World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay

Article Id: WHEBN0021215228
Reproduction Date:

Title: Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Arthur Laurents, Alan Jay Lerner, Chariots of Fire, François Truffaut, Four Weddings and a Funeral, George Lucas, Coen brothers, Quentin Tarantino, William Goldman, Academy Award for Best Story
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay

Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
Country United States
Presented by Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Currently held by Quentin Tarantino
Django Unchained (2012)
Official website

The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best script not based upon previously published material. It was created for 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the Oscars for 1957, the two categories were combined to honor only the screenplay. In 2002, the name of the award was changed from "Writing (Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen)" to "Writing (Original Screenplay)".[1][2]


Charles Brackett was the first to win twice in this category. Others to do so are Billy Wilder, Paddy Chayefsky, Quentin Tarantino and Woody Allen.

Woody Allen has the most nominations in this category with 15, and the most wins with 3.

Richard Schweizer was the first to win for a foreign language film, Marie-Louise. Other winners that had followed included Albert Lamorisse, Pietro Germi, Claude Lelouch and Pedro Almodóvar.

Muriel Box was the first woman to win in this category, which she shared with her husband, Sydney Box. The Boxes are also the first married couple to win in this category. The only other married couple to win are Earl W. Wallace and Pamela Wallace.

Joel Coen and Ethan Coen, in 1996, are the only siblings to win in this category, and Francis Ford Coppola, in 1970, and Sofia Coppola, in 2003, are the only father-daughter pair to win.

Ben Affleck became the youngest winner of the award when he won it at the age of 25 for Good Will Hunting, which he co-wrote with Matt Damon (age 26 at the time of their win).

Preston Sturges was nominated for two different films in the same year (1944): Hail the Conquering Hero and The Miracle of Morgan's Creek. Oliver Stone achieved the same distinction in 1986, for Platoon and Salvador.

Notable nominees

Noted novelists and playwrights who have received nominations in this category include: John Steinbeck, Noël Coward, Raymond Chandler, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Edward Bond, Arthur C. Clarke, Lillian Hellman, Neil Simon, Tom Stoppard and Terence Rattigan.

Multiple nominations

The following 77 screenwriters have received multiple nominations for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. This list is sorted by the number of total awards (with the number of total nominations listed in parentheses).[3]

Winners and nominees

Winners are listed first in colored row, followed by the other nominees.


Year Film Screenwriter(s)
The Great McGinty Preston Sturges
Angels Over Broadway Ben Hecht
Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet Norman Burnside (story/screenplay)
Heinz Herald (screenplay)
John Huston (screenplay)
Foreign Correspondent Charles Bennett
Joan Harrison
The Great Dictator Charlie Chaplin
Citizen Kane Herman J. Mankiewicz
Orson Welles
The Devil and Miss Jones Norman Krasna
Sergeant York Harry Chandlee
Abem Finkel
John Huston
Howard Koch
Tall, Dark and Handsome Karl Tunberg
Darrell Ware
Tom, Dick and Harry Paul Jarrico
Woman of the Year Michael Kanin
Ring Lardner Jr.
One of Our Aircraft Is Missing Michael Powell (screenplay)
Emeric Pressburger (story/screenplay)
Road to Morocco Frank Butler
Don Hartman
Wake Island W. R. Burnett
Frank Butler
The War Against Mrs. Hadley George Oppenheimer
Princess O'Rourke Norman Krasna
Air Force Dudley Nichols
In Which We Serve Noël Coward
The North Star Lillian Hellman
So Proudly We Hail! Allan Scott
Wilson Lamar Trotti
Hail the Conquering Hero Preston Sturges
The Miracle of Morgan's Creek Preston Sturges
Two Girls and a Sailor Richard Connell
Gladys Lehman
Wing and a Prayer Jerome Cady
Marie-Louise Richard Schweizer
Dillinger Philip Yordan
Music for Millions Myles Connolly
Salty O'Rourke Milton Holmes
What Next, Corporal Hargrove? Harry Kurnitz
The Seventh Veil Muriel Box
Sydney Box
The Blue Dahlia Raymond Chandler
Children of Paradise Jacques Prévert
Notorious Ben Hecht
Road to Utopia Norman Panama
Melvin Frank
The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer Sidney Sheldon
Body and Soul Abraham Polonsky
A Double Life Ruth Gordon
Garson Kanin
Monsieur Verdoux Charlie Chaplin
Shoeshine Sergio Amidei
Adolfo Franci
C. G. Viola
Cesare Zavattini

