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Brazilian Série A

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Brazilian Série A

Template:Use American English

Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
200px
The current Brasileirão official logo, in use since 2011
Country Brazil Brazil
Confederation CONMEBOL
Founded August 23, 1959
Number of teams 20
Levels on pyramid 1
Relegation to Campeonato Brasileiro Série B
Domestic cup(s) Copa do Brasil
International cup(s) Copa Libertadores
Copa Sudamericana
Current champions Fluminense (4th title)
(2012)
Most championships Santos
Palmeiras
(8 titles each)
TV partners List of broadcasters
Website Official Site
2013 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A

The Campeonato Brasileiro Série A (Brazilian Portuguese: [kɜ̃ŋpjoˈnatu braziˈlejru ˈsɛɾii a]), known also as the Campeonato Brasileiro and commonly referred to as the Brasileirão (Brazilian Portuguese: [braziˈlej 'aw]), is an annual Brazilian club football tournament organized by the Confederação Brasileira de Futebol, or CBF. At the top of the Brazilian football league system, it is the country's premier football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, seasons typically run from May to December, operating on a system of promotion and relegation with the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B. Teams play 38 matches each, totaling 380 matches for the season. Most games are played on Saturday and Sunday afternoons with other games being played during weekday evenings.

Due to historical peculiarities and the large geographical size of the country, Brazil has a relatively short history of nation-wide football competitions; the Brasileirão has had several different names and formats over its lifetime. Initially, only the Brazilian state champions participated when the competition was known as the Taça Brasil de Futebol. In 1967, the Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa or Robertão, a revamped version of the Torneio Rio-São Paulo, began being disputed which included clubs outside the fore mentioned states. In 1971, the Campeonato Nacional de Clubes replaced the Robertão as a result of advancements in civil aviation and air transport. Two turbulent decades later, the competition was revamped under the current name in 1989, its eighth since the inaugural edition. Before the establishment of a national league, the most prestigious football competitions in Brazil were the state leagues, notably the Paulistão and Campeonato Carioca, the premier leagues of the States of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, respectively.

Since its inception, the Brasileirão has grown in stature, being consider one of the strongest leagues in the world. The 1993 and 2012 seasons saw every possible international club competition trophy won by Brazilian clubs. The Brasileirão contains the most club world champion titles, with four championships won among three clubs. The league also contain the most clubs to have won the Copa Libertadores with 17 titles won among 10 clubs. The Brasileirão is the most successful league of the Recopa Sudamericana with eight victories obtained among six clubs. The league is also one of the world's most powerful, ranked as the 6th most valuable with a worth of over $1.43 billion. It is also one of the world's richest championships, generating an annual turnover of over $1.169 billion in 2012. The Brasileirão is the most-watched football league in the Americas and one of the world's most exposed, broadcast in 155 nations.

Since 1959, a total of 17 clubs have been crowned Brazilian football champions, 12 of which have won the title more than once and won consecutively by five clubs. Santos and Palmeiras are the most successful clubs of the Brasileirão, having won the competition eight times each. Santos' Os Santásticos, considered by some the best club team of all times, won five consecutive titles between 1961 and 1965, a feat that remains unequaled until today. The State of São Paulo is the most successful state, amassing 28 titles among five clubs. The reigning Brazilian champions are Fluminense, who won their fourth title during the 2012 season.

History

Genesis

As Brazilian football became more established in the 1920s, interest in interstate competition grew. The first of these competitions, the Campeonato Brasileiro de Seleções Estaduais, was first disputed in 1922 which brought together state football teams; the inaugural winner of the competition was São Paulo. Citing the difficulties in bringing together players from various clubs, clubs from the Rio de Janeiro Federal District and São Paulo opted to pit their best clubs against each other instead. The Torneio Rio-São Paulo, first disputed in 1933 and seeing further editions canceled due to low interest, became the optimal choice of interstate tournaments. This led the State Football team competition, a tournament that was disputed almost uninterrupted until 1950, lose much of its prestigue. Five more editions later, the competition was scrapped with a celebratory one being disputed in 1987.

The Torneio Rio-São Paulo's, whose inaugural winners were Palestra Itália, kicked of again in 1950 with Corinthians winning the title. Five more Paulista sides won the competition afterwards until Fluminense broke São Paulo's streak in 1957. Vasco da Gama's Expresso da Vitória added a second title to Rio in 1958. That same year, the South American football confederation approved the creation of the Copa de Campeones de America, later known as Copa Libertadores, a competition that was supposed to bring together the national champions of each South American league. In light of this, the Confederação Brasileira de Desportos, or CBD, created a competition that brought every Brazilian state champion to compete for a national tournament, being named Taça Brasil de Futebol.

