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Official 4-H emblem
Motto "To make the best better."
Formation Circa 1902
Type Youth organization
Legal status Non-profit organization
Purpose "Engaging youth to reach their fullest potential while advancing the field of youth development."
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Region served
6.5 million members in the United States, ages 5 to 21
Main organ
National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA)
Parent organization
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

4-H is a global network of

  • 4-H Website Official website for more information about 4-H on all levels of the 4-H system
  • National 4-H Youth Conference Center
  • 4-H Canada
  • The National Collegiate 4-H website
  • National 4-H Council Non-profit partner of 4-H and the Cooperative Extension System
  • National 4-H Headquarters Official 4-H government website by the USDA

External links

  1. ^ a b "The California 4-H Youth Development Program - Directions for the Decade Ahead" (PDF). Winter 2003. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  2. ^ "4-H Structure". 4-H Canada. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  3. ^ "4-H Around the World". 4-H (USA). Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  4. ^ National 4-H Council, National 4-H Headquarters, and e-mail dated December 3, 2007 from Suzanne Le Menestrel, National Program Leader, Youth Development Research, National 4-H Headquarters
  5. ^ The Father of Wisconsin 4-H. The Ransom Asa Moore Story, Author: Gleason, Marjorie and William, Publication: 1989 Accurate Publishing & Printing Inc., pg. 9
  6. ^ The Father of Wisconsin 4-H. The Ransom Asa Moore Story, Author: Gleason, Marjorie and William, Publication: 1989 Accurate Publishing & Printing Inc., pg. 10
  7. ^ Kewaunee Enterprise, February 26, 1941, “Death Takes Prof. Moore”
  8. ^ a b The Father of Wisconsin 4-H. The Ransom Asa Moore Story, Author: Gleason, Marjorie and William, Publication: 1989 Accurate Publishing & Printing Inc.
  9. ^ Longden, Tom. Famous Iowans: Jessie Field Shambaugh. Des Moines Register
  10. ^
  11. ^ "Compilation of early correspondence and publications related to Boys' and Girls' Club Work produced by the United States Department of Agriculture". National Agricultural Library Digital Repository. Archived from the original on 14 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  12. ^ Journal of Research in Childhood Education. "Cooperative and Competitive Orientations in 4-H and Non-4-H Children". Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  13. ^ "4-H Detailed History". College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  14. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions | FAQ". 4-H. Retrieved 2013-02-14. 
  15. ^ "Elsie Carper Collection on Extension Service, Home Economics, and 4-H". National Agricultural Library. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  16. ^ "U.S. House of Representatives, 18 USC Sec. 707, 4-H club emblem fraudulently used". Office of the Law Revision Counsel. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  17. ^ "Using the 4-H Name and Emblem" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  18. ^ The Journal of Extension (JOE). "Volunteer Management Needs Assessment of the Tennessee 4-H Program". The Journal of Extension. Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  19. ^ The Journal of Extension (JOE). "Relationships Between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs". The Journal of Extension. Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  20. ^ Child Study Journal. "Building Life Skills through Afterschool Participation in Experimental and Cooperative Learning". Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  21. ^ The Journal of Extension (JOE). "Programming Parameters for 5-to-8-Year-Old Children in 4-H". The Journal of Extension. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  22. ^ "West Virginia 4-H All Star History". West Virginia 4-H All Star Website. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  23. ^ "4-H All Star California". University of California 4-H Youth Development Program. Archived from the original on June 20, 2009. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  24. ^ "Texas Gold Star Award Application" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  25. ^ Virginia 4-H "All-Star Brochure" by the Virginia Cooperative Extension. Archived February 7, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "4-H National Headquarters - 4-H Conference and Congress". 2009-07-22. Archived from the original on 7 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  27. ^ "About National 4-H Congress". National 4-H Congress. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  28. ^ "National 4-H Dairy Conference". Wisconsin 4-H Youth Development. Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  29. ^ "Eastern National 4-H Horse Roundup". Eastern National 4-H Roundup. Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  30. ^ "Western National 4-H Horse Roundup". Western National 4-H Roundup. Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  31. ^ "National 4-H Shooting Sports Invitational Match Results". 4-H Shooting Sports. Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  32. ^ The Journal of Extension (JOE). "4-H Experiences Contributing to Leadership and Personal Development of 4-H Alumni". The Journal of Extension. Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  33. ^ a b Washington, The (2002-06-25). Administration probes 4-H Indian themes" Washington Times, June 25, 2002""". Retrieved 2013-11-28. 
  34. ^ "West Virginia 4-H clubs abandoning offensive Indian practices, but will keep tribal names" Bismarck Tribune, December 17, 2002
  35. ^ "Virginia 4-H yields; Officials drop terms offensive to some Indians" by Jon Ward, The Washington Times, June 28, 2002


