World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Convoy JW 51A

Article Id: WHEBN0030638387
Reproduction Date:

Title: Convoy JW 51A  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Arctic convoys of World War II, Convoy PQ 12, Convoy PQ 13, Convoy PQ 7, Convoy PQ 8
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Convoy JW 51A

Convoy JW 51A was an Arctic convoy sent from Great Britain by the Western Allies to aid the Soviet Union during World War II. It sailed in December 1942, reaching the Soviet northern ports at the end of the month.

JW 51A was not detected or attacked by German forces and arrived without loss.

Background

JW 51A was the first of the JW/RA convoy series, replacing the previous PQ/QP series which had been suspended during the summer and autumn of 1942. The JW series were organized to sail from Loch Ewe, Scotland rather than Iceland, as previously, and sailed with a substantial destroyer escort to guard against surface attacks, as had proved effective with PQ 18. JW 51A was the first outbound Arctic convoy of the 1942–43 winter season, and began the practice of sailing smaller convoys twice-monthly during the winter months to reduce the problems of controlling large groups of ships in the gloom of the polar night.

Forces

JW 51A consisted of 16 merchant ships, which departed from Loch Ewe on 15 December 1942.[1] Close escort was provided by the minesweeper Seagull, two corvettes and two armed trawlers. These were supported by six Home Fleet destroyers led by Faulknor. The convoy was also accompanied initially by a local escort group from Britain.

A cruiser cover force comprising Jamaica and Sheffield, and three destroyers, also followed the convoy to guard against attack by surface units.

Distant cover was provided by a Heavy Cover Force comprising the battleship Berwick and three escorting destroyers.

JW 51A was opposed by a force of three U-boats in a patrol line in the Norwegian Sea, and the aircraft of Luftflotte V based in Norway.[2] A surface force comprising the heavy cruisers Hipper, Lützow and six destroyers was also available, stationed at Altenfjord.

Voyage

JW 51A departed Loch Ewe on 15 December 1942, accompanied by its local escort, of three destroyers, and its close escort. Three days later, on 18 December, it was joined by the ocean escort, while the local escort departed. At the same time the Cruiser Force and the Distant Cover Force from Scapa Flow also put to sea, taking station in the Norwegian Sea.

The convoy was not sighted by German reconnaissance aircraft, nor by any of the patrolling U-boats, and crossed the Norwegian and Barents Seas without incident.

On 25 December JW 51A arrived safely at Kola Inlet.

Conclusion

JW 51A was a successful start to JW convoy series and to the 1942–43 winter convoy season, with the safe arrival of 16 merchant ships and the war materiel they carried.

Ships involved

Allied Ships

Merchant ships

Axis ships

Notes

  1. ^ Ruegg, Hague p48
  2. ^ Blair p152

References

  • Clay Blair : Hitler's U-Boat War [Volume 2]: The Hunted 1942-1945 (1998) ISBN 0-304-35261-6 (2000 UK paperback ed.)
  • Paul Kemp : Convoy! Drama in Arctic Waters (1993) ISBN 1-85409-130-1
  • Paul Kemp : U-Boats Destroyed ( 1997) . ISBN 1-85409-515-3
  • Axel Neistle : German U-Boat Losses during World War II (1998). ISBN 1-85367-352-8
  • Bob Ruegg, Arnold Hague : Convoys to Russia (1992) ISBN 0-905617-66-5
  • Bernard Schofield : (1964) The Russian Convoys BT Batsford ISBN (none)
  • JW 51A at Convoyweb
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.