Beginnings: Os Santásticos' legacy (1959-1970)

The 1959 Taça Brasil, the first national club competition in the nation, counted with 16 participants: ABC, Atlético Mineiro, Atlético Paranaense, Auto Esporte, Bahia, Ceará, CSA, Ferroviário, Grêmio, Hercílio Luz, Manufatora, Rio Branco, Santos, Sport Recife, Tuna Luso and Vasco da Gama; Santos and Vasco da Gama, as Paulista and Carioca champions respectively, entered the competition at the semifinal stage whereas the other state champions were grouped geographically. The eventual winners of the northern and southern zones would go on to the semifinals of the national tournament. The final series between Santos and Bahia needed a tie-breaking playoff to decide the title with Bahia coming out on top of a highly-contested match; however, overcrowdness of fixtures, due to the many tours Brazil's national football team partook as well as Santos', forced the match to be played three months after the second leg. The second edition of the competition saw Bahia dethroned by Fortaleza in the second stage. Fortaleza would go on to reach the final only to be thoroughly defeated by Palmeiras' Academia de Futebol, a squad that contained world-class talent such as Ademir da Guia, Dudu, Djalma Santos and Émerson Leão, 11-3 on aggregate. Template:Football squad on pitch However, this impressive performance by Palmeiras was eclipsed by a Santos team led by Pelé, Coutinho, Zito, Mauro Ramos, among others. Os Santásticos, in a rematch of the inaugural final, crushed Bahia to win the 1961 tournament as Pelé and Coutinho scored one hat-trick each on the final series. Pelé was that edition's top scorer with nine goals, the highest tally in that category up to that point. Santos became the first club to retain the Brazilian national title in 1962, defeating Botafogo's Os Gloriosos, which contained many of the game's best ever players such as Mario Zagallo, Garrincha, Nilton Santos, Amarildo, etc., 5-0 in front of 70,324 spectators at the Estádio do Maracanã. Os Santásticos also became the first squad in the world to win the Continental Treble, winning the Paulistão, the Taça Brasil, and the Copa Libertadores in 1962.[1][2][3]

Os Santásticos managed to win their third, consecutive title after defeating Bahia once again, this time with an 8-0 aggregate with Pelé responsible for four of those goals. A hat-trick from Pelé helped Santos defeat Flamengo 4-1 in the first leg of the 1964 Taça Brasil final at the Estádio do Pacaembu. Santos was able to grind out a 0-0 draw in Rio de Janeiro, retaining the trophy once again. Santos' record Pentacampeonato was achieved in 1965. With a brace from Dorval and Toninho, Santos ran out the winners on both legs of the final against a talented Vasco da Gama squad composed of young prospects, winning 6-1 on aggregate. Santos reached their sixth consecutive final in 1966; however, they fell short as Cruzeiro thumped Santos 9-4 on aggregate.

The World Cup of which I have the most painful memories of was that of 1966, played in England, in which Pelé was savagely kicked out by the Portuguese players (which none of them, I suspect, didn't even get warned). Seeing him leave the field injured, I felt the competition had lost its appeal.

Enrique Meza, Mexico national football team's manager, 2000–2001, commenting on the violent method European teams eliminated Brazil and "stopped" Pelé at the 1966 FIFA World Cup; Nexos, January 6, 1998.[4]

As a result of the violence practiced often in the Copa Libertadores by Argentine and Uruguayan clubs,[5] disagreements with CONMEBOL, the lack of financial incentives and the violent, brutal and controversial way the Brazilian national team was treated in the 1966 FIFA World Cup by European teams, Brazilian football, including its clubs, declined to participate in international competition, including the Copa Libertadores and, ergo, the European/South American Cup, from 1966 to 1970; the 1966, 1969 and 1970 editions saw no Brazilian teams participating while Santos declined to participate in 1967.[6] Brazilian clubs instead prioritized tours around the world which were financially more lucrative than any official international competition at the time.

In order to take advantage of the exposure its clubs had,

The Brasileirão's establishment (1971-1980)

In 1979, all big clubs from São Paulo, except Palmeiras, withdrew from the competition. They protested against the odd system of tier qualification, which made their rivals, Palmeiras and Guarani, enter only in the final phase (due to their being previous-year finalists) and also asked for the same privileges. Oddly enough, Guarani finished in the top 12, while playing only 3 games, and Palmeiras finished third, despite playing only 5 games, in a tournament with 96 entrants.

