard. A skateboarding exhibition accompanied the submission and other professional skateboarders such as Chris Haslam, Rodney Mullen, Fred Gall, Shaun Gregoire, and Brian Anderson were also in attendance.[14]

The Smithsonian continues to broaden its collections to include more contemporary items. In late December, 2013, the Smithsonian announced it had acquired two video games: Flower (2009), by Jenova Chen and Kellee Santiago, a game about the environmental impact of pollution, in which the player controls a wind-blown collection of flower petals; and Halo 2600 (2010), by Ed Fries, a retro remix of the popular first-person shooter (FPS) game series, Halo. “The best video games are a great expression of art and culture,” said Elizabeth Broun, the Smithsonian American Art Museum’s director.[15]

Research centers and programs

The following is a list of Smithsonian research centers, with their affiliated museum in parentheses:

Also of note is the Smithsonian Museum Support Center (MSC), located in Silver Hill, Maryland (Suitland), which is the principal off-site conservation and collections facility for multiple Smithsonian museums, primarily the National Museum of Natural History. The MSC was dedicated in May 1983.[18] The MSC covers 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) of land, with over 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of space, making it one of the largest set of structures in the Smithsonian. It has over 12 miles (19 km) of cabinets, and more than 31 million objects.


The Institution regularly publishes Smithsonian magazine (monthly, sent to members) and Air & Space magazine (bimonthly).


The Smithsonian Castle doorway

The Smithsonian Institution is established as a trust instrumentality by act of Congress, and it is functionally and legally a body of the U.S. government, but separate from the government's federal legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

More than two-thirds of the Smithsonian's workforce of some 6,300 persons are employees of the federal government. The Smithsonian Office of Protection Services oversees security at the Smithsonian facilities and enforces laws and regulations for National Capital Parks together with the United States Park Police.

The President’s 2011 budget proposed just under $800 million in support for the Smithsonian, slightly increased from previous years. Institution exhibits are free of charge, though in 2010 the Deficit Commission recommended admission fees.[19][20]

As approved by ex officio members the Chief Justice of the United States and the Vice President of the United States. The nominal head of the Institution is the Chancellor, an office which has traditionally been held by the Chief Justice. In September 2007, the Board created the position of Chair of the Board of Regents, a position currently held by France A. Cordova of Indiana.[21]

Other members of the Board of Regents are three members of the U.S. House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House; three members of the Senate, appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate; and nine citizen members, nominated by the Board and approved by the Congress in a joint resolution signed by the President of the United States.[22] Regents who are senators or representatives serve for the duration of their elected terms, while citizen Regents serve a maximum of two six-year terms. Regents are compensated on a part-time basis.

The chief executive officer (CEO) of the Smithsonian is the Secretary, who is appointed by the Board of Regents. The Secretary also serves as secretary to the Board of Regents, but is not a voting member of that body. The Secretary of the Smithsonian has the privilege of the floor at the United States Senate. There have been 12 Secretaries. On September 18, 2013, Secretary G. Wayne Clough announced he would retire in October 2014. The Smithsonian Board of Regents said it has asked regent John McCarter, Jr. to lead a search committee. The search committee will consist of other regents and representatives from Smithsonian museums and centers.[23]

On March 10, 2014, the Smithsonian Board of Directors selected Dr. David Skorton, a physician and president of Cornell University as the 13th Secretary of the Smithsonian. Skorton will take the reins of the institution in 2015.[24]

Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution


Enola Gay display

In 1995, controversy arose over the exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum associated with display of the Enola Gay, the Superfortress used by the United States to execute the first atomic bombing in World War II. The American Legion and Air Force Association believed the exhibit put forward only one side of the debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and that it emphasized the effect on the victims without the overall context of the war. The Smithsonian changed the exhibit, displaying the aircraft only with associated technical data and without discussion of its historic role in the war.