See also

For many years, use of Native American names and certain themed activities was part of the summer camping programs of some eastern states. However, this practice was deemed offensive and protests were raised. A complaint to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Office of Civil Rights in 2002 and an ensuing investigation that threatened to cut off funds to the state's program[33] prompted the West Virginia University Extension Service to abandon offensive and stereotypic practices such as face-painting, and use of imagery not a part of the culture of local Native people, such as tepees and totem poles,[33] They also eliminated the practice of having children wear feather headdresses, and stopped having campers engage in "stereotypical motions and dances," including chanting "Ugh! Ugh! Ugh!". However, they deemed the dividing of campers into groups, called "tribes" named after actual Indian Nations, was respectful and acceptable[34] That same year, the Virginia Extension Service removed all references to symbols or camp "traditions" related to Native Americans, including the decades-long practice of dividing campers into "tribes" using names of nations considered native to Virginia, replacing the group names with animal names.[35]

One out of every seven adults in the U.S. is a former 4-H member. Participation in 4-H events and activities, the value of projects completed and the challenges and responsibilities experienced in 4-H have contributed to the personal and leadership development of 4-H alumni. A majority of alumni feel that 4-H experiences have also significantly contributed to their success in the workforce and that the knowledge and skills gained through 4-H continue to benefit them in their adult lives.[32] Many top entertainers, athletes, business individuals and educators got their first start in 4-H.


Other conferences are held by regional and state entities for youth, for volunteer development, or for professional development for staff.

  • National 4-H Dairy Conference[28]
  • Eastern National 4-H Horse Roundup[29]
  • Western National 4-H Horse Roundup[30]
  • National 4-H Shooting Sports Invitational Match[31]

The following national conferences are held yearly, and are focused on specific activities inside of 4-H:

[27][26] The National 4-H Congress is an annual educational conference that brings together 4-H delegates between the ages of 14 and 19 from across America to share cultural experiences and discuss important issues facing youth. This five-day event is typically held during the weekend of Thanksgiving and has been hosted in

Many conferences are held at various levels of the 4-H program for youth and adults. The National 4-H Conference, held at National 4-H Youth Conference Center is the USDA Secretary's premier youth development opportunity to engage youth in developing recommendations for the 4-H Youth Development Program.


[25] In

Many states have All Star programs, although All Star programs vary from state to state. Selection as a 4-H All Star is a recognition of achievement. In California, for example, it is the highest achievement award at the county level and is a position awarded annually.[23] Similarly, the capstone award in Texas 4-H is the Gold Star Award, which is given to Seniors who have shown outstanding leadership and proficiency in their project areas.[24]

[22] Finding its roots in the early 4-H movement in

All Stars

Many colleges and universities have collegiate 4-H clubs. Usually members are students who are 4-H alumni and want to continue a connection to 4-H, but any interested students are welcome. Clubs provide service and support to their local and state 4-H programs, such as serving as judges and conducting training workshops. They are also a service and social group for campus students. The very first collegiate 4-H club started in 1916 on the Oklahoma State University - Stillwater campus.

National Collegiate 4-H club emblem


Some states offer programs for youth in grades K-3 called Cloverbuds, Cloverkids, 4H Adventurers, Primary Members, or Mini 4-H. Most states prohibit this age group from competition due to research in child development demonstrating that competition is unhealthy for youth ages five to eight.[21]

Five- to eight-year-old youth

Each state runs its own camping program. The first state 4-H camp was held at Rock Eagle. The first 4-H camp built was Camp Good Luck in Randolph County, West Virginia.


