World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pensacola, Florida

Article Id: WHEBN0000109162
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pensacola, Florida  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: National Register of Historic Places listings in Escambia County, Florida, Pensacola metropolitan area, List of television stations in Florida, List of Florida hurricanes (pre-1900), U.S. Route 90 in Florida
Collection: 1698 Establishments, Cities in Escambia County, Florida, Cities in Florida, Cities in Pensacola Metropolitan Area, County Seats in Florida, Former Colonial and Territorial Capitals in the United States, Pensacola, Florida, Populated Places Established in 1559, Populated Places on the Intracoastal Waterway in Florida, Port Cities and Towns of the United States Gulf Coast, Port Cities in Florida
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Pensacola, Florida

Pensacola, Florida
City of Pensacola
Up Clockwise: Pensacola Skyline, T. T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State Museum, University of West Florida Library, Escambia County Courthouse, William Dudley Chipley Obelisk,  National Naval Aviation Museum
Official seal of Pensacola, Florida
Nickname(s): America's First Settlement, The Upside of Florida, P-Cola, The City of Five Flags, Red Snapper Capital of the World,[1] World's Whitest Beaches,[2] Cradle of Naval Aviation,[3] Western Gate to the Sunshine State[4]
Motto: "The Upside of Florida"
Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida
Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida
Pensacola, Florida is located in USA
Pensacola, Florida
Pensacola, Florida
Location in the United States
Country United States
State Florida
County Escambia
1st Settled 1559
Resettled 1667
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Body Pensacola City Council
 • Mayor Ashton Hayward
 • Council President Jewel Cannada-Wynn
 • Council Vice President Megan B. Pratt
 • City 39.7 sq mi (102.7 km2)
 • Land 22.7 sq mi (58.8 km2)
 • Water 17.0 sq mi (43.9 km2)
Elevation 102 ft (31 m)
Population (2010)
 • City 51,923
 • Density 2,303.5/sq mi (956.8/km2)
 • Metro 461,227
 • Demonym Pensacolan, Pensacolian
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code 32501, 32512, 32534, 32591, 32502, 32513, 32559, 32592, 32503, 32514, 32573, 32593, 32504, 32516, 32574, 32594, 32505, 32520, 32575, 32595, 32506, 32521, 32576, 32596, 32507, 32522, 32581, 32597, 32508, 32523, 32582, 32598, 32509, 32524, 32589, 32511, 32526, 32590, 32507
Area code(s) 850
FIPS code 12-55925[5]
GNIS feature ID 0294117[6]

Pensacola () is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the county seat of Escambia County, Florida, United States.[7] As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 51,923.[8] Pensacola is the principal city of the Pensacola metropolitan area, which had an estimated 461,227 residents in 2012.[9]

Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, which is protected by the barrier island of Santa Rosa and connects to the Gulf of Mexico. A large United States Naval Air Station, the first in the United States, is located southwest of Pensacola (near Warrington); it is the base of the Blue Angels flight demonstration team and the National Naval Aviation Museum. The main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center.

The area was originally inhabited by Muskogean peoples; the Pensacola people lived there at the time of European contact and Creek people frequently visited and traded from present-day southern Alabama. Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna founded a short-lived settlement in 1559. In 1698 the Spanish established a presidio in the area, from which the modern city gradually developed. The area changed hands several times as European powers competed in North America. During Florida's British rule (1763–1789), fortifications were strengthened.

It is nicknamed "The City of Five Flags," due to the five governments that have ruled it during its history: the flags of Spain (Castile), France, Great Britain, the United States of America and the Confederate States of America. Other nicknames include "World's Whitest Beaches" (due to the white sand of Florida panhandle beaches), "Cradle of Naval Aviation", "Western Gate to the Sunshine State", "America's First Settlement", "Emerald Coast", "Redneck Riviera", "Red Snapper Capital of the World", and "P-Cola".


