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Arab Legion

Arab Legion (الفيلق العربي)
الفيلق العربي
Arab Legion insignia
Active 22 October 1920 – 25 March 1956
Country Jordan
Allegiance Emirate of Transjordan
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Type Army
Size 150 (in 1920)
12,000 (in 1949)
22,000 (in 1956)
Garrison/HQ Zarqa
Patron Monarch
Anniversaries 10 June 1917: Arab Revolt
22 October 1920: Establishment of the Arab Legion
25 May 1956: Dismissal of British officers
Engagements Syria–Lebanon Campaign (1941)
Anglo-Iraqi War (1941)
Battles of Latrun (1948)
Battles of Jerusalem (1948)
Commanders
(1920–1939) Captain Frederick Gerard Peake
(1939–1956) General John Bagot Glubb
Notable
commanders
Colonel JW Hackett, Jr

The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.

Contents

  • Creation 1
  • World War II 2
  • 1948 Arab–Israeli War 3
  • Further clashes with Israel 4
  • Jordanian army 5
  • Commanders 6
  • References 7
  • Bibliography 8
  • External links 9

Creation

In October 1920, after taking over the Transjordan region, the United Kingdom formed a unit of 150 men called the "Mobile Force" under the command of Captain Frederick Gerard Peake to defend the territory against both internal and external threats.[1] The Legion was based in Zarqa and 80 percent of its men were the local Chechens.[2]

Arab army during the Arab revolt of 1916 against the Ottoman Empire formed the nucleus of the Arab Legion
Arab Legion in Iraq during the Anglo-Iraqi War in 1941

It was quickly expanded to 1,000 men recruiting Arabs who had served in the military of the Ottoman Empire. On 22 October 1923, the police were merged with the Reserve Mobile Force, still under Peake, who was now an employee of the Emirate of Transjordan. The new force was named Al Jeish al Arabi (the Arab Army) but was always known officially in English as the Arab Legion. The Arab Legion was financed by Britain and commanded by British officers.[3] The force was formed as a police force to keep order among the tribes of Transjordan and to guard the important JerusalemAmman road.

On 1 April 1926, the Transjordan Frontier Force was formed from cadre drawn from the Arab Legion. It consisted of only 150 men and most of them were stationed along Transjordan's roads. During this time the Arab Legion was reduced to 900 men and was also stripped of its machine guns, artillery, and communications troops.

In 1939, John Bagot Glubb, better known as Glubb Pasha, became the Legion's commander along with Major General Abdul Qadir Pasha Al Jundi as his deputy commander both transformed it into the best-trained Arab army.

World War II

During World War II, the Arab Legion took part in the British war effort against pro-Axis forces in the Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre. By then the force had grown to 1,600 men.

The Legion, part of Iraqforce, contributed significantly in the Anglo-Iraqi War and in the Syria-Lebanon campaign, the two decisive early victories for the Allies.

The top three officers representing the Legion who participated in the Victory March were Major General Abdul Qadir Pasha el Jundi, O.B.E., Colonel Bahjat Bey Tabbara, and Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Sudqui Bey, M.B.E.

1948 Arab–Israeli War

Arab Legion commander Abdullah el Tell (far right) with Captain Hikmat Mihyar (far left) pose with Jewish prisoners after the Fall of Gush Etzion
Arab Legion artillery shells illuminate Jerusalem in 1948

The Arab Legion actively participated in the 25-pounders each. On 9 February 1948 the Transjordan Frontier Force was disbanded with members being absorbed back into the Arab Legion. Although headed by Glubb, now a Lieutenant General, command in the field was by Brigadier Norman Lash.

The Legion was initially withdrawn from Palestine to Transjordanian territory, under instruction from the United Nations, prior to the end of the British Mandate. With the commencement of hostilities the Legion re-entered Palestine with 1st Brigade heading to Nablus and 2nd Brigade heading to Ramallah. The Arab Legion entered Palestine with other Arab Forces on May 15, 1948 using the Allenby, now King Hussein, bridge as they were advancing to cover the approaches from Jenin, in the north to Alaffoula and from Al-Majame'a bridge on the Jordan River to Bissan Alaffoula.

There was considerable embarrassment from the UK government that British officers were employed in the Legion during the conflict and so they, including a King's permission.