(no award given)

(no award given)
Battleground Robert Pirosh
Jolson Sings Again Sidney Buchman
Paisà V. Hayes (story)
Federico Fellini (story/screenplay)
Sergio Amidei (story/screenplay)
Marcello Pagliero (story)
Roberto Rossellini (story/screenplay)
Passport to Pimlico T. E. B. Clarke
The Quiet One Helen Levitt
Janice Loeb
Sidney Meyers


Year Film Screenwriter(s)
Sunset Boulevard Charles Brackett
D.M. Marshman, Jr.
Billy Wilder
Adam's Rib Ruth Gordon, Garson Kanin
Caged Virginia Kellogg (story/screenplay)
Bernard C. Schoenfeld (story)
The Men Carl Foreman
No Way Out Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Lesser Samuels
An American in Paris Alan Jay Lerner
The Big Carnival Billy Wilder
Lesser Samuels
Walter Newman
David and Bathsheba Philip Dunne
Go for Broke! Robert Pirosh
The Well Clarence Greene
Russell Rouse
The Lavender Hill Mob T. E. B. Clarke
The Atomic City Sydney Boehm
The Sound Barrier Terence Rattigan
Pat and Mike Ruth Gordon
Garson Kanin
Viva Zapata! John Steinbeck
Titanic Charles Brackett
Richard Breen
Walter Reisch
The Band Wagon Betty Comden
Adolph Green
The Desert Rats Richard Murphy
The Naked Spur Sam Rolfe
Harold Jack Bloom
Take the High Ground! Millard Kaufman
On the Waterfront Budd Schulberg
The Barefoot Contessa Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Genevieve William Rose
The Glenn Miller Story Valentine Davies
Oscar Brodney
Knock on Wood Norman Panama
Melvin Frank
Interrupted Melody Sonya Levien
William Ludwig
The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell Milton Sperling
Emmet Lavery
It's Always Fair Weather Betty Comden
Adolph Green
Mr. Hulot's Holiday Jacques Tati
Henri Marquet
The Seven Little Foys Melville Shavelson
Jack Rose
The Red Balloon Albert Lamorisse
The Bold and the Brave Robert Lewin
Julie Andrew L. Stone
La Strada Federico Fellini
Tullio Pinelli
The Ladykillers William Rose
Designing Woman George Wells
Funny Face Leonard Gershe
Man of a Thousand Faces Ralph Wheelwright (story)
R. Wright Campbell (screenplay)
Ivan Goff (screenplay)
Ben Roberts (screenplay)
The Tin Star Barney Slater (story)
Joel Kane (story)
Dudley Nichols (screenplay)
I Vitelloni Federico Fellini (story/screenplay)
Ennio Flaiano (story/screenplay)
Tullio Pinelli (story)
The Defiant Ones Nathan E. Douglas[6]
Harold Jacob Smith
The Goddess Paddy Chayefsky
Houseboat Melville Shavelson
Jack Rose
The Sheepman James Edward Grant (story/screenplay)
William Bowers (screenplay)
Teacher's Pet Fay Kanin
Michael Kanin
Pillow Talk Clarence Greene (story)
Maurice Richlin (screenplay)
Russell Rouse (story)
Stanley Shapiro (screenplay)
The 400 Blows François Truffaut (story/screenplay)
Marcel Moussy (screenplay)
North by Northwest Ernest Lehman
Operation Petticoat Paul King (story)
Joseph Stone (story)
Stanley Shapiro (screenplay)
Maurice Richlin (screenplay)
Wild Strawberries Ingmar Bergman