  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Topography 2.1
    • Climate 2.2
      • Hurricanes 2.2.1
      • Statistics 2.2.2
  • Demographics 3
  • Architecture 4
  • Economy 5
    • Personal income 5.1
    • Military 5.2
    • Hospitals 5.3
    • Tourism 5.4
  • Law and government 6
    • Politics 6.1
    • Regional representatives 6.2
    • Sister cities 6.3
  • Transportation 7
    • Aviation 7.1
    • Railroads 7.2
    • Major highways 7.3
    • Mass Transit 7.4
    • Intercity Bus 7.5
  • Education 8
    • Universities and colleges 8.1
    • High schools 8.2
    • Elementary schools 8.3
  • Culture 9
    • The arts and theatre 9.1
    • Parks and recreation 9.2
  • Sports 10
  • Media 11
  • Notable people 12
  • See also 13
  • References 14
  • External links 15


Historical affiliations

Spanish Empire 1559-1719, 1722-1763 & 1781-1819
French Empire 1719-1722
British Empire 1763-1781
Confederate States of America 1861-1862
United States of America 1821-1861 & 1862–present

Pensacola was the site of one of the first European-inhabited settlements in what would later become the United States of America
Pensacola: site of 1698 settlement near Fort Barrancas is marked "X" (above left end of Santa Rosa Island)

The original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay area were Native American peoples. At the time of European contact, a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola lived in the region. This name was not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appear to be the source of the name "Pensacola" for the bay and thence the city.[10] Creek people, also Muskogean-speaking, came regularly from present-day southern Alabama to trade, so the peoples were part of a broader regional and even continental network of relations.[11]

The best-known Pensacola Culture site in terms of archeology is the Bottle Creek site, a large site located 59 miles west of Pensacola north of Mobile, Alabama. This site has at least 18 large earthwork mounds; five of which are arranged around a central plaza. Its main occupation was from 1250CE to 1550. It was a ceremonial center for the Pensacola people, and a gateway to their society. This site would have had easy access by a dugout canoe, the main mode of transportation used by the Pensacola.[12]

The area's written recorded history begins in the 16th century, with documentation by Spanish explorers who were the first Europeans to reach the area. The expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539 both visited Pensacola Bay, calling it the Bay of Ochuse.[13]

The Spanish Navy training ship Juan Sebastian de Elcano fires a 21-gun salute in honor of Pensacola's 450th anniversary in 2009.

In 1559, Tristán de Luna y Arellano landed with over 1,400 people on 11 ships from VeraCruz, Mexico.[13][14][15] The expedition was to establish an outpost, called Ochuse by de Luna, as a base for Spanish efforts to colonize Santa Elena (present-day Parris Island, South Carolina.) But, the colony was decimated by a hurricane on September 19, 1559,[13][15] which killed hundreds, sank five ships, grounded a caravel, and ruined supplies. The 1,000 survivors divided to relocate the settlement, but due to famine and attacks by the Pensacola, they abandoned their effort in 1561.[15] About 240 people sailed to Santa Elena, but another storm hit there. Survivors abandoned the settlement and sailed to Cuba.[15] The remaining 50 at Pensacola were taken back to Mexico. The Viceroy's advisers concluded northwest Florida was too dangerous to settle, a view which stood for 135 years.[15]

In the late 17th century, the French began exploring the lower Mississippi River with the intention of colonizing the region as part of La Louisiane or New France in North America. Fearful that Spanish territory would be threatened, the Spanish founded a new settlement in western Florida. In 1698 they established a fortified town near what is now Fort Barrancas, laying the foundation for permanent European-dominated settlement of the modern city of Pensacola.[16] The Spanish built three presidios in Pensacola:[17]

  • Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (1698–1719): the presidio included fort San Carlos de Austria (east of present Fort Barrancas) and a village with church;[17]
  • Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa (1722–1752): this next presidio was on western Santa Rosa Island near the site of present Fort Pickens, but hurricanes battered the island in 1741 and 1752. The garrison was moved to the mainland;[17]
  • Presidio San Miguel de Panzacola (1754–1763): the final presidio was built about five miles east of the first presidio; the present-day historic district of downtown Pensacola, named from "Panzacola", developed around the fort.[17]

During the early years of settlement, a tri-racial creole society developed. As a fortified trading post, the Spanish had mostly men stationed here. Some married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos. The Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism and militia service. Most went to the area around St. Augustine but escaped slaves also reached Pensacola.