A Tempestuous decade (1981-1990)

In 1984, Juventus, a small club from São Paulo, managed to qualify for the Série A. Participants during that year could be promoted from and relegated to Série B in the middle of the tournament. Juventus thus started the tournament in the premiership, was relegated in the middle of the tournament, but eventually managed to clinch the Série B title. Despite this, the team was not promoted to Série A in the following year and failed to qualify to it from the state championship.

In 1987, the CBF announced that it was financially unable to organize the Brazilian football championship, only a few weeks before it was scheduled to commence. The Confederation said that it would try to find a sponsor, or would agree with the clubs that they finance it themselves with travel. Without an agreement, it would only be a regional tournament. As a result, the thirteen most popular football clubs in Brazil created a league, dubbed the Club of the 13, to organize a championship of their own. This tournament was called Copa União. 16 clubs eventually participated (Santa Cruz, Coritiba and Goiás were invited to join), completely without the permission of the CBF (a move not unlike the creation of club-administered leagues in Europe). To reconcile the interests of the CBF with Club of the 13, Copa União was called Green Module, and Copa Brasil was called Module Yellow. At the end, there was a cross between the champions and runners-up from both modules(groups), to determine the two representatives of Brazil for the Copa Libertadores in 1988. Flamengo and Internacional declined to participate. Sport and Guarani did play in the final two games, that enshrined the Sport as Brazilian champion of 1987. Officially by CBF: Yellow Module, 16 clubs + Green Module, 16 clubs = Brazilian Championship 1987, 32 clubs.

The league becomes fortified (1991-2000)

In 1999, an averaging relegation system was adopted, similar to the one used in the Primera División Argentina. The two clubs with the worst point results in the first stage of the two previous seasons were to be relegated. However, this system only lasted for a single season. During the first stage, it was discovered that one player was registered with false documents. Due to this scandal, CBF decided to punish the player's team by annulling games in which this player took part. Due to this, the average points of some clubs were changed, so one club lost positions and was relegated. This club immediately sued CBF, which was prevented from organizing the 2000 Brasileirão. In light of this, Clube dos 13 organized the championship of that year.

An era of growth (2001-2010)

Before 2003, the format of Série A changed almost every year; for specifics, see Campeonato Brasileiro tournament scheduling. Since 2003, the Série A has been contested in a double round-robin format. The team with the most points is declared champion. There is no final match, which is a very controversial subject. Prior to 2003, the Brazilian championship had traditionally been decided via some type of playoff format (most commonly the "Octagonal", where the top 8 regular season teams comprise a single elimination tournament), rather than the European model of points accumulation over a season. Although some complain that this system lacks the drama of playoffs and finals, the competition has so far poven to be well balanced, without a small number of clubs dominating the league, a phenomenon often found in many European leagues.

Eleven matches of the 2005 competition were annulled due to a match-fixing scandal and had to be replayed.

For the 2006 season, the number of contestants was reduced to 20 and CBF claims it to be the "definitive" format. In 2006, a limit on the number of foreign players was set, such that no team can have more than three foreign players on the field or on the bench in a single match. The seasons with the largest number of entrants of the competition were: 2000 (116 entrants), 1979 (94 entrants) and 1986 (80 entrants).

In 2010, CBF decided to recognize the champions of the defuncts Taça Brasil and Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa as Brazilian Champions.

In 2012, the current ranking of the IFFHS shows that the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A is the second best football league in the world, surpassed only by the Liga BBVA.

Competition format

Competition

There are 20 clubs in the Brasileirão. During the course of a season (from May to December) each club plays the others twice (a double round-robin system), once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then goal difference, and then goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion. If points are equal between two or more clubs, the rules are:[7]

  • If the tie is between more than two clubs not disputing the national title or relegation, then the tie is broken, using the games the clubs have played against each other:
    • a) most amount of games won
    • b) total goal difference
    • c) total goals scored
    • d) head-to-head record (with the away goals rule in effect if only two clubs are taken into account)
  • If there is a tie for the championship, for relegation, or for qualification to other competitions, the Fair Play scales will not be taken into account; a play-off match at a neutral venue decides rank. Otherwise, a drawing of lots will determine the final positions.