Year Film Screenwriter(s)
The Apartment I. A. L. Diamond
Billy Wilder
The Angry Silence Bryan Forbes (screenplay)
Richard Gregson (story)
Michael Craig (story)
The Facts of Life Norman Panama
Melvin Frank
Hiroshima Mon Amour Marguerite Duras
Never on Sunday Jules Dassin
Splendor in the Grass William Inge
Ballad of a Soldier Valentin Yoshov
Grigori Chukhrai
La Dolce Vita Federico Fellini (story/screenplay)
Tullio Pinelli (story/screenplay)
Ennio Flaiano (story/screenplay)
Brunello Rondi (screenplay)
General della Rovere Sergio Amidei (screenplay)
Diego Fabbi (screenplay)
Indro Montanelli (story/screenplay)
Lover Come Back Stanley Shapiro
Paul Henning
Divorce, Italian Style Ennio de Concini
Pietro Germi
Alfredo Giannetti
Freud Charles Kaufman (story/screenplay)
Wolfgang Reinhardt (screenplay)
Last Year at Marienbad Alain Robbe-Grillet
That Touch of Mink Stanley Shapiro
Nate Monaster
Through a Glass Darkly Ingmar Bergman
How the West Was Won James Webb
Federico Fellini (story/screenplay)
Ennio Flaiano (story/screenplay)
Tullio Pinelli (screenplay)
Brunello Rondi (screenplay)
America, America Elia Kazan
The Four Days of Naples Pasquale Festa Campanile (story/screenplay)
Massimo Franciosa (story/screenplay)
Nanni Loy (story/screenplay)
Vasco Pratolini (story)
Carlo Bernari (screenplay)
Love with the Proper Stranger Arnold Schulman
Father Goose Peter Stone
Frank Tarloff
A Hard Day's Night Alun Owen
One Potato, Two Potato Raphael Hayes (screenplay)
Orville H. Hampton (story)
The Organizer Agenore Incrocci ("Age")
Furio Scarpelli
Mario Monicelli
That Man from Rio Jean-Paul Rappeneau
Ariane Mnouchkine
Daniel Boulanger
Philippe de Broca
Darling Frederic Raphael
Casanova 70 Agenore Incrocci ("Age")
Furio Scarpelli
Mario Monicelli
Tonino Guerra
Giorgio Salvioni
Suso Cecchi d'Amico
Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines Jack Davies
Ken Annakin
The Train Franklin Coen
Frank Davis
The Umbrellas of Cherbourg Jacques Demy
A Man and a Woman Claude Lelouch (story/screenplay)
Pierre Uytterhoeven (screenplay)
Blowup Michelangelo Antonioni (story/screenplay)
Tonino Guerra (screenplay)
Edward Bond (screenplay)
The Fortune Cookie Billy Wilder
I. A. L. Diamond
Khartoum Robert Ardrey
The Naked Prey Clint Johnston
Don Peters
Guess Who's Coming to Dinner William Rose
Bonnie and Clyde David Newman
Robert Benton
Divorce American Style Robert Kaufman (story)
Norman Lear (screenplay)
La Guerre Est Finie Jorge Semprún
Two for the Road Frederic Raphael
The Producers Mel Brooks
2001: A Space Odyssey Stanley Kubrick
Arthur C. Clarke
The Battle of Algiers Franco Solinas
Gillo Pontecorvo
Faces John Cassavetes
Hot Millions Ira Wallach
Peter Ustinov
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid William Goldman
Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice Paul Mazursky
Larry Tucker
The Damned Nicola Badalucco (story/screenplay)
Enrico Medioli (screenplay)
Luchino Visconti (screenplay)
Easy Rider Peter Fonda
Dennis Hopper
Terry Southern
The Wild Bunch Walon Green (story/screenplay)
Roy N. Sickner (story)
Sam Peckinpah (screenplay)