After years of settlement, the Spanish ceded Florida to the British in 1763 as a result of an exchange following British victory over France in the French and Indian War (the North American front of the Seven Years' War), and French cession of its territories in North America. The British designated Pensacola as the capital of their new colony of West Florida. From 1763, the British strengthened defenses around the mainland area of fort San Carlos de Barrancas, building the Royal Navy Redoubt.

After Spain joined the

  • City of Pensacola
  • Pensacola Scene And Events
  • Pensapedia, the Pensacola encyclopedia
  • Pensacola Bay Area Convention & Visitors Bureau

External links

hurricane history for Pensacola

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ UWF - About UWF - Location
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Jane E. Dysart, "Another Road to Disappearance: Assimilation of Creek Indians in Pensacola, Florida during the Nineteenth Century", The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 61, No. 1 (July 1982), pp. 37-48, Published by: Florida Historical Society, Article Stable URL: accessed 26 June 2014
  12. ^ Archaeology of Native North America, 2010, Dean R. Snow, Prentice-Hall, New York. pp. 248–249
  13. ^ a b c
  14. ^ a b c d
  15. ^ a b c d e
  16. ^
  17. ^ a b c d
  18. ^ a b
  19. ^
  20. ^ a b c d
  21. ^
  22. ^ a b
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ a b c d
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^


See also

Notable people

Pensacola Magazine, the city's monthly glossy magazine, and Northwest Florida's Business Climate, the only business magazine devoted to the region, are published locally. The News Journal also publishes Home & Garden Weekly magazine as well as the monthly Bella, devoted to women.

Pensacola is also home to WEAR-TV, the ABC affiliate for Pensacola, Fort Walton Beach, and Mobile, Alabama, and WSRE-TV, the local PBS member station, which is operated by Pensacola State College. Other television stations in the market include WALA-TV, the Fox affiliate; WKRG, the CBS affiliate; and WPMI, the NBC affiliate, which all are located in Mobile. Cable service in the city is provided by Cox Communications and AT&T U-Verse. WUWF is the area's NPR affiliate and is based at the University of West Florida.

The largest daily newspaper in the area is the Pensacola News Journal, with offices on Romana Street in downtown; the News Journal is owned by the Gannett Company. There is an alternative weekly newspaper, the Pensacola Independent News.


Team Sport League Venue
Pensacola Ice Flyers Ice hockey Southern Professional Hockey League Pensacola Bay Center
Gulf Coast Riptide American football Women's Spring Football League Escambia High School
Pensacola Blue Wahoos Baseball Southern League (AA) Pensacola Bayfront Stadium
West Florida Argonauts Baseball, Basketball, etc. NCAA Division II Gulf South Conference University of West Florida


Parks and recreation

Pensacola and Pensacola Beach are mentioned in the Jodie Foster movie "Contact", based on the book by Carl Sagan.

There are a number of different performance venues in the Pensacola Area, including the Pensacola Civic Center, often used for big ticket events, and the Saenger Theater, used for performances and mid level events. Other theatres used for live performances, plays and musicals include the Pensacola Little Theatre, Pensacola State College, University of West Florida, Vinyl Music Hall, and Loblolly Theatre. Pensacola is also home to the Pensacola Opera, Pensacola Children's Chorus, Pensacola Symphony Orchestra, and the Choral Society of Pensacola, as well as Ballet Pensacola. There is also the Palafox Place entertainment district.

Saenger Theater in Downtown Pensacola.