The life skills gained through 4-H Afterschool give children the tools they need for perceiving and responding to diverse life situations and achieving their personal goals. Participation in these quality programs which use experiential and cooperative learning have all been found to contribute to children's social development and academic success.[20]

4-H Afterschool programs utilize experimental and cooperative learning activities and provide interaction with competent adults. Results of retrospective pre/post-surveys indicate that children enrolled in the program showed life skill gain over time, and that gains on specific life skills differed as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity.

  • Offers youth a safe, healthy, caring and enriching environment.
  • Engages youth in long-term, structured learning in partnership with adults.
  • Addresses the interests of youth and their physical, cognitive, social and emotional needs.

4-H Afterschool helps 4-H and other youth-serving organizations create and improve programs for students in communities across the U.S. 4-H Afterschool is an extension-enhanced program that:


Additional programs

Volunteers serve in many diverse roles. Some are project leaders who teach youth skills and knowledge in an area of interest. Others are unit or community club leaders who organize clubs meetings and other programs. Resource leaders are available to provide information and expertise. 4-H volunteers work under the direction of professional staff to plan and conduct activities and events, develop and maintain educational programs, and secure resources in support of the program.

Volunteer leaders play a major role in 4-H programs and are the heart and soul of 4-H. They perform a variety of roles, functions and tasks to coordinate the 4-H program at the county level and come from all walks of life, bringing varied and rich experiences to the 4-H program. With over 540,000 volunteers nationally, these leaders play an essential role in the delivery of 4-H programs and provide learning opportunities to promote positive youth development. Every year, volunteer leaders work to carry out 4-H youth development programs, project groups, camps, conferences, animal shows and many more 4-H related activities and events. 4-H volunteer leaders help youth to achieve greater self-confidence and self-responsibility, learn new skills and build relationships with others that will last a lifetime.[19]

Volunteering has deep roots in American society. Over half of the American people will volunteer in some capacity during a year's time. It is estimated that 44% of adults (over 83.9 million people) will volunteer within a year. This volunteerism is valued at over $239 billion per year. These volunteers come from all different age groups, educational levels, backgrounds and socioeconomic statuses.[18]


Through the program's tie to land-grant institutions of higher education, 4-H academic staff are responsible for advancing the field of [1] Professional academic staff are committed to innovation, the creation of new knowledge, and the dissemination of new forms of program practice and research on topics like University of California's study of thriving in young people. Youth development research is undertaken in a variety of forms including program evaluation, applied research, and introduction of new programs.

Youth development research

Although having embraced many new fields of endeavor over the years, 4-H retains a strong connection to its roots in agriculture and the associated values of thrift, invention, education, compassion, conservation, encouragement, service, and general happiness and well-being.

The organization is often associated with summer camps, county fairs and state fairs. 4-H has spread out across the world and regularly awards and sponsors the States' 4-H International Exchange Program; formerly known as the International Four-H Youth Exchange (IFYE), trips, and cultural events (see external links).

The 4-H program aims to educate youth in arts and sciences and to encourage fellowship and service opportunities. With continued urban sprawl, 4-H continues to develop new projects for its members to study beyond agriculture and animal husbandry, including photography, conservation, cooking, public speaking, shooting sports, history, art, and other pursuits.

4-H is a community of young people across America learning citizenship, leadership, and life skills. 4-H programs can be found in three expansive mission mandates: Science; Citizenship; and Healthy Living.

Vanda Winegar, 14 with the banana nut bread which she made in 4-H, Redmond Deschutes County, Oregon, 1961
Sheep raising is offered as a 4-H project along with hundreds of other topics.

Program delivery

The 4-H name and emblem have U.S. federal protection under federal code 18 U.S.C. 707.[16] This federal protection makes it a mark unto and of itself with protection that supersedes the limited authorities of both a trademark and a copyright. The Secretary of Agriculture is given responsibility and stewardship for the 4-H name and emblem, at the direct request of the U.S. Congress. These protections place the 4-H emblem in a unique category of protected emblems, along with the U.S. Presidential Seal, Red Cross, Smokey Bear and the Olympic rings.[17]

The idea of using the four-leaf clover as an emblem for the 4-H program is credited to Oscar Herman Benson (1875–1951). When Wright County school superintendent Benson dropped by to visit a one-room schoolhouse near Clarion, Iowa, the students outside for recess presented him with a goodwill gift of seven just-picked four-leaf clovers. This simple gesture inspired Benson to select the four-leaf clover for the 4-H emblem. He awarded three-leaf and four-leaf clover pennants and pins for students' agricultural and domestic science exhibits at school fairs that Benson promoted.[15]

The official 4-H emblem is a green four-leaf clover with a white H on each leaf standing for Head, Heart, Hands, and Health. White and green are the 4-H colors. The white symbolizes purity and the green represents growth.