A system of promotion and relegation exists between the Brasileirão and the Série B. The four lowest placed teams in the Brasileirão are relegated to Série B, and the top four teams from the Série B promoted to the Brasileirão.

Qualification for international competitions

As of the 2012 season, the top four teams in the Brasileirão qualify for the Copa Libertadores, with the top three teams directly entering the group stage. Previously only the top two teams qualified automatically. The fourth-placed team enters the Copa Libertadores at the play-off round for non-champions and must win a two-legged knockout tie in order to enter the group stage. One Copa Libertadores place is reserved for the winner of the Copa do Brasil. If the winner of the Copa do Brasil finishes the Brasileirão season between first and fourth place, the next-best placed finisher in the Brasileirão takes the vacant slot "replacing" the one given by the domestic cup.

The teams placing fifth to twelfth in the Brasileirão no longer qualify for the Copa Sudamericana. Instead, the clubs eliminated during the Copa do Brasil's fourth phase will be ranked by their record in the Brasileirão, determining the participants for the Copa Sudamericana. If the Brasileirão contains the defending champion(s) of the Copa Libertadores and/or Copa Sudamericana and they finish the Brasileirão in an international qualification zone, that place goes to the next-best placed team in the league.

Brazilian clubs who win the fore mentioned competitions have the opportunity to participate in the FIFA Club World Cup, the premier club competition in the world, the Recopa Sudamericana, which pits the winners of the Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana against each other, as well well as the Suruga Bank Championship, a friendly competition endored by CONMEBOL and Japan Football Association (日本サッカー協会) which sees Japan's J. League Cup champion play the Copa Sudamericana winner in a one-match event held in the Japanese participant's venue.

Finances


The Brasileirão has one of the highest revenues of any football league in the world, with total club revenues of $1,169 billion in 2012,[8] the highest in the Americas; in comparison, it is significantly surpassed by the revenues of Europe's premier club competitions UEFA Champions League and UEFA Super Cup combined, despite being continental tournaments, which garnished over $1.780 billion.[9] The Brasileirão's television rights are the most valuable ones in the Western hemisphere, worth over $610 million in 2012; that accounts for over 57% of Latin America as a whole.[10] The league is also one of the world's most powerful, having a marketing value and worth over $1,242 billion in 2013.[11] The total worth of every club in the 2013 Brasileirão comes to $1,065 billion.[12] The Brasileirão's gross revenue is regularly the fifth highest of any American sports league, behind the annual revenues of the four most popular North American major sports leagues (the National Football League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association and the National Hockey League).[13]

In terms of world football, the Brasileirão clubs are some of the richest in the world. Forbes, who annually release figures on club value, listed Corinthians in the top 20 for the 2012 season.[14] The club is the 16th most valuable club in the world, worth over $358 million. In terms of revenue, Corinthians is also Brazil's richest sports club and the 31st biggest football club in the world, the largest outside of Europe, generating an annual turnover of over $126 million in 2012. As of 2013, five Brazilian clubs have a brand value strong enough to break into the top-50 list worldwide according to Brand Finance.[15] Corinthians' brand, ranked 19th, is worth $103 million. The brands of Santos and São Paulo, ranked 38th and 39th, are worth $65 million and $62 million, respectively. Flamengo and Internacional are worth $55 million each and ranked 45th and 46th.

Brazilian clubs are distinct from their European counterparts as billionaires are involved in the 30 most valuable European clubs whereas Brasileirão clubs are self-sufficient.

TV partners

Main article: List of Campeonato Brasileiro Série A broadcasters

Awards and trophies

Prêmio Craque do Brasileirão is the league's official award. Placar magazine's Bola de Ouro is the oldest award, while the Troféu Osmar Santos and the Troféu João Saldanha are awards given by the newspaper Lance!.

2013 clubs

Team City Stadium Capacity[16]
Atlético Mineiro Belo Horizonte Independência 23,018
Atlético Paranaense Curitiba Arena da Baixada 32,864
Bahia Salvador Fonte Nova 50,000
Botafogo Rio de Janeiro Engenhão 45,000
Criciúma Criciúma Heriberto Hülse 28,749
Corinthians São Paulo Pacaembu / Arena Corinthians (2013) 37,730 / 48,000 *
Coritiba Curitiba Couto Pereira 34,872
Cruzeiro Belo Horizonte Mineirão 62,000
Flamengo Rio de Janeiro Maracanã 78,838
Fluminense Rio de Janeiro Maracanã 78,838
Goiás Goiânia Serra Dourada 41,574
Grêmio Porto Alegre Arena Grêmio 60,700
Internacional Porto Alegre Beira-Rio (2013) 56,000 / 51,000 *
Náutico Recife Arena Pernambuco 46,154
Ponte Preta Campinas Moisés Lucarelli 17,728
Portuguesa São Paulo Canindé 21,004
Santos Santos Vila Belmiro 16,798
São Paulo São Paulo Morumbi 67,428
Vasco da Gama Rio de Janeiro São Januário 24,585
Vitória Salvador Barradão 35,632

(*) After Inauguration.