Year Film Screenwriter(s)
Patton Francis Ford Coppola
Edmund H. North
Five Easy Pieces "Adrien Joyce" (story/screenplay)
"Adrien Joyce" (story)
Joe Norman Wexler
Love Story Erich Segal
My Night at Maud's Éric Rohmer
The Hospital Paddy Chayefsky
Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion Elio Petri
Ugo Pirro
Klute Andy Lewis
David Lewis
Summer of '42 Herman Raucher
Sunday Bloody Sunday Penelope Gilliatt
The Candidate Jeremy Larner
The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie Luis Buñuel
Jean-Claude Carrière
Lady Sings the Blues Terrence McCloy
Chris Clark
Suzanne de Passe
Murmur of the Heart Louis Malle
Young Winston Carl Foreman
The Sting David S. Ward
American Graffiti George Lucas
Gloria Katz
Willard Huyck
Cries and Whispers Ingmar Bergman
Save the Tiger Steve Shagan
A Touch of Class Melvin Frank (story/screenplay)
Jack Rose (screenplay)
Chinatown Robert Towne
Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore Robert Getchell
The Conversation Francis Ford Coppola
Day for Night François Truffaut
Jean-Louis Richard
Suzanne Schiffman
Harry and Tonto Paul Mazursky
Josh Greenfeld
Dog Day Afternoon Frank Pierson
Amarcord Federico Fellini (screenplay)
Tonino Guerra (story/screenplay)
And Now My Love Claude Lelouch
Pierre Uytterhoeven
Lies My Father Told Me Ted Allan
Shampoo Robert Towne
Warren Beatty
Network Paddy Chayefsky
Cousin, cousine Jean-Charles Tacchella (story/screenplay)
Daniele Thompson (adaptation)
The Front Walter Bernstein
Rocky Sylvester Stallone
Seven Beauties Lina Wertmüller
Annie Hall Woody Allen
Marshall Brickman
The Goodbye Girl Neil Simon
The Late Show Robert Benton
Star Wars George Lucas
The Turning Point Arthur Laurents
Coming Home Robert C. Jones (screenplay)
Waldo Salt (screenplay)
Nancy Dowd (story)
Autumn Sonata Ingmar Bergman
The Deer Hunter Deric Washburn (screenplay)
Michael Cimino (story)
Deric Washburn (story)
Louis Garfinkle (story)
Quinn K. Redeker (story)
Interiors Woody Allen
An Unmarried Woman Paul Mazursky
Breaking Away Steve Tesich
All That Jazz Robert Alan Aurthur (posthumous nomination)
Bob Fosse
...And Justice for All Valerie Curtin
Barry Levinson
The China Syndrome Mike Gray
T. S. Cook
James Bridges
Manhattan Woody Allen
Marshall Brickman


