World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Article Id: WHEBN0000977463
Reproduction Date:

Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Poietic Generator, Eva and Franco Mattes, Cybernetic art, Neo-conceptual art, Community arts
Collection: Art Websites, Internet Culture, Net.Artists
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Date: refers to a group of Daniel García Andújar, Heath Bunting, Rachel Baker and Minerva Cuevas). Although this group was formed as a parody of avant garde movements by writers such as Tilman Baumgärtel, Josephine Bosma, Hans Dieter Huber and Pit Schultz, their individual works have little in common.

The term "" is also used as a synonym for net art or Internet art and covers a much wider range of artistic practices. In this wider definition, means art that uses the Internet as its medium and that cannot be experienced in any other way. Typically has the Internet and the specific socio-culture that it spawned as its subject matter but this is not required.

The German critic Tilman Baumgärtel - building on the ideas of American critic Clement Greenberg - has frequently argued for a "media specificity" of in his writings. According to the introduction to his book " Materialien zur Netzkunst", the specific qualities of are "connectivity, global reach, multimediality, immateriality, interactivity and egality".[1]


  • History of the movement 1
  • Online social networks 2
  • Tactical media net art 3
  • Hacker culture 4
  • Critique of the art world 5
  • See also 6
  • Notes 7
  • Bibliography 8
  • External Links 9

History of the movement

The movement arose in the context of the wider development of Internet art. As such, is more of a movement and a critical and political landmark in Internet art history, than a specific genre. Early precursors of the movement include the international fluxus (Nam June Paik) and avant-pop (Mark Amerika) movements. The avant-pop movement particularly became widely recognized in Internet circles from 1993, largely via the popular Alt-X site.

The term "" has been attributed to artist Vuk Cosic in 1995.[2] stems from "conjoined phrases in an email bungled by a technical glitch (a morass of alphanumeric junk, its only legible term '')".[3] It was first used with regard to the " per se" meeting of artists and theorists in Trieste in May 1996, and referred to a group of artists who worked together closely in the first half of the 1990s. These meetings gave birth to the website per se,[4] a fake CNN website "commemorating" the event.[3]

Online social networks

Net.artists have built digital art communities through an active practice of web hosting and web art curating. net.artists have defined themselves through an international and networked mode of communication, an interplay of exchanges, collaborative and cooperative work . They have a large presence on several mailing lists such as Rhizome, File festival, Electronic Language International Festival, Nettime, Syndicate and Eyebeam. The identity of the net.artists is defined by both their digital works and their critical involvement in the digital art community, as the polemical discussion led by Olia Lialina that occurred on Nettime in early 2006 on the "New Media" WorldHeritage entry shows[5]

net.artists like Jodi developed a particular form of e-mail art, or spam mail art, through text reprocessing and ASCII art. The term "spam art" was coined[6] by net critique and net art practitioner[7] Frederic Madre to describe all such forms of disruptive interventions in mailing-lists, where seemingly nonsensical texts were generated by simple scripts, online forms or typed by hand.

A connection can be made to the e-mail interventions of "Codeworks" artists such as Mez or mi ga or robots like Mailia which analyze emails and reply to them. "Codeworks" is a term coined by poet Alan Sondheim to define the textual experiments of artists playing with faux-code and non-executable script or mark-up languages.

Tactical media net art developed in a context of cultural crisis in Eastern Europe in the beginning of the 1990s after the end of the Soviet Union and the fall of the Berlin Wall. The artists involved in experiments are associated with the idea of a "social responsibility" that would answer the idea of democracy as a modern capitalist myth. The Internet, often promoted as the democratic tool par excellence, but largely participating in the rules of vested interests, is targeted by the net.artists who claimed that "a space where you can buy is a space where you can steal, but also where you can distribute". net.artists focus on finding new ways of sharing public space.