List of Brazilian football champions

Seventeen clubs are officially recognized to have been the Brazilian football champions.

Club Winners Winning Years
Palmeiras 8 1960, 1967, 1967, 1969, 1972, 1973, 1993, 1994
Santos 8 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968, 2002, 2004
São Paulo 6 1977, 1986, 1991, 2006, 2007, 2008
Flamengo 6 1980, 1982, 1983, 1987, 1992, 2009
Corinthians 5 1990, 1998, 1999, 2005, 2011
Fluminense 4 1970, 1984, 2010, 2012
Vasco da Gama 4 1974, 1989, 1997, 2000
Internacional 3 1975, 1976, 1979
Bahia 2 1959, 1988
Cruzeiro 2 1966, 2003
Botafogo 2 1968, 1995
Grêmio 2 1981, 1996
Atlético Mineiro 1 1971
Guarani 1 1978
Coritiba 1 1985
Sport 1 1987
Atlético Paranaense 1 2001

Players

Attendance records

# Attendance Home Score Visitor Stadium Date
1 155.523 Flamengo 3–0 Santos Estádio do Maracanã May 29, 1983
2 154.335 Flamengo 3–2 Atlético-MG Estádio do Maracanã June 1, 1980
3 146.043 Fluminense 1–1 Corinthians Estádio do Maracanã December 5, 1976
4 138.107 Flamengo 1–1 Grêmio Estádio do Maracanã April 4, 1982
5 135.487 Botafogo 3–1 Flamengo Estádio do Maracanã April 19, 1981
6 128.781 Fluminense 0–0 Vasco Estádio do Maracanã May 27, 1984
7 122.001 Botafogo 2–2 Flamengo Estádio do Maracanã July 19, 1992
8 121.353 Flamengo 1–1 Vasco Estádio do Maracanã May 8, 1983
9 120.441 Flamengo 2–1 Guarani Estádio do Maracanã April 11, 1982
10 118.777 Vasco 2–2 Internacional-RS Estádio do Maracanã July 28, 1974
11 118.370 Fluminense 0–0 Corinthians Estádio do Maracanã May 20, 1984
12 118.162 Flamengo 1–0 Atlético-MG Estádio do Maracanã November 29, 1987
13 117.353 Botafogo 0–0 Flamengo Estádio do Maracanã April 16, 1981
14 115.002 Corinthians 4–1 Flamengo Morumbi May 6, 1984
15 114.481 Santos 2–1 Flamengo Morumbi May 12, 1983
16 113.479 Atlético-MG 0–0 Santos Mineirão May 15, 1983
17 113.286 Corinthians 2–1 Internacional-RS Morumbi November 21, 1976
18 112.993 Vasco 2–1 Cruzeiro Estádio do Maracanã August 1, 1974
19 112.403 Fluminense 1–1 Atlético-MG Estádio do Maracanã December 20, 1970
20 112.047 Flamengo 1–4 Palmeiras Estádio do Maracanã December 9, 1979
21 111.260 Flamengo 2–1 Vasco Estádio do Maracanã May 5, 1983
22 111.111 Santos 3–2 Flamengo Morumbi February 27, 1983
23 110.877 Vasco 3–0 Grêmio Estádio do Maracanã May 19, 1984
24 110.438 Bahia 2–1 Fluminense Fonte Nova February 12, 1989

Sources: UOL[18][19] Placar magazine - Guia do Brasileirão 2010[20] and GloboEsporte.com Website.[21]

See also

References

External links

  • CBF Confederação Brasileira de Futebol - Brazilian Football Confederation
  • Brazil All-time topscorers
  • RSSSF Brazil links
  • Best Attendances 1971/2008
  • zerozero.pt
  • Map of Serie A club locations
  • Futpedia The Brazilian Football Encyclopedia, with historical statistics about championships, clubs, games, athletes, and more (Portuguese).
  • Champions Squads

Template:Campeonato Brasileiro Série A managers

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