The arts and theatre


  • Cordova Park Elementary School
  • O.J. Semmes Elementary school
  • Scenic Heights Elementary School
  • Holm Elementary School
  • N.B. Cook Elementary School
  • Global Learning Academy
  • Pleasant Grove Elementary School
  • Long Leaf Elementary School
  • Blue Angels Elementary
  • LD McArthur Elementary School
  • Myrtle Grove Elementary School
  • Beulah Elementary School
  • Bellview Elementary School
  • Warrington Elementary School
  • Abeka elementary school
  • Sherwood Elementary School

Elementary schools

High schools

Universities and colleges

Public primary and secondary education schools in Pensacola are administered by the Escambia County School District. The current superintendent of schools for Escambia County is Malcolm Thomas. The University of West Florida, located north of the city, is the largest post-secondary institution in the area. It also has the largest library in the region, the John C. Pace Library.


Greyhound bus service is also available.

Intercity Bus

The local bus service is the Escambia County Area Transit.[46] In December 2007, ECAT announced that it would cut many of its routes citing poor rider frequency. However, in January 2008, ECAT announced that it would expand service to neighboring Gulf Breeze and change existing routes to more convenient locations.[47]

Mass Transit

Major highways

From early 1993 through August 2005 Pensacola was served by the tri-weekly Amtrak Sunset Limited, but service east of New Orleans to Jacksonville and Orlando was suspended due to damage to the rail line of CSX during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Attempts are being made to have service restored. This was previously the route of the Gulf Wind operated by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad.[44][45]


Major air traffic in the Pensacola and greater northwest Florida area is handled by Pensacola International Airport. Airlines currently serving Pensacola International Airport are American Eagle, Delta Connection, Delta Air Lines, Silver Airways, Southwest Airlines, United Express, and US Airways.


ECAT bus, June 2006


According to Sister City International, Pensacola has the following sister cities:[43]

Sister cities

Pensacola is currently represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by Jeff Miller (R), in the state senate by [1] Greg Evers (R), and in the state house by [2] District 1 Rep. Clay Ingram (R) and District 2 Rep. Mike Hill (R).[42]

Regional representatives

Chuck Baldwin, the 2008 presidential nominee of the Constitution Party, is the pastor of Crossroad Baptist Church in Pensacola.

In the George Wallace.

This changed in 1994, when Republican attorney Joe Scarborough defeated Vince Whibbs, Jr. the son of popular former Democratic mayor Vince Whibbs, in a landslide to represent Florida's 1st congressional district, which is based in Pensacola. Republicans also swept all of the area's seats in the state legislature, the majority of which were held by Democrats. Since then, Republicans have dominated every level of government, although municipal elections are officially nonpartisan. In August 2005, registered Republicans outnumbered Democrats for the first time in the area's history. As of August 2005, in Escambia County, 44% of the residents are registered Republicans compared to 39.91% of the population having registered as Democrats with another 13.21% having no party affiliation.[41]

As was the case in most of Florida, the Democratic primary was the real contest for most state and local elections until the 1970s. However, from the 1960s onward, residents of this staunchly conservative military and Bible Belt city began splitting their tickets and voting Republican in national elections. Despite this, Democrats continued to win most elections at the state and local level well into the 1990s, though most of them were very conservative even by Southern Democratic standards.

Like other parts of the African Methodist Episcopal Church who was previously a Republican and switched parties to the Democrats. Following Governor Perry's dissolution of the Republican government, the city remained Democratic for more than a century after the Civil War with no African Americans serving in an elected capacity for nearly a century.


City voters approved a charter amendment on June 11, 2013 which eliminated the then-nine member Council's two at-large seats; one seat was phased out in November 2014, and the other will expire in November 2016. Two additional charter amendments were approved on November 4, 2014 which made the position of mayor subject to recall and provided the City Council with the authority to hire staff. The current City Hall was opened in 1986.

