List of countries by Human Development Index (1998)

World map indicating the Human Development Index (based on 1982 data, published on 1985)[1]
  0.900 and over
  under 0.300
  Data unavailable

This is a list of all countries by Human Development Index as included in a D-Group's Human Development Report released in January 1985, compiled on the basis of estimates for 1982. It covers 158 UN member states (out of the then 192) and Hong Kong, China. 24 UN member states are not included due to lack of data. The average HDI of regions of the World and groups of countries are also included for comparison.

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education and standards of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, a developing or an underdeveloped country, and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life. The index was developed in 1990 by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and Indian economist Amartya Sen.[2]

Countries fall into four broad human development categories, each of which comprises 42 countries (except for the second category, comprising 43 countries).[3] The divisions are:
Division comprising:
High 63 countries
Medium 51 countries
Low 45 countries

Due to the new methodology adopted in 2010 HD Report, its HDI figures appear lower than the HDI figures in previous reports.

Starting in the report for 2007, the first category is referred to as developed countries, and the last three are all grouped in developing countries. The original "high human development" category has been split into two as above in the report for 2007.

Some older groupings (high/medium/low income countries) have been removed that were based on the gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, and have been replaced by another index based on the gross national income (GNI) in purchasing power parity per capita.


  • Complete list of countries[ 1]
    • High human development (developed countries) 1.1
    • Medium human development (developing countries) 1.2
    • Low human development (developing countries) 1.3
  • List of countries by continent 2
    • Africa 2.1
    • Americas 2.2
    • Asia & Oceania 2.3
    • Europe 2.4
  • List of countries by non-continental region 3
    • Arab states 3.1
    • European Union 3.2
    • East Asia and the Pacific 3.3
    • Latin America 3.4
    • Middle East and North Africa 3.5
  • HDI by regions & groups 4
  • Countries missing from latest report 5
    • UN member states (latest UNDP data) 5.1
    • Non-UN members (not calculated by the UNDP) 5.2
  • See also 6
  • Notes 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Complete list of countries

  • Similar HDI values in the current list do not lead to ranking ties, since the HDI rank is actually determined using HDI values to the sixth decimal point.
  • This revision of the index was released in 1985 and estimates the HDI of countries for 1982.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the revised estimates for 1981, released in 1984.

High human development (developed countries)

Medium human development (developing countries)

Low human development (developing countries)

List of countries by continent



Asia & Oceania


List of countries by non-continental region

Arab states

European Union

East Asia and the Pacific

Latin America

Middle East and North Africa

HDI by regions & groups

Countries missing from latest report

See also


  1. ^ Human Development Index (HDI) - 1998 Rankings, United Nations Development Programme
  2. ^ "History of the Human Development Report".  
  3. ^ "Human development Report".  
  4. ^ a b "2010 Human development Report".  
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
  6. ^ "The State of Human Development" (PDF).  
  7. ^ "Human Development Report 2000" (PDF).  
  8. ^ "Human Development Report: Somalia 2001" (PDF). 2001. p. 198. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  9. ^ "2010中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (pdf) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-02. 
  10. ^ "Puerto Rico (United States)".  . Note: Appears to be simply the United States's HDI published on the 1997 report.
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Les défis de la croissance calédonienne, on page 13" (PDF) (in French). CEROM -  
  12. ^ "Greenland (Denmark)".  . Note: Appears to be simply Denmark's HDI published on the 1997 report.
  13. ^ The UN did not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI. If it were included in the UN's HDI figures as of 2007, Macau would rank 23rd or 24th (tying either Singapore or Hong Kong). "Macao in Figures 2010". Statistics and Census Service, Macau SAR. 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  14. ^ "L’Indice de Développement Humain : Une Évaluation pour la réunion" (PDF) (in French). Laboratoire d’Economie Appliquée au Développement (LEAD) Université du Sud Toulon-Var. Retrieved 2008-12-10. 
  15. ^ "Human Development Report - Kosovo 2004". UNDP. 2004. p. 14. Retrieved 2011-01-22. 


  1. ^ See List of Russian federal subjects by HDI.
  2. ^ Somalia's last inclusion in the HDI ranking was in the 1996 report (1993 data).
  3. ^ The UN does not recognize Republic of China or Taiwan as a sovereign state. The HDI report includes Taiwan as part of China when calculating China's figures (see Political status of Taiwan). The ROC's government calculated its HDI to be 0.868, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP for calculating 2010 HDIs.[9]

External links

  • Archive of previous global reports.
  • Human Development Index 2010 Report.

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