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Boeing VC-25

A VC-25 over Mount Rushmore.
Role Presidential transport
Manufacturer Boeing
First flight May 16, 1987
Introduction August 23, 1990
Status In service
Primary user United States Air Force
Produced 1986–90
Number built 2
Unit cost
US$325 million
Developed from Boeing 747-200B

The Boeing VC-25 is the designation of a United States Air Force passenger transportation aircraft, a military version of the Boeing 747 airliner. The two modified Boeing 747s are designated VC-25A by the USAF.

The VC-25 is most famous for its role as Air Force One, the call sign of any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. The two aircraft currently in U.S. service are highly modified versions of Boeing's 747-200B, with tail numbers 28000 and 29000. Although the Air Force One designation technically applies to the aircraft only while the President is aboard, the term is commonly applied to the VC-25s more generally. They often operate in conjunction with Marine One helicopters that ferry the President to airports in circumstances where a vehicle motorcade would be inappropriate.


  • Development 1
  • Design and configuration 2
    • "The White House" 2.1
  • Operational history 3
    • Future 3.1
  • Operators 4
  • Specifications (VC-25A) 5
  • Notable appearances in media 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


By 1985, the pair of Boeing 707-based VC-137s used as the Presidential aircraft had been in service for 23 and 13 years respectively, and the USAF began searching for an eventual replacement. The Request for Proposal issued stated that the aircraft to be selected should have at least three engines and an unrefueled range of at least 6,000 miles (9,700 km). Both Boeing with its 747 and McDonnell Douglas with the DC-10 were in competition to be selected, with the Boeing entry the eventual winner.[1] The fabrication of the current 747s began during the presidency of Ronald Reagan (1981–1989). Reagan ordered two identical Boeing 747-200Bs to replace the Boeing 707s that he used for transport.[2]

Boeing VC-25 Air Force One video

The VC-25s were completed in 1986 and first flew in 1987.[3] The interior designs were created by George H.W. Bush.

The VC-25 is not compliant with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) standards; the Air Force is upgrading both airplanes. The Air Force reported that the operating cost for each VC-25A is $210,877 per hour.[4]

Design and configuration

While the VC-25 has two main decks and a cargo area, like a regular Boeing 747, its 4,000 square feet (370 m²) of floor space has been reconfigured for presidential duties. Its lowest level is mostly cargo space, carrying luggage and the onboard food supply.

The main passenger area is on the second floor or main deck.[5] There are three entrances on board, two on the lower and one on the main deck. Typically the president boards and deplanes from the front, main deck entrance via an airstair, while journalists and other passengers enter at the lower rear door. Facilities for the press and other passengers are configured like an ordinary airliner's first-class cabin.[6]

"The White House"

President Bill McGurn, Stephen Hadley and Ed Gillespie gather in the president's office aboard Air Force One en route to Bahrain in January 2008.
President Barack Obama meets with Rep. Dennis Kucinich, D-Ohio, aboard Air Force One en route to Cleveland, Ohio, March 15, 2010.
The President and First Lady's private quarters. The couches can fold out into beds.
The conference room.
The corridor that runs down the port (left) side of the aircraft. Secret Service agents are stationed in the two chairs.

The front of the aircraft is referred to as the "White House" of the aircraft.[5] The president's executive suite includes sleeping quarters with two couches that can be converted into beds,