Censorship of "Seasons of Life and Land"

In 2003, a National Museum of Natural History exhibit, Subhankar Banerjee's Seasons of Life and Land, featuring photographs of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, was censored and moved to the basement by Smithsonian officials because they feared that its subject matter was too politically controversial.[25]

In November 2007, the Washington Post reported internal criticism has been raised regarding the institution's handling of the exhibit on the Arctic. According to documents and e-mails, the exhibit and its associated presentation were edited at high levels to add "scientific uncertainty" regarding the nature and impact of global warming on the Arctic. Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Cristián Samper was interviewed by the Post, and claimed the exhibit was edited because it contained conclusions that went beyond what could be proven by contemporary climatology.[26] The Smithsonian is now a participant in the U.S. Global Change Research Program.[27]

Copyright restrictions

The Smithsonian Institution provides access to its image collections for educational, scholarly and nonprofit uses. Commercial uses are generally restricted unless permission is obtained. Smithsonian images fall into different copyright categories; some are protected by copyright, many are subject to license agreements or other contractual conditions, and some fall into the public domain, such as those prepared by Smithsonian employees as part of their official duties. The Smithsonian’s terms of use for its digital content, including images, are set forth on the Smithsonian Web site.[28][29]

In April 2006, the institution entered into an agreement of "first refusal" rights for its vast silent and public domain film archives with Showtime Networks, mainly for use on the Smithsonian Channel, a network created from this deal. Critics contend this agreement effectively gives Showtime control over the film archives, as it requires filmmakers to obtain permission from the network to use extensive amounts of film footage from the Smithsonian archives.[30]

The Smithsonian contends independent producers continue to have unchanged access to the institution and its collections as they had prior to the agreement. The process to gain access to film at the Smithsonian remains the same. Since January 2006, independent producers have made more than 500 requests to film in the museums and collections, and/or to use archival footage and photos.

Tesla omission

According to Yale Scientific, although the Smithsonian Institution included Nikola Tesla's alternating current generators in an exhibit, no mention is made of Tesla. The generator is misleadingly included as part of the Thomas Edison exhibit.[31]


The asteroid 3773 Smithsonian, discovered in 1984, is named in honor of the Institution.

