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Classification des dialectes arméniens

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Subject: Armenian language
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Classification des dialectes arméniens

Classification des dialectes arméniens
Author Hrachia Adjarian
Country France
Language French
Subject linguistics
Publisher Honoré Champion

Classification des dialectes arméniens (Classification of Armenian dialects) is a 1909 book by the Armenian linguist Hrachia Adjarian, published in Paris. It is Adjarian's translation into French of his original work Հայ Բարբառագիտութիւն (Armenian Dialectology) which was later published as a book in 1911 in Moscow and New Nakhichevan. The French translation is missing the dialectal examples.

Adjarian surveyed the Armenian dialects in what is now present day Iran, Azerbaijan and other countries settled by Armenians: Poland, Austria-Hungary, Romania, etc.

Unlike the traditional dialect division of Armenian into western and eastern dialects, Adjarian divided Armenian into three main dialects based on which present and imperfect indicative particles were used. He labeled them as the -owm (-ում) dialects, -gë (-կը) dialects, and -el (-ել) dialects. These three major dialects were further divided into subdialects.[1] The book is one of the few reliable sources of Armenian dialects that existed at the time. In the post-genocide period, linguists Gevorg Jahukyan, Jos Weitenberg, Bert Vaux and Hrach Martirosyan have pushed our understanding of Armenian dialects further.

Map of the Armenian dialects in early 20th century:
  -owm dialects, roughly corresponding to Eastern Armenian.
  -el dialects.
  -gë dialects, roughly corresponding to Western Armenian.


-owm dialects

Areas spoken (country and city names as of 1909)
1 Erivan  Russian Empire: Erivan, Novo-Bayazet, Ordubad, Shamshadin, Shulaver, Havlabar quarter (Tiflis)
 Ottoman Empire: Bayazid, Kulp
2 Tiflis  Russian Empire: Tiflis (except Havlabar quarter)
3 Karabakh  Russian Empire: Shusha, Elisabethpol, Nukha, Baku, Derbent, Aghstafa, Dilijan, Karakilis, Kazak, Lori, Jebrayil, Goris
Qajar Persia: Karadagh, Mujumbar; Lilava quarter of Tabriz
 Ottoman Empire: Burdur, Ödemiş villages near Izmir
4 Shamakha  Russian Empire: Shamakhi, Kuba and nearby villages
5 Astrakhan  Russian Empire: Astrakhan, Northern Caucasus
Qajar Persia: Tabriz
6 Julfa  Russian Empire: Julfa
Qajar Persia: Isfahan (New Julfa quarter), Shiraz, Hamadan, Bushehr, Tehran, Qazvin, Rasht, Bandar-e Anzali
7 Agulis  Russian Empire: Agulis, Tsghna, Handamej, Tanakert, Ramis, Dasht, Kaghaki

-el dialects

-el dialects
Areas spoken (country and city names as of 1909)
1 Maragha Qajar Persia: Maragha and surrounding villages
2 Khoy Qajar Persia: Khoy, Salmas, Maku, Urmia
 Russian Empire: Igdir, Nakhichevan;
Zangezur settlements: Kori, Alighuli, Mughanjugh, Karashen, Alilu, Angeghakot, Ghushchi-Tazakend, Tazakend, Uz, Mazra, Balak, Shaghat, Ltsen, Sisian, Nerkin Kilisa
3 Artvin  Russian Empire: Artvin, Ardahan, Artanuj, Olti

-gë dialects

Areas spoken (country and city names as of 1909)
1 Erzurum  Ottoman Empire: Erzurum, Ispir, Kaghzvan
 Russian Empire: Kars, Alexandropol, Akhalkalak, Akhaltskha
2 Mush  Ottoman Empire: Mush, Sasun, Bitlis, Khizan, Khlat, Arjesh, Bulanikh, Manazkert, Khnus, Alashkert
 Russian Empire: Aparan; Mets Kznut and surrounding villages;
4 villages in Javakhk: Eshtia, Ujmana, Toria, Martuni
3 Van  Ottoman Empire: Van, Diadin, Moks, Bashkale, Shatakh
 Russian Empire: Basargechar and surrounding villages
4 Diarbekir  Ottoman Empire: Diarbekir, Lice, Hazro, Hazzo, Khizan, Severek, Urfa (Edesia)
5 Kharberd-Yerznka  Ottoman Empire: Kharpert, Yerznka, Balu, Tchapaghjur, Chmshkatsag, Charsanjak, Kghi, Dersim, Kamakh
6 Shabin-Karahisar  Ottoman Empire: Shabin-Karahisar, Akıncılar
7 Trebizond  Ottoman Empire: Trebizond, Bayburt, Gyumushkhane, Kirasun
8 Hamshen  Ottoman Empire: Hamshen, Ünye, Fatsa, Terme, Çarşamba
 Russian Empire: Sukhumi, Sochi, Poti,
9 Malatia  Ottoman Empire: Malatia, Adıyaman
10 Cilicia  Ottoman Empire: Hadjin, Zeytun, Marash, Kilis, Alexandretta, Payas, Svedia
11 Syria  Ottoman Empire: Aramo
12 Arabkir  Ottoman Empire: Arabkir, Divrig, Gürün, Darende, villages of Kesaria
13 Akn  Ottoman Empire: Akn and surrounding villages
14 Sivas  Ottoman Empire: Sivas and 45 surrounding villages
15 Tokat  Ottoman Empire: Tokat, Amasia, Marsivan, Ordu, Samsun, Sinop
16 Smyrna  Ottoman Empire: Smyrna, Manisa, Menemen and surrounding villages
17 Izmit  Ottoman Empire: Nicomedia, Adapazar and the following villages: Yalova, Partizak, Geyve, Ortaköy, Sölöz, Benli, İznik, etc.,
18 Constantinople  Ottoman Empire: Constantinople
19 Rodosto  Ottoman Empire: Rodosto, Malgara
20 Nakhichevan-on-Don  Russian Empire: Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov-on-Don, Stavropol, Yekaterinodar, Yekaterinoslav, Anapa, Maykop, Taganrog, Dneprovskaya, Nogaysk, Novocherkassk, Theodosia, Simferopol, Karasubazar, Baghchesaray, Eupatoria
21 Austria-Hungary Poland
Bukovina, Transylvania, Hungary


  1. ^ Adjarian, 13–14
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