  • USAF VC-25 fact sheet
  • USAF Photo gallery

External links

  • "Air Force One Fact Sheet." United States Air Force, (Current as of May 2014).
  • Albertazzie, Ralph and Jerald F. Terhorst. Flying White House: The Story of Air Force One. Book Sales, 1979. ISBN 0-698-10930-9.
  • Braun, David. Q&A: U.S. Presidential Jet Air Force One. National Geographic News, May 29, 2003.
  • Dorr, Robert F. Air Force One. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1055-6.
  • Hardesty, Von. Air Force One: The Aircraft that Shaped the Modern Presidency. Chanhassen, Minnesota: Northword Press, 2003. ISBN 1-55971-894-3.
  • Harris, Tom. "How Air Force One Works". Retrieved: October 10, 2006.
  • Jenkins, Dennis R. Boeing 747-100/200/300/SP (AirlinerTech Series, Vol. 6). North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58007-026-4.
  • "Technical Order 00-105E-9, Segment 9, Chapter 7."
  • Walsh, Kenneth T. Air Force One: A History of the Presidents and Their Planes. New York: Hyperion, 2003. ISBN 1-4013-0004-9.
  1. ^ Thomas, H. "U.S. considers Air Force One from Airbus." Retrieved: June 26, 2009.
  2. ^ a b Williams, Rudi. "Reagan Makes First, Last Flight in Jet He Ordered." United States Department of Defense, June 10, 2004. Retrieved: July 28, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Jenkins 2000, pp. 55–56.
  4. ^ Butler, Amy, and Guy Norris, "Foregone Conclusion", Aviation Week and Space Technology, 9 June 2014, pp. 40-41.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wallace, Chris (host). "Aboard Air Force One." Fox News, November 24, 2008. Retrieved: November 28, 2008.
  6. ^ Harris, Tom. "How Air Force One Works." Retrieved: October 10, 2006.
  7. ^ Stebner, Greg (narrator). "On Board Air Force One." National Geographic Channel, January 25, 2009. Retrieved: June 26, 2009.
  8. ^ Felsenthal, Carol. "When Bill Clinton Left the White House. Chicago Daily Observer, January 22, 2009. Retrieved: June 26, 2009.
  9. ^ "Bush flies to Texas to begin post-presidential life." New York Times, January 20, 2009. Retrieved: September 9, 2011.
  10. ^ Bernstein, Adam (April 29, 2006). "Col. James Swindal; Piloted Air Force One After Kennedy's Death". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 16, 2011. 
  11. ^ Foley, Thomas (January 25, 1973). "Thousands in Washington Brave Cold to Say Goodbye to Johnson".  
  12. ^ "US considers Airbus A380 as Air Force One and potentially a C-5 replacement". Flight Global. 17 October 2007. 
  13. ^ "USAF Presidential Aircraft Recapitalization (PAR) Program." USAF Material Command, January 7, 2009. Retrieved: January 8, 2009.
  14. ^ "USAF Presidential Aircraft Recapitalization (PAR) Program, Interested Vendors List." USAF Materiel Command, January 7, 2009. Retrieved: January 8, 2009.
  15. ^ Butler, Amy. "Boeing Only Contender for New Air Force One." Aviation Week, January 28, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2009.
  16. ^ "EADS waves off bid for Air Force One replacement". Flight Global. January 28, 2009. 
  17. ^ AF Identifies Boeing 747-8 platform for next Air Force One.
  18. ^ Mehta, Aaron. "Boeing Tapped for Air Force One Replacement". Defence News, 28 January 2015
  19. ^ "Air Force One Technical Specs." Boeing Defense, Space and Security. Retrieved: June 26, 2009.
  20. ^ Hardesty 2003, p. 15.


Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related development

See also

The VC-25 "Air Force One" is a prominent symbol of the American presidency and its power; with the White House and presidential seal, it is one of the most familiar presidential symbols. Air Force One has often appeared in popular culture and fiction, most notably as the setting of the 1997 action movie Air Force One where the aircraft had an escape pod and a parachute ramp, unlike the actual Presidential aircraft.[20]

Notable appearances in media


  • Crew: 26: 2 pilots, flight engineer, navigator,[3] and cabin crew
  • Capacity: 76 passengers
  • Length: 231 ft 10 in (70.6 m)
  • Wingspan: 195 ft 8 in (59.6 m)
  • Height: 63 ft 5 in (19.3 m)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 833,000 lb (375,000 kg)
  • Powerplant: 4 × General Electric CF6-80C2B1 turbofans, 56,700 lbf (250 kN) each
  • Zero fuel weight: 526,500 lb (238,800 kg)
General characteristics

Data from Boeing BDS[19]

Specifications (VC-25A)

 United States


The current 747-200B aircraft are aging and have become less cost-effective to operate. The USAF Air Mobility Command investigated possible replacements, with early press coverage suggesting that the USAF would consider the Boeing 747-8 and the Airbus A380.[12] On January 7, 2009, the USAF Materiel Command issued a new Sources Sought notice for a replacement aircraft to enter service by 2017 with an additional two aircraft to follow in 2019 and 2021.[13] By 2009 Boeing was the only aircraft manufacturer interested in supplying the replacement aircraft,[14] and was reported to be exploring a 787 option also.[15] On 28 January 2009, EADS North America confirmed the company would not respond to the US Air Force notice, as assembling only three airplanes in the US would not make financial sense.[16] On 28 January 2015, the Air Force announced the selection of the Boeing 747-8 to replace the aging VC-25A for presidential transport.[17][18]