On August 15, 2013, the curator of mammals at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Kristofer Helgen, announced the discovery of a new carnivorous mammal olinguito (pronounced oh-lin-GHEE-toe). The find was the first of its kind in 35 years.[32]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Freer 2001, p. 220.
  2. ^ a b c d e McBride 1997, p. 416.
  3. ^ a b c McBride 1997, p. 435.
  4. ^ a b Corliss & Schickel 2005.
  5. ^ a b Maltin 1999.
  6. ^ a b Channel 4 2008.
  7. ^ Loshitsky 1997, p. 5.
  8. ^ a b c d McBride 1997, p. 427.
  9. ^ McBride 1997, p. 428.
  10. ^ Loshitsky 1997, p. 43.
  11. ^ McBride 1997, p. 436.
  12. ^ McBride 1997, p. 425.
  13. ^ Crowe 2004, p. 557.
  14. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 6.
  15. ^ a b McBride 1997, p. 424.
  16. ^ a b c McBride 1997, p. 426.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Thompson 1994.
  18. ^ Crowe 2004, p. 603.
  19. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 27.
  20. ^ Palowski 1998, pp. 86–87.
  21. ^ a b c d Susan Royal interview.
  22. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 86.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g , January 21, 1994Entertainment Weekly.
  24. ^ McBride 1997, p. 429.
  25. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 87.
  26. ^ a b c d Corliss 1994.
  27. ^ Crowe 2004, p. 102.
  28. ^ Freer 2001, p. 225.
  29. ^ Palowski 1998, pp. 87–88.
  30. ^ Mintz 2001, p. 128.
  31. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 48.
  32. ^ a b c McBride 1997, p. 431.
  33. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 14.
  34. ^ Palowski 1998, pp. 109, 111.
  35. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 62.
  36. ^ a b c Ansen & Kuflik 1993.
  37. ^ McBride 1997, p. 414.
  38. ^ McBride 1997, p. 433.
  39. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 44.
  40. ^ a b McBride 1997, p. 415.
  41. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 45.
  42. ^ McBride 1997, pp. 431–432, 434.
  43. ^ a b c d e McBride 1997, p. 432.
  44. ^ Gangel 2005.
  45. ^ Perlman video interview.
  46. ^ Rubin 2001, pp. 73–74.
  47. ^ Medien 2011.
  48. ^ a b 66th Academy Awards 1994.
  49. ^ AllMusic listing.
  50. ^ Schickel 2012, pp. 161–162.
  51. ^ Patrizio 2004.
  52. ^ Caron 2003.
  53. ^ a b Gilman 2013.
  54. ^ Logocka 2002.
  55. ^ Rosner 2014.
  56. ^ Horowitz 1997, p. 124.
  57. ^ Horowitz 1997, pp. 126–127.
  58. ^ Palowski 1998, p. 112.
  59. ^ Gellately 1993.
  60. ^ Mintz 2001, p. 154.
  61. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  62. ^ Freer 2001, p. 233.
  63. ^ Loshitsky 1997, pp. 9, 14.
  64. ^ Loshitsky 1997, pp. 11, 14.
  65. ^ Meyers, Zandberg & Neiger 2009, p. 456.
  66. ^ Amazon, DVD.
  67. ^ Amazon, Gift set.
  68. ^ Amazon, Laserdisc.
  69. ^ Amazon, Blu-ray.
  70. ^ Freer 2001, p. 235.
  71. ^ Freer 2001, pp. 235–236.
  72. ^ Mintz 2001, p. 126.
  73. ^ Horowitz 1997, p. 119.
  74. ^ Schiff 1994, p. 98.
  75. ^ a b Ebert 1993.
  76. ^ Rafferty 1993.
  77. ^ Mintz 2001, p. 132.
  78. ^ Verniere 1993.
  79. ^ Gross 1994.
  80. ^ Mintz 2001, p. 147.
  81. ^ Mintz 2001, p. 131.
  82. ^ Mintz 2001, p. 134.
  83. ^ Horowitz 1997, pp. 138–139.
  84. ^ Horowitz 1997, p. 130.
  85. ^ Bartov 1997, p. 49.
  86. ^ Leistedt & Linkowski 2014.
  87. ^ Horowitz 1997, p. 137.
  88. ^ Epstein 1994.
  89. ^ McBride 1997, p. 439.
  90. ^ Cronin 2005, p. 168.
  91. ^ Cronin 2005, p. 167.
  92. ^ a b Goldman 2005.
  93. ^ Ebert 2002.
  94. ^ a b Keneally 2007, p. 265.
  95. ^ Haneke 2009.
  96. ^ Lanzmann 2007.
  97. ^ McBride 1997, p. 434.
  98. ^ Mintz 2001, pp. 136–137.
  99. ^ Kertész 2001.
  100. ^ a b McBride 1997, p. 440.
  101. ^ Mintz 2001, p. 136.
  102. ^ Greydanus 1995.
  103. ^ Channel 4 2005.
  104. ^ Berardinelli 1993.
  105. ^ Johnson 2011.
  106. ^ Library of Congress 2004.
  107. ^ 11.6 & m ftin.
  108. ^ Producers Guild Awards.
  109. ^ Pond 2011.
  110. ^ National Society of Film Critics.
  111. ^ Maslin 1993.
  112. ^ Los Angeles Film Critics Association.
  113. ^ Loshitsky 1997, pp. 2, 21.
  114. ^ Giardina 2011.
  115. ^ BAFTA Awards 1993.
  116. ^ Chicago Film Critics Awards 1993.
  117. ^ Golden Globe Awards 1993.
  118. ^ American Film Institute 1998.
  119. ^ American Film Institute 2003.
  120. ^ American Film Institute 2005.
  121. ^ American Film Institute 2006.
  122. ^ American Film Institute 2007.
  123. ^ American Film Institute 2008.
  124. ^ Chuang 1997.
  125. ^ CNN 1997.
  126. ^ Branigin 1994.
  127. ^ Kosulicova 2002.
  128. ^ Bresheeth 1997, p. 205.

Further reading

  • Nina Burleigh, Stranger and the Statesman: James Smithson, John Quincy Adams, and the Making of America's Greatest Museum, The Smithsonian. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.
  • Heather Ewing, The Lost World of James Smithson: Science, Revolution, and the Birth of the Smithsonian. Bloomsbury, 2007.
  • United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Collections Stewardship at the Smithsonian: Hearing before the Committee on House Administration, House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013.
  • William S. Walker, A Living Exhibition: The Smithsonian and the Transformation of the Universal Museum. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2013.

External links

  • Official website
  • Museum locations map
  • Smithsonian Education webpage
  • Smithsonian Wild web page
  • Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press webpage
  • Smithsonian Collections Search Center.
  • Smithsonian Science Education Center
  • A brief history of the U.S. National Museum/National Museum of Natural History

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.