4-H emblem in Oldham County in Vega west of Amarillo, Texas


It is a common practice to involve hand motions to accompany these spoken words. While reciting the first line of the pledge, the speaker will point to their head with both of their hands. As the speaker recites the second line, they will place their right hand over their heart, much like during the Pledge of Allegiance. For the third line, the speaker will present their hands, palm side up, before them. For the fourth line, the speaker will motion to their body down their sides. And for the final line, the speaker will usually place their right hand out for club, left hand for community, bring them together for country, and then bring their hands upwards in a circle for world.

The original pledge was written by Otis E. Hall of Kansas in 1918. Some California 4-H clubs add either "As a true 4-H member" or "As a loyal 4-H member" at the beginning of the pledge. Minnesota and Maine 4-H clubs add "for my family" to the last line of the pledge. Originally, the pledge ended in "and my country". In 1973, "and my world" was added.

I pledge my head to clearer thinking,
My heart to greater loyalty,
My hands to larger service,
and my health to better living,
for my club, my community, my country, and my world.[14]

The 4-H pledge is:

Sign announcing 4-H membership on a ranch in Larimer County, Colorado


4-H membership hit an all-time high in 1974 as a result of its popular educational program about nutrition, Mulligan Stew, shown in schools and on television across the country. Today, 4-H clubs and activities are no longer focused primarily on agricultural activities, instead emphasizing personal growth and preparation for lifelong learning. Participation is greatest during the elementary school years, with enrollment in programs and activities peaking in the 4th grade.

The first 4-H camp was held in Newton County, Georgia, in 1904.


[8] In 1892, in an effort to improve the Kewaunee County Fair,

Club work began wherever a public-spirited person did something to give rural children respect for themselves and their ways of life and it is very difficult to credit one sole individual.[5] Instances of work with rural boys and girls can be found all throughout the 19th century. In the spring of 1882, Delaware College announced a state-wide corn contest for boys, in which each boy was to plant a quarter of an acre, according to instructions sent out from the college, and cash prizes, certificates, and subscriptions to the American Agriculturalist were rewarded.[6]

During this time researchers at experiment stations of the land-grant universities and USDA saw that adults in the farming community did not readily accept new agricultural discoveries, but educators found that youth would experiment with these new ideas and then share their experiences and successes with the adults. So rural youth programs became a way to introduce new agriculture technology to the adults.

The foundations of 4-H began in 1902 with the work of several people in different parts of the United States. The focal point of 4-H has been the idea of practical and hands-on learning, which came from the desire to make public school education more connected to rural life. Early programs tied both public and private resources together to benefit rural youth.

4-H Club member storing food she canned from her garden, Rockbridge County, Virginia, ca. 1942
A.B. Graham Building in Springfield, where the first club meetings were held
4-H African-American home demonstration agents in Florida in 1933
Boys showing prize heifers at a 4-H Fair in Charleston, West Virginia, 1921



  • History 1
  • Pledge 2
  • Emblem 3
  • Program delivery 4
  • Youth development research 5
  • Volunteers 6
  • Additional programs 7
    • After-school 7.1
    • Camping 7.2
    • Five- to eight-year-old youth 7.3
    • Collegiate 7.4
    • All Stars 7.5
  • Conferences 8
  • Alumni 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

The goal of 4-H is to develop citizenship, leadership, responsibility and life skills of youth through motto is "To make the best better", while its slogan is "Learn by doing" (sometimes written as "Learn to do by doing").

The 4-H name represents four personal development areas of focus for the organization: head, heart, hands, and health. The organization has over 6.5 million members in the United States, from ages 5 to 21, in approximately 90,000 clubs.[4]

the organization and administration varies from country to country. Each of these programs operates independently, but cooperatively through international exchanges, global education programs, and communications. [3]

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