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Plantaginaceae

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Title: Plantaginaceae  
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Subject: Callitriche, Collinsia parryi, Digitalis, Digitalis lanata, Globularia trichosantha
Collection: Lamiales Families, Plantaginaceae
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Plantaginaceae

Plantain family
Scoparia dulcis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae
Juss.[1]
Tribes
Synonyms

Antirrhinaceae Pers.
Aragoaceae D.Don
Callitrichaceae Link nom. cons.
Chelonaceae Martinov
Digitalaceae Martinov
Ellisiophyllaceae Honda
Globulariaceae DC. nom. cons.
Gratiolaceae Martinov
Hippuridaceae Vest nom. cons.
Littorellaceae Gray
Psylliaceae Horan.
Sibthorpiaceae D.Don
Veronicaceae Cassel[2]

Plantaginaceae, the plantain family, is a family of flowering plants in the order Lamiales. The type genus is Plantago L..

In older classifications it used to be the only family of the order Plantaginales, but numerous phylogenetic studies, summarized by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, have demonstrated that this taxon should be included within Lamiales.

Contents

  • Overview 1
  • Genera 2
    • Excluded genera 2.1
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4
  • External links 5

Overview

The plantain family as traditionally circumscribed consisted of only three genera, Bougueria, Littorella, and Plantago. However phylogenetic research has indicated that Plantaginaceae s.s. (s.s. = sensu stricto, in the strict sense) were nested within Scrophulariaceae (but forming a group that did not include the type genus of that family, Scrophularia). Although Veronicaceae (1782) is the oldest family name for this group, Plantaginaceae (1789) is a conserved name under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and thus has priority over any earlier family name for a family including Plantago. Furthermore, the ICBN does not consider family names published before 1789 to be names eligible for conservation, thus ruling out Veronicaceae. The name Antirrhinaceae has been proposed for conservation over Plantaginaceae. In the meantime, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group has accepted the name Plantaginaceae. However, Olmstead (2003) has chosen to use the name Veronicaceae.

Plantaginaceae s.l. (s.l. = sensu lato, in the broad sense) are a diverse, cosmopolitan family, occurring mostly in temperate zones. The group consists of herbs, shrubs and also a few aquatic plants with roots (such as the genus Callitriche). Being so diverse, the circumscription of this family is difficult to establish.[3]

The leaves are spiral to opposite and simple to compound. Unusual in Lamiales is the absence of vertical partitions in the heads of the glandular hairs.

The structure and form of the flowers is variable. Some genera are 4-merous (i.e. with 4 sepals and 4 petals), such as Aragoa (but this one has 5 sepals); others are 5-8-merous, such as Sibthorpia. The flowers of most genera are polysymmetric. The corolla is often two-lipped. In some taxa, the androecium is formed before the corolla.

The fruit is a capsule that dehisces through the partitions between the cells.

A group of genera including Lindernia has recently been segregated [3][4] as the family Linderniaceae,[5] and recognized by Haston et al. 2007, (also known as LAPG II) as "Post-APG II family".[6]

Genera

The enlarged Plantaginaceae s.l. / Veronicaceae consists of 90 genera and about 1,700 species. The largest genus is Veronica with about 450 species. Veronica also includes the genera Hebe, Parahebe and Synthyris, formerly often treated as distinct. All genera of Plantaginaceae were formerly included in Scrophulariaceae except where otherwise stated.

Tribe Angelonieae
Tribe Antirrhineae
Tribe Callitricheae
Tribe Cheloneae
Tribe Digitalideae
Tribe Globularieae
Tribe Gratioleae
Tribe Hemiphragmeae
Tribe Plantagineae
Tribe Russelieae
Tribe Sipthorpieae
Tribe Veroniceae

Although GRIN includes Lafuentea Lag. in the Antirrhineae tribe,[8]in the phylogenetic analysis of Fernández-Mazuecos et al. (2013)[19] it was a sister to the Antirrhineae. as also noted by Albach (2005)[3] For the time being it should be considered an outgroup.

Excluded genera

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121.  
  2. ^ Juss., nom. cons."Plantaginaceae"Family: . Germplasm Resources Information Network. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  3. ^ a b c Albach, D. C.; Meudt, H. M.; Oxelman, B. (2005). "Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae". American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 297–315.  
  4. ^ Oxelman, B.; Kornhall, P.; Olmstead, R. G.; Bremer, B. (2005). "Further disintegration of Scrophulariaceae". Taxon 54 (2): 411–425.  
  5. ^ Rahmanzadeh, R., K. Müller, E. Fischer, D. Bartels & T. Borsch. 2005. The Linderniaceae and Gratiolaceae are further lineages distinct from the Scrophulariaceae (Lamiales). Pl. Biol. ( Stuttgart) 7: 67-78.
  6. ^ Haston, E., Richardson, J. E., Stevens, P. F., Chase, M. W., Harris, D. J. (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon 56 (1): 7–12.  
  7. ^ "Angelonieae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  8. ^ a b "Antirrhineae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  9. ^ "Callitricheae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  10. ^ "Cheloneae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  11. ^ "Digitalideae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  12. ^ "Globularieae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  13. ^ "Gratioleae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  14. ^ "Hemiphragmeae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  15. ^ "Plantagineae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  16. ^ "Russelieae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  17. ^ "Sipthorpieae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  18. ^ "Veroniceae tribe Plantaginaceae"GRIN Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  19. ^ Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, José Luis Blanco-Pastor, and Pablo Vargas. A Phylogeny of Toadflaxes (Linaria Mill.) Based on Nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences: Systematic and Evolutionary Consequences. International Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 174, No. 2 (February 2013), pp. 234-249 The University of Chicago Press. Article DOI: 10.1086/668790
  20. ^ "Plantaginaceae"GRIN genera sometimes placed in . Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  • Olmstead, R. G., dePamphilis, C. W., Wolfe, A. D., Young, N. D., Elisons, W. J. & Reeves P. A. (2001). "Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae". American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.  
  • Olmstead, R. G. (2003). "Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae?" (PDF). Fremontia 30: 13–22. 

Bibliography

  • Vargas P, JA Rosselló, R Oyama, J Güemes. 2004 Molecular evidence for naturalness of genera in the tribe Antirrhineae (Scrophulariaceae) and three independent evolutionary lineages from the New World and the Old. Plant Syst Evol 249:151–172.

External links

  • Treatment of Plantaginaceae in MOBOT
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