By questioning structures such as the navigation window and challenging their functionality, net.artists have shown that what is considered to be natural by most Internet users is actually highly constructed, even controlled, by corporations. Company browsers like Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer display user-friendly structures (the "navigation", the "exploration" are landmarks of social practices) to provide the user with a familiar environment; net.artists try to break this familiarity. Olia Lialina, in My Boyfriend Came Back From The War[8] or the duo Jodi, with their series of pop-up interventions and browser crashing applets, have engaged the materiality of navigation in their work. Their experiments have given birth to what could be called "browser art", which has been expanded by the British collective I/O/D's experimental navigator WebStalker.

Alexei Shulgin and Heath Bunting have played with the structure of advertisement portals by establishing lists of keywords unlikely to be searched for but nonetheless existing on the web as URLs or metadata components: they use this relational data to enmesh paths of navigation in order to create new readable texts . The user is not exploring one art website that has its own meaning and aesthetic significance within itself, but rather they are exposed to the entire network as a collection of socioeconomic forces and political stances that are not always visible.

Rachel Greene has associated with tactical media as a form of Detournement. Greene writes: "The subversion of corporate websites shares a blurry border with hacking and agitprop practices that would become an important field of net art, often referred to as 'tactical media'."[3]

Hacker culture

The Jodi collective works with the aesthetics of computer errors, which has a lot in common, on both the aesthetic and pragmatic levels, with

"We can point to a superficial difference between most and hacking: hackers have an obsession with getting inside other computer systems and having an agency there, whereas the 404 errors in the JTDDS (for example) only engage other systems in an intentionally wrong manner in order to store a 'secret' message in their error logs. It's nice to think of artists as hackers who endeavour to get inside cultural systems and make them do things they were never intended to do: artists as culture hackers."[9]

Critique of the art world

During the heyday of developments, particularly during the rise of global capitalism, the first series of critical columns appeared in German and English in the online publication Telepolis. Edited by writer and artist Armin Medosch, the work published at Telepolis featured American artist and net theorist Mark Amerika's "Amerika Online" columns.[10] These columns satirized the way self-effacing net.artists (himself included) took themselves too seriously. In response, European net.artists impersonated Amerika in faux emails to deconstruct his demystification of the marketing schemes most net.artists employed to achieve art world legitimacy. It was suggested that "the duplicitous dispatches were meant to raise US awareness of electronic artists in Europe, and may even contain an element of jealousy."[11]

Many of these interventions also tackled the issue of art as business and investigated mainstream cultural institutions such as the Tate Modern. Harwood, a member of the Mongrel collective, in his work Uncomfortable Proximity[12] (the first on-line project commissioned by Tate) mirrors the Tate's own website, and offers new images and ideas, collaged from his own experiences, his readings of Tate works, and publicity materials that inform his interest in the Tate website.

net.artists have actively participated in the debate over the definition of within the context of the art market. promoted the modernist idea of the work of art as a process, as opposed to a conception of art as object making . The presentation of this process within the art world—whether it should be sold in the market, or shown in the institutional art environment, is problematic for digital works created for the Internet. The web, as marketable as it is, cannot be restricted to the ideological dimensions of the legitimate field of art, the institution of legitimation for art value, that is both ideological and economical . All for Sale by Aliona is an early experiment addressing such issues. The WWWArt Award competition initiated by Alexei Shulgin in 1995 suggests rewarding found Internet works with what he calls an "art feeling."

Some projects, such as Joachim Schmid's Archiv, Hybrids, or Copies by, are examples of how to store art-related or documentary data on a website. Cloning, plagiarizing, and collective creation are provided as alternative answers, such as in the Refresh Project.[13]

Olia Lialina has addressed the issue of digital curating via her web platform, an online gallery to promote and sell works. Each piece of has its originality protected by a guarantee constituted by its satire.[14] On the other hand, Teo Spiller really sold a web art project Megatronix to Ljubljana Municipal Museum in May 1999.[15] became an ambiguous experiment on the notion of originality in the age of extreme digital reproduction and mirror-site, showing the works in the same context and the same quality as the original. The Last Real Net Art Museum is another example of Olia Lialina's attempt to deal with the issue.

