World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Borneo–Philippine languages

Article Id: WHEBN0004453626
Reproduction Date:

Title: Borneo–Philippine languages  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Malayo-Polynesian languages, Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages, Philippine languages, Karao language, Balangao language
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Borneo–Philippine languages

Outer Hesperonesian
Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian
Borneo, Philippines, and Madagascar
Linguistic classification: Austronesian
Glottolog: None
The Borneo–Philippines languages (red). Not shown: Yami in Taiwan.

The Borneo–Philippines languages (also known as Outer Hesperonesian or Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a paraphyletic group of the Austronesian languages which includes the languages of the Philippines, much of Borneo, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and Madagascar. They can be divided into the Bornean languages and the Philippine languages.

In this classification, the previously posited clade of Western Malayo-Polynesian, also known as Hesperonesian, has been broken up into "outer" (Borneo–Philippines) and "inner" (Sunda–Sulawesi) clades and Western Malayo-Polynesian is considered merely a geographic term (Wouk and Ross 2002). These are both remnant groups: the Borneo–Philippine languages are those Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not included in Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian and the Sunda–Sulawesi languages are those Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not included in Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Indeed, a 2008 analysis of the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database supported at a 98% confidence level that the Bornean languages, regardless of whether they themselves are a valid unit, form an exclusive unit with Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian, whereas Sama–Bajaw is more closely related to the Philippine languages.



  • Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database
  • Fay Wouk and Malcolm Ross (ed.), The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems. Australian National University, 2002.
  • K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.