The VC-25A has also been used to transport deceased former presidents. The guest area aft of "the White House" has chairs and tables that can be removed and the casket laid in their place.[5] The remains of both [5] For the funeral of President Ronald Reagan in 2004, Tillman said that the crew converted the front of the aircraft to look the way it would have appeared when Reagan was president; President and Nancy Reagan's Air Force One jackets were placed on the chairs to "make them feel at home".[5] A specially designed hydraulic lifter (similar to the type used by airline catering) with the presidential seal affixed to the sides lifts the casket up to the portside aft door to enter the VC-25A. The tradition of placing the caskets inside the passenger cabin dates back to the assassination of John F. Kennedy, when the crew refused to allow the president's body to be placed in the cargo hold,[10] and again during the state funeral of Lyndon B. Johnson.[11]

[9][8] After a presidential inauguration in which there is a change in office, the outgoing president is provided a flight aboard one of the VC-25 aircraft to his home destination. The aircraft is not known as Air Force One for this flight because it is not carrying the president in office. For both Presidents

The aircraft can also be operated as a military command center in the event of an incident such as a nuclear attack. Operational modifications include aerial refueling capability and anti-aircraft missile countermeasures. The electronics on board are connected with approximately 238 miles (383 km) of wiring, twice that of a regular 747. All wiring is covered with heavy shielding for protection from an electromagnetic pulse in the event of a nuclear attack. The aircraft also has electronic countermeasures (ECMs) to jam enemy radar, flares to avoid heat-seeking missiles, and chaff to avoid radar-guided missiles. All small arms and ammunition stores not under the physical possession of the Secret Service on board the VC-25s are stowed and secured by the Secret Service in separate locked compartments, each with a different locking mechanism for added security. Many of the VC-25's other capabilities are classified for security reasons.

The casket of President Gerald Ford being lowered from the cabin of SAM 29000 at Andrews Air Force Base, MD, 2006.
A VC-25 at MacDill Air Force Base in Florida on June 16, 2004

The VC-25 replaced the VC-137C (a military version of the Boeing 707) as the mainstay of the Air Force One fleet. On some occasions, the VC-25s are used to transport the Vice President of the United States, for which service they adopt the callsign Air Force Two. These aircraft are maintained and operated as military operations by the Presidential Airlift Group, part of Air Mobility Command's 89th Airlift Wing, based at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs, Maryland.

Operational history

The VC-25 is capable of flying 7,800 miles (12,600 km)—roughly one-third the distance around the world—without refueling. It can be refuelled during flight from a tanker aircraft. The VC-25A can accommodate more than 70 passengers. Each VC-25A cost approximately US$325 million. When a VC-25 taxis to an airport's ramp for events, it stops with the port side of the aircraft facing gathered onlookers.

There are separate quarters for guests, senior staff, Secret Service and security personnel, and the news media located in the aft area of the main deck. Protocol states that one may wander aft of wherever one's assigned seat is, but not forward.[5] Communications equipment and the cockpit are on the upper deck. There are also secure and non-secure voice, fax and data communications facilities.[5] While the aircraft's luggage capacity is adequate to carry the belongings of the passengers, the logistics train of the President means that the aircraft must fly preceded by an aerial convoy of several cargo transports, which carry the helicopters, motorcade vehicles, and other equipment required by the presidential entourage.[5]

On board the VC-25 is a medical annex, which includes a fold-out operating table, emergency medical supplies, and a well-stocked treadmill added to Air Force One during his term in office. Every flight is staffed by a doctor and nurse. The aircraft is self-sufficient, such as carrying all the food it will need. Meals are prepared in two galleys, which together are equipped to feed up to 100 people at a time.[5] The President gets his own menu. An area where guests sit is near the center of the aircraft, outside the "White House".[5]

[5] television which can be used for teleconferencing. The aircraft has fully equipped office areas with telecommunication systems (including 87 telephones and 19 televisions).plasma screen agents. The aircraft also contains a conference room, originally designed as a situation room but now used for meeting with staff while traveling. This room includes a 50-inch Secret Service (left) side. There is an area along the corridor for two port (right) side, and a long corridor runs along the starboard These offices, including the president's suite, are mostly located on the [7]

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