The City of Pensacola utilizes a strong mayor-council form of government, which was adopted in 2011 after citizens voted in 2009 to approve a new city charter. An elected mayor, currently Ashton Hayward, serves as the chief executive of the city government, while an eight-member City Council serves as the city's governing body. A Council President, who presides over meetings of the Council, is selected by the Council from its members, along with a Vice President.

Council Members
District Council Member
1 P.C. Wu
2 Sherri Myers
3 Andy Terhaar
4 Larry B. Johnson
5 Gerald Wingate
6 Brian Spencer
7 Jewel Cannada-Wynn
8 (at large) Charles Bare

Law and government

The city's convention and visitors' bureau, Visit Pensacola,[39] is overseen by the Greater Pensacola Chamber.[40]

Pensacola is the site of The Vietnam Veteran's Wall South. There are a number of historical military installations from the Civil War including Fort Barrancas. Fort Pickens served as a temporary prison for Geronimo. There is the National Naval Aviation Museum and Pensacola Lighthouse at NAS Pensacola.

There are several walking tours of the historic 18th century era restored neighborhoods.

There are a number of annual festivals, events, historic tours, and landmarks. The Pensacola Seafood Festival and The Pensacola Crawfish Festival held in the heart of historic Downtown has been held for nearly 30 years with live music acts. The Great Gulfcoast Arts Festival is held annually in November in Seville Square often drawing more than 200 regional and international artists as well as The Children's Art Festival which is held in the same park featuring art by children from local area schools.


  • Santa Rosa Medical Center - Official Site (located in nearby Milton)
  • Naval Hospital Pensacola - Official Site (restricted to military personnel/dependents/authorized persons)
  • Select Specialty Hospital - Official Site [38]
  • Gulf Breeze Hospital - Official Site (located in nearby Gulf Breeze)
  • The Andrews Institute - Official Site (located in nearby Gulf Breeze)
  • Sacred Heart Health System - Official Site[37]
  • West Florida Hospital - Official Site
  • Baptist Hospital - Official Site


Corry Station Naval Technical Training Center serves as an annex for the main base and the Center for Information Dominance. CWO3 Gary R. Schuetz Memorial Health Clinic is at Corry Station, Naval Hospital Pensacola, as is the main Navy Exchange and Defense Commissary Agency commissary complex for both Corry Station and NAS Pensacola. The Army National Guard B Troop 1-153 Cavalry, Bravo Company 146th Expeditionary Signal Battalion is stationed in Pensacola.

The National Museum of Naval Aviation is located on the Naval Air Station and is free to the public. The museum cares for and exhibits hundreds of vintage Naval Aviation aircraft and preserves the history of Naval Aviation through displays, symposiums, IMAX movies and tours.

The city has been referred to as "The Cradle of Naval Aviation". Naval Air Station Pensacola (NASP) was the first Naval Air Station commissioned by the U.S. Navy in 1914. Tens of thousands Naval Aviators have received their training there including John H. Glenn, USMC who became the first American to orbit the earth in 1962 and Neil Armstrong who became the first man to set foot on the moon in 1969. The Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, is stationed there.


The median income for a household in the city was $34,779, and the median income for a family was $42,868. Males had a median income of $32,258 versus $23,582 for females. The per capita income for the city was $30,556 in 2011. About 12.7% of families and 16.3%[36] of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

Personal income


Historic buildings in Pensacola include the First National Bank Building.

Pensacola does not have a prominent skyline, but it does have several low-rise buildings. The tallest is the 15 floor Crowne Plaza Grand Hotel, which stands at 146 feet. Other tall buildings include the Scenic Apartments (98 feet), SunTrust Tower (96 feet), Seville Tower (88 feet), and the AT&T Building (76 feet).

Map of Pensacola
The Seville Tower is one of the many historic and famous buildings in Pensacola


Jurisdictions outside the city have opposed its overtures to annex more area. With limited geographic area, the city has held its 2000 Census population figure at 56,255.