Year Film Screenwriter(s)
Melvin and Howard Bo Goldman
Brubaker W. D. Richter (story/screenplay)
Arthur A. Ross (story)
Fame Christopher Gore
Mon oncle d'Amérique Jean Gruault
Henri Laborit
Private Benjamin Nancy Meyers
Charles Shyer
Harvey Miller
Chariots of Fire Colin Welland
Absence of Malice Kurt Luedtke
Arthur Steve Gordon
Atlantic City John Guare
Reds Warren Beatty
Trevor Griffiths
Gandhi John Briley
Diner Barry Levinson
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Melissa Mathison
An Officer and a Gentleman Douglas Day Stewart
Tootsie Larry Gelbart (story/screenplay)
Murray Schisgal (screenplay)
Don McGuire (story)
Tender Mercies Horton Foote
The Big Chill Lawrence Kasdan
Barbara Benedek
Fanny and Alexander Ingmar Bergman
Silkwood Nora Ephron
Alice Arlen
WarGames Lawrence Lasker
Walter F. Parkes
Places in the Heart Robert Benton
Beverly Hills Cop Daniel Petrie, Jr. (story/screenplay)
Danilo Bach (story)
Broadway Danny Rose Woody Allen
El Norte Gregory Nava (story)
Anna Thomas (screenplay)
Splash Lowell Ganz (screenplay)
Babaloo Mandel (screenplay)
Bruce Jay Friedman (story/screenplay)
Brian Grazer (story)
Witness William Kelley (story/screenplay)
Earl Wallace (story/screenplay)
Pamela Wallace (story)
Back to the Future Robert Zemeckis
Bob Gale
Brazil Terry Gilliam
Tom Stoppard
Charles McKeown
The Official Story Luis Puenzo
Aída Bortnik
The Purple Rose of Cairo Woody Allen
Hannah and Her Sisters Woody Allen
"Crocodile" Dundee Paul Hogan (story/screenplay)
Ken Shadie (screenplay)
John Cornell (screenplay)
My Beautiful Laundrette Hanif Kureishi
Platoon Oliver Stone
Salvador Oliver Stone
Richard Boyle
Moonstruck John Patrick Shanley
Au revoir, les enfants Louis Malle
Broadcast News James L. Brooks
Hope and Glory John Boorman
Radio Days Woody Allen
Rain Man Ronald Bass (screenplay)
Barry Morrow (story/screenplay)
Big Gary Ross
Anne Spielberg
Bull Durham Ron Shelton
A Fish Called Wanda John Cleese (story/screenplay)
Charles Crichton (story)
Running on Empty Naomi Foner
Dead Poets Society Tom Schulman
Crimes and Misdemeanors Woody Allen
Do the Right Thing Spike Lee
Sex, Lies, and Videotape Steven Soderbergh
When Harry Met Sally... Nora Ephron


Year Film Screenwriter(s)
Ghost Bruce Joel Rubin
Alice Woody Allen
Avalon Barry Levinson
Green Card Peter Weir
Metropolitan Whit Stillman
Thelma & Louise Callie Khouri
Boyz n the Hood John Singleton
Bugsy James Toback
The Fisher King Richard LaGravenese
Grand Canyon Lawrence Kasdan
Meg Kasdan
The Crying Game Neil Jordan
Husbands and Wives Woody Allen
Lorenzo's Oil Nick Enright
George Miller
Passion Fish John Sayles
Unforgiven David Webb Peoples
The Piano Jane Campion
Dave Gary Ross
In the Line of Fire Jeff Maguire
Philadelphia Ron Nyswaner
Sleepless in Seattle Jeff Arch (story/screenplay)
Nora Ephron (screenplay)
David S. Ward (screenplay)
Pulp Fiction Quentin Tarantino (story/screenplay)
Roger Avary (story)
Bullets Over Broadway Woody Allen
Douglas McGrath
Four Weddings and a Funeral Richard Curtis
Heavenly Creatures Peter Jackson
Fran Walsh
Three Colors: Red Krzysztof Kieślowski
Krzysztof Piesiewicz
The Usual Suspects Christopher McQuarrie
Braveheart Randall Wallace
Mighty Aphrodite Woody Allen
Nixon Stephen J. Rivele
Christopher Wilkinson
Oliver Stone
Toy Story Joss Whedon (screenplay)
Andrew Stanton (story/screenplay)
Joel Cohen (screenplay)
Alec Sokolow (screenplay)
John Lasseter (story)
Pete Docter (story)
Joe Ranft (story)
Fargo Joel Coen
Ethan Coen
Jerry Maguire Cameron Crowe
Lone Star John Sayles
Secrets & Lies Mike Leigh
Shine Jan Sardi (screenplay)
Scott Hicks (story)
Good Will Hunting Ben Affleck
Matt Damon
As Good as It Gets Mark Andrus (story/screenplay)
James L. Brooks (screenplay)
Boogie Nights Paul Thomas Anderson
Deconstructing Harry Woody Allen
The Full Monty Simon Beaufoy
Shakespeare in Love Marc Norman
Tom Stoppard
Bulworth Warren Beatty (story/screenplay)
Jeremy Pikser (screenplay)
Life Is Beautiful Roberto Benigni
Vincenzo Cerami
Saving Private Ryan Robert Rodat
The Truman Show Andrew Niccol
American Beauty Alan Ball
Being John Malkovich Charlie Kaufman
Magnolia Paul Thomas Anderson
The Sixth Sense M. Night Shyamalan
Topsy-Turvy Mike Leigh