Online social networks experiments, such as the

  • Thomas Dreher: History of Computer Art, chap. VI.3 Net Art in the Web Munich 2014
  • Thomas Dreher: IASLonline Lessons in NetArt.

External Links

  • Baranski Sandrine, La musique en réseau, une musique de la complexité ?, Éditions universitaires européennes, 2010 La musique en réseau
  • Bosma, Josephine, Nettitudes Let's Talk Net Art, Nai010 publishers, Rotterdam, 2011, ISBN 978-90-5662-800-0
  • (Spanish) Martín Prada, Juan, Prácticas artísticas e Internet en la época de las redes sociales, Editorial AKAL, Madrid, 2012, ISBN 978-84-460-3517-6


  1. ^ Baumgärtel, T. (1999). Materialien zur Netzkunst. Nürnberg: Verlag für moderne Kunst. p. 15. ISBN 3-933096-17-0
  2. ^ Weibel, P & Druckrey, T eds. (2001). net_condition. art and global media. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0262731386
    >>Date: Tue, 18 Mar 1997
    >>Net.Art - the origin
    >>I feel it's time now to give a
    >>light on the origin of the
    >>term - "". Actually, it's a
    >>In December 1995 Vuk Cosic
    >>got a message, sent via
    >>anonymous mailer.
    >>Because of incompatibility of
    >>software, the opened text
    >>appeared to be practically
    >>unreadable ascii abracadabra.
    >>The only fragment of it that
    >>made any sense looked
    >>something like:
    >>[...] J8~g#|\;Net.Art{-^s1[...]
    >>Vuk was very much amased (sic)
    >>and exited (sic): the net itself gave
    >>him a name for activity he was
    >>involved in!
  3. ^ a b c Rachel Greene, Internet Art, Thames & Hudson Ltd, London, 2004
  4. ^ "Specific found possible". CNN Interactive. 1989-05-16. Retrieved 2009-03-12.  (reproduction of event listing, on
  5. ^ Lialina, O A New Definition, Nettime Archive List
  6. ^ Madre, F Interview by Josephine Bosma, Nettime list archive
  7. ^ Madre, F, site created in 1994
  8. ^ My boyfriend came back from the war. After dinner they left us alone.
  9. ^ " 404". 1998-05-01. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  10. ^ "Amerika Online". Telepolis. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  11. ^ Mirapaul, M War of the Words: Ersatz E-Mail Tilts at Art, New York Times
  12. ^ Uncomfortable Proximity
  13. ^ "A Multi-Nodal Web-Surf-Create-Session for an Unspecified Number of Players". 1997-03-14. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  14. ^ Wright, Richard (1998-08-25). "Net Art Market: What Happens Next?". Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  15. ^ Mirapaul, M "There May Be Money in Internet Art After All", The New York Times, 1999-05-13
  16. ^ Don Foresta : Chronologie historique résumée d'échanges artistiques par télécommunications. Les précurseurs, jusqu'en 1995, avant l'Internet (PDF), Gilbertto Prado : CRONOLOGIA DE EXPERIÊNCIAS ARTÍSTICAS NAS REDES DE TELECOMUNICAÇÕES (Web)
  17. ^ art en ligne · art en réseau · art en mouvementMusée Royal de Mariemont, Belgium, 1999 : , Festival X-00, Lorient, France, 2000, BREAK21 festival - Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2000Théophanie assistée par ordinateur
  18. ^ A call to finance the mobile version of the Poietic Generator (KissKissBanBank crowdfunding platform)
  19. ^ Anne Cauquelin: Fréquenter les incorporels, PUF, collection « Lignes d'art », 2006. Que sais-je ? L’art contemporain, PUF, 9eme édition, mai 2009.


See also


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.