Pensacola is home to a small (0.15% of city residents)[34] but significant Jewish community, whose roots date mostly to German Jewish immigrants of the mid-to-late 19th century. There were also Sephardic Jewish migrants from other areas of the South, and immigrants from other areas of Europe. The first Florida chapter of B'nai Brith was founded downtown in 1874, as well as the first temple, Beth-El, in 1876. Apart from the Reform Beth-El, Pensacola is also served by the Conservative B'nai Israel Synagogue.[35] Paula Ackerman, the first woman who performed rabbinical functions in the United States, was a Pensacola native and led services at Beth-El.

Out of the total population in Pensacola, 45.9% identify with a religion, slightly lower than the national average of 48.34%.[34] Over 48% of Pensacolians who practice a religion identify as Baptists (22.14% of all city residents).[34] Other Christian denominations include Roman Catholics (9.22% of city residents), Pentecostal (3.82%), Methodist (3.77%), Episcopal (1.11%), Presbyterian (1.08%), and Orthodox (0.30%).[34]

There were 24,524 households out of which 24.6% had children living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.2% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.92.

As of the census[5] of 2010, there were 51,923 people, 23,600 households, and 14,665 families residing in the city, and 402,000 people in the Pensacola MSA. The population density was 2,303.5 people per square mile (956.8/km²). There were 26,848 housing units at an average density of 1,189.4 per square mile (459.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 66.3% White, 28.0% African American, 2.0% Asian, 0.6% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from two or more races. 3.3% Hispanic or Latino of any race.


Climate data for Pensacola, Florida (Pensacola Int'l), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 81
Average high °F (°C) 60.5
Average low °F (°C) 42.2
Record low °F (°C) 5
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.64
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 8.9 8.6 8.1 6.5 6.7 11.1 14.0 13.6 8.8 6.1 7.2 9.0 108.6
Source: NOAA (extremes 1879–present)[22]

Weather statistics since the late 20th century have been recorded at the airport. The city has seen single digit temperatures (below −12 °C) on three occasions: 5 °F (−15 °C) on January 21, 1985, 7 °F (−14 °C) on February 13, 1899 and 8 °F (−13 °C) on January 11, 1982.[30] According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Pensacola has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.[31]

Cantonment Clinch, a short-lived United States Army outpost, began providing meteorological observations in the 1820s through the 1830s. Observations from the Pensacola area by other sources continued intermittently over the next several decades.


Pensacola received only a glancing blow from Hurricane Katrina in 2005, resulting in light to moderate damage reported in the area. The aftermath of the extensive damage from Katrina was a dramatic reduction in tourism coming from Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama.

Over $6 billion in damage occurred in the metro area and more than 10,000 homes were destroyed, with another 27,000 heavily damaged. NASA created a comparison image to illustrate the massive damage. Because of the widespread losses, Hurricane Ivan drove up the cost of housing in the area, leading to a severe shortage of affordable housing. In July 2005, Hurricane Dennis made landfall just east of the city, sparing it the damage received from Ivan the year before. However, hurricane and near-hurricane force winds were recorded in downtown, causing moderate damage.

Pensacola and several surrounding areas were devastated by Hurricane Ivan. Pensacola was on the eastern side of the eyewall, which sent a large storm surge into Escambia Bay; this destroyed most of the I-10 Escambia Bay Bridge. The storm knocked 58 spans off the eastbound and westbound bridges and misaligned another 66 spans, forcing the bridge to close to traffic in both directions.[28] The surge also destroyed the fishing bridge that spanned Pensacola Bay alongside the Phillip Beale Memorial Bridge, locally known as the Three Mile Bridge.[29]

Pensacola's location on the 1998), Ivan (2004), and Dennis (2005).

Damage done by Hurricane Ivan in 2004 at the bayou near Naval Air Station.