Year Film Screenwriter(s)
Almost Famous Cameron Crowe
Billy Elliot Lee Hall
Erin Brockovich Susannah Grant
Gladiator David Franzoni (story/screenplay)
John Logan (screenplay)
William Nicholson (screenplay)
You Can Count on Me Kenneth Lonergan
Gosford Park Julian Fellowes
Amélie Jean-Pierre Jeunet (story)
Guillaume Laurant (story/screenplay)
Memento Christopher Nolan (screenplay)
Jonathan Nolan (story)
Monster's Ball Milo Addica
Will Rokos
The Royal Tenenbaums Wes Anderson
Owen Wilson
Talk to Her (Hable con Ella) Pedro Almodóvar
Far from Heaven Todd Haynes
Gangs of New York Jay Cocks (story/screenplay)
Kenneth Lonergan (screenplay)
Steven Zaillian (screenplay)
My Big Fat Greek Wedding Nia Vardalos
Y tu mamá también Alfonso Cuarón
Carlos Cuarón
Lost in Translation Sofia Coppola
The Barbarian Invasions Denys Arcand
Dirty Pretty Things Steven Knight
Finding Nemo Andrew Stanton (story/screenplay)
Bob Peterson (screenplay)
David Reynolds (screenplay)
In America Jim Sheridan
Kirsten Sheridan
Naomi Sheridan
Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Pierre Bismuth (story)
Michel Gondry (story)
Charlie Kaufman (story/screenplay)
The Aviator John Logan
Hotel Rwanda Terry George
Keir Pearson
The Incredibles Brad Bird
Vera Drake Mike Leigh
Crash Paul Haggis (story/screenplay)
Bobby Moresco (screenplay)
Good Night, and Good Luck George Clooney
Grant Heslov
Match Point Woody Allen
The Squid and the Whale Noah Baumbach
Syriana Stephen Gaghan
Little Miss Sunshine Michael Arndt
Babel Guillermo Arriaga
Letters from Iwo Jima Paul Haggis (story)
Iris Yamashita (story/screenplay)
Pan's Labyrinth Guillermo del Toro
The Queen Peter Morgan
Juno Diablo Cody
Lars and the Real Girl Nancy Oliver
Michael Clayton Tony Gilroy
Ratatouille Brad Bird
The Savages Tamara Jenkins
Milk Dustin Lance Black
Frozen River Courtney Hunt
Happy-Go-Lucky Mike Leigh
In Bruges Martin McDonagh
WALL-E Andrew Stanton (story/screenplay)
Jim Reardon (screenplay)
Pete Docter (story)
The Hurt Locker Mark Boal
Inglourious Basterds Quentin Tarantino
The Messenger Alessandro Camon
Oren Moverman
A Serious Man Joel Coen
Ethan Coen
Up Bob Peterson (story/screenplay)
Pete Docter (story/screenplay)
Tom McCarthy (story)


Year Film Screenwriter(s)
The King's Speech David Seidler
Another Year Mike Leigh
The Fighter Scott Silver (screenplay)
Paul Tamasy (story/screenplay)
Eric Johnson (screenplay)
Keith Dorrington (story)
Inception Christopher Nolan
The Kids Are All Right Lisa Cholodenko
Stuart Blumberg
Midnight in Paris Woody Allen
The Artist Michel Hazanavicius
Bridesmaids Kristen Wiig
Annie Mumolo
Margin Call J. C. Chandor
A Separation (جدایی نادر از سیمین/Jodái-e Náder az Simin) Asghar Farhadi
Django Unchained Quentin Tarantino
Amour Michael Haneke
Flight John Gatins
Moonrise Kingdom Wes Anderson
Roman Coppola
Zero Dark Thirty Mark Boal

See also




This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.