Units of the Arab Legion were engaged in several battles with the Jewish forces including the following:

On 9 February 1948 the 3,000 strong Trans-Jordan Frontier Force was disbanded with members being absorbed back into the Arab Legion. By the end of the war in 1949, the Arab Legion consisted of over 10,000 men manning a 100-mile front, which then expanded to a 400-mile front following the withdraw of Iraqi forces.

Further clashes with Israel

Vickers VC.1 Viking of the Arab Legion Air Force in 1955

On September 11, 1956, an Israeli force in what the IDF termed one of its retribution operations, Operation Jehonathan, raided Jordanian territory at Al-Rahwa, Hebron Sector, attacking the police station and clashing with a unit from the Legion's Desert Force. Over twenty soldiers and policemen were killed.[11]

The Legion generally stayed out of the 1956 Suez Crisis.

Jordanian army

On 1 March 1956, the Legion was renamed as the Arab Army (now Jordanian Armed Forces). In Israel, the Hebrew term "Ligioner" (ליגיונר), i.e. "Legionary" was still informally used for Jordanian soldiers for many years afterwards, also at the time of the 1967 war and its aftermath.

Commanders

King Abdullah I with John Bagot Glubb "Glubb Pasha"
  • Colonel Frederick Peake ("Peake Pasha") – 22 October 1923 – 21 March 1939
  • Lt. Colonel Ernest Stafford ("Stafford Bey") 2nd IC—1924–1931.
  • CMG, DSO, OBE, MC ("Glubb Pasha") – 21 March 1939 – 1 March 1956
  • Major General Abdul Qadir Pasha Al Jundi, O.B.E. ("Abdul Qadir Pasha")

Note: "Pasha" is a Turkish honorary title in one of its various ranks is equivalent to the British title of "Lord", and Bey is equivalent to "Sir".

References

  1. ^ Kenneth Pollack, Arabs at War, Council on Foreign Relations/University of Nebraska Press, 2002, p.267
  2. ^
  3. ^ Avi Shlaim (2007), Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace, Allen Lane, ISBN 978-0-7139-9777-4, p.17
  4. ^ Morris,2008, p. 105
  5. ^ Gelber,2006, p. 90
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ Morris,2008, p. 132
  9. ^ Morris,2008, p. 230
  10. ^ Morris,2008, p. 332
  11. ^ Morris, Benny (1993) Israel's Border Wars, 1949 - 1956. Arab Infiltration, Israeli Retaliation, and the Countdown to the Suez War. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-827850-0. Page 392.

Bibliography

  • Dupuy, Trevor N, Elusive Victory, The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1947–1974, Hero (1984)
  • Farndale, Sir Martin, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, The Years of Defeat, 1939–41, Brassey’s (1996)
  • Glubb, John Bagot, The Arab Legion, Hodder & Stoughton, London (1948)
  • A. Isseroff, Kfar Etzion Remembered: A History of Gush Etzion and the Massacre of Kfar Etzion, 2005.
  • I. Levi, Jerusalem in the War of Independence ("Tisha Kabin" – Nine Measures – in Hebrew) Maarachot – IDF, Israel Ministry of Defence, 1986. ISBN 965-05-0287-4
  • Pal, Dharm, Official History of the Indian Armed in the Second World War, 1939-45 - Campaign in Western Asia, Orient Longmans (1957)
  • Roubicek, Marcel, Echo of the Bugle, extinct military and constabulary forces in Palestine and Trans-Jordan 1915, 1967, Franciscan (Jerusalem 1974)
  • Avi Shlaim (2007). Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace, Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9777-4
  • P.J. Vatikiotis, (1967). Politics and the Military in Jordan: A Study of the Arab Legion, 1921-1957, New York, Praeger Publishers. ISBN
  • The Arab Legion (Men-at-arms) (Paperback) by Peter Young, 48 pages, Osprey Publishing (15 Jun 1972) ISBN 0-85045-084-5 and ISBN 978-0-85045-084-2
  • Jordan – A Country Study, U.S. Library of Congress

External links

  • Encyclopædia Britannica article
  • The Arab Legion
  • The Arab Legion and the Defense of Jerusalem
  • 1956 - King of Jordan sacks British general (BBC article and video)
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