Snow is rare in Pensacola, but does occasionally fall. The most recent snow event occurred on February 12, 2010.[25] The city receives 64.28 inches (1,630 mm) of precipitation per year, with a rainy season in the summer. The rainiest month is July, with 7.40 inches (188 mm), with May being the driest month at 4.17 inches (106 mm).[20] In June 2012 over one foot (300 mm) of rain fell on Pensacola and adjacent areas, leading to widespread flooding.[26] On April 29, 2014. Pensacola was drenched by at least 20 inches of rain within a 24-hour period, causing the worst flooding in 30 years[27]

The climate of Pensacola is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), with short, mild winters and hot, humid summers. Typical summer conditions have highs in the lower 90s °F (32–34 °C) and lows in the mid 70s °F (23–24 °C).[20] Afternoon or evening thunderstorms are common during the summer months. Due partly to the coastal location, temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) are relatively rare, and last occurred in June 2011, when two of the first four days of the month recorded highs reaching the century mark.[21] The highest temperature ever recorded in the city was 106 °F (41 °C) on July 14, 1980.[20] The daily average temperature in January is 51.4 °F (10.8 °C); freezing temperatures occur on an average 13.7 nights per season, with the average window for freezing conditions being from December 13 to February 20.[22] Temperatures below 20 °F (−7 °C) are very rare, and last occurred on January 8, 2015,[23] when a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) was seen.[24] The lowest temperature ever recorded in the city was 5 °F (−15 °C) on January 21, 1985.[20]


Pensacola is located at (30.436988, −87.209277).[19] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 39.7 square miles (102.8 km2), consisting of 22.7 square miles (59 km2) of land and 17.0 square miles (44.0 km2) (42.77%) water.



In 1907-1908 there were 116 Creek in Pensacola who applied for the Eastern Cherokee enrollment, thinking that all Indians were eligible to enroll. Based on Alabama census records, most of these individuals have been found to be descendants of Creek who had migrated to the Pensacola area from southern Alabama after Indian removal of the 1830s.[11]

While the bill excluded half-bloods and Indians already living in white communities, they went "underground" to escape persecution. No Indians were listed in late 19th and early 20th century censuses for Escambia County. People of Indian descent were forced into the white or black communities by appearance, and officially, in terms of records, "disappeared". It was a pattern repeated in many Southern settlements. Children of white fathers and Indian mothers were not designated as Indian in the late 19th century, whereas children of blacks or mulattos were classified within the black community, related to laws during the slavery years.[11]

Tensions between the white community and Indians tended to increase during the Removal era. In addition, an increasing proportion of Anglo-Americans, who constituted the majority of whites by 1840, led to a hardening of racial discrimination in the area.[11] There was disapproval of white men living with women of color, which had previously been accepted. In 1853 the legislature passed a bill prohibiting Indians from living in the state, and provided for capture and removal to Indian Territory.[11]

St. Michael's Cemetery was established in the 18th century at a location in a south central part of the city, which developed as the Downtown area. Initially owned by the Church of St. Michael, it is now owned and managed by St. Michael's Cemetery Foundation of Pensacola, Inc.[18] Preliminary studies indicate that there are over 3200 marked burials as well as a large number unmarked.[18]

In 1821, with Andrew Jackson as provisional governor, Pensacola became part of the United States.[14] The Creek continued to interact with European Americans and African Americans, but the dominant whites increasingly imposed their binary racial classifications: white and black ("colored", within which were included free people of color, including Indians.) But, American Indians and mestizos were identified separately in court and Catholic church records, and as Indians in censuses up until 1840, attesting to their presence in the society. After that, the Creek were not separately identified as Indian, but the people did not disappear. Even after removal of many Seminole to Indian Territory, Indians, often of mixed-race but culturally identifying as Muskogean, lived throughout Florida.[11]

[11] In 1819 Spain and the United States negotiated the

A 1783 engraving depicting the Siege of Pensacola

Americans made raids into the area, and settlers pressured the federal government to gain control of this territory. [11]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.