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Title: Cd31  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: CD11c, CD18, VE-cadherin, Clusters of differentiation, CD164
Collection: Clusters of Differentiation
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Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols  ; CD31; CD31/EndoCAM; GPIIA'; PECA1; PECAM-1; endoCAM
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PECAM1 gene found on chromosome 17.[1][2][3][4] PECAM-1 plays a key role in removing aged neutrophils from the body.


  • Function 1
  • Tissue distribution 2
    • Immunohistochemistry 2.1
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4
  • External links 5


PECAM-1 is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. The encoded protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is likely involved in leukocyte transmigration, angiogenesis, and integrin activation.[1]

Tissue distribution

CD31 is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, T / NK cells, lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, neutrophils.

CD31 is also expressed in certain tumors, including epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma, other vascular tumors, histiocytic malignancies, and plasmacytomas. It is rarely found in some sarcomas, such as Kaposi's sarcoma,[5][6] and carcinomas.


Micrograph of an angiosarcoma stained with a CD31 immunostain.

In immunohistochemistry, CD31 is used primarily to demonstrate the presence of endothelial cells in histological tissue sections. This can help to evaluate the degree of tumour angiogenesis, which can imply a rapidly growing tumour. Malignant endothelial cells also commonly retain the antigen, so that CD31 immunohistochemistry can also be used to demonstrate both angiomas and angiosarcomas. It can also be demonstrated in small lymphocytic and lymphoblastic lymphomas, although more specific markers are available for these conditions.[7]


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule". 
  2. ^ Newman PJ, Berndt MC, Gorski J, White GC, Lyman S, Paddock C, Muller WA (March 1990). "PECAM-1 (CD31) cloning and relation to adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily". Science 247 (4947): 1219–22.  
  3. ^ Gumina RJ, Kirschbaum NE, Rao PN, vanTuinen P, Newman PJ (June 1996). "The human PECAM1 gene maps to 17q23". Genomics 34 (2): 229–32.  
  4. ^ Xie Y, Muller WA (October 1996). "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of the mouse platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) to mouse chromosome 6, region F3-G1". Genomics 37 (2): 226–8.  
  5. ^ Ganjei-Azar, Parvin (2007). Color Atlas of Immunocytochemistry in Diagnostic Cytology. [New York]: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. p. 47.  
  6. ^ Paolo Gattuso, ed. (2010). Differential diagnosis in surgical pathology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 108.  
  7. ^ Leong, Anthony S-Y; Cooper, Kumarason; Leong, F Joel W-M (2003). Manual of Diagnostic Cytology (2 ed.). Greenwich Medical Media, Ltd. p. 103.  

Further reading

  • Jackson DE (2003). "The unfolding tale of PECAM-1". FEBS Lett. 540 (1–3): 7–14.  
  • Newman PJ, Newman DK (2004). "Signal transduction pathways mediated by PECAM-1: new roles for an old molecule in platelet and vascular cell biology". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23 (6): 953–64.  
  • Ilan N, Madri JA (2004). "PECAM-1: old friend, new partners". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5): 515–24.  
  • Wong MX, Jackson DE (2004). "Regulation of B cell activation by PECAM-1: implications for the development of autoimmune disorders". Curr. Pharm. Des. 10 (2): 155–61.  
  • Kalinowska A, Losy J (2007). "PECAM-1, a key player in neuroinflammation". Eur. J. Neurol. 13 (12): 1284–90.  
  • Stockinger H, Gadd SJ, Eher R, Majdic O, Schreiber W, Kasinrerk W, Strass B, Schnabl E, Knapp W (1991). "Molecular characterization and functional analysis of the leukocyte surface protein CD31". J. Immunol. 145 (11): 3889–97.  
  • Albelda SM, Muller WA, Buck CA, Newman PJ (1991). "Molecular and cellular properties of PECAM-1 (endoCAM/CD31): a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule". J. Cell Biol. 114 (5): 1059–68.  
  • Simmons DL, Walker C, Power C, Pigott R (1990). "Molecular cloning of CD31, a putative intercellular adhesion molecule closely related to carcinoembryonic antigen". J. Exp. Med. 171 (6): 2147–52.  
  • Kirschbaum NE, Gumina RJ, Newman PJ (1995). "Organization of the gene for human platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 shows alternatively spliced isoforms and a functionally complex cytoplasmic domain". Blood 84 (12): 4028–37.  
  • Tang DG, Chen YQ, Newman PJ, Shi L, Gao X, Diglio CA, Honn KV (1993). "Identification of PECAM-1 in solid tumor cells and its potential involvement in tumor cell adhesion to endothelium". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (30): 22883–94.  
  • Behar E, Chao NJ, Hiraki DD, Krishnaswamy S, Brown BW, Zehnder JL, Grumet FC (1996). "Polymorphism of adhesion molecule CD31 and its role in acute graft-versus-host disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 334 (5): 286–91.  
  • Lu TT, Yan LG, Madri JA (1996). "Integrin engagement mediates tyrosine dephosphorylation on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (21): 11808–13.  
  • Almendro N, Bellón T, Rius C, Lastres P, Langa C, Corbí A, Bernabéu C (1997). "Cloning of the human platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 promoter and its tissue-specific expression. Structural and functional characterization". J. Immunol. 157 (12): 5411–21.  
  • Jackson DE, Ward CM, Wang R, Newman PJ (1997). "The protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 binds platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and forms a distinct signaling complex during platelet aggregation. Evidence for a mechanistic link between PECAM-1- and integrin-mediated cellular signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 6986–93.  
  • Famiglietti J, Sun J, DeLisser HM, Albelda SM (1997). "Tyrosine residue in exon 14 of the cytoplasmic domain of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) regulates ligand binding specificity". J. Cell Biol. 138 (6): 1425–35.  
  • Deaglio S, Morra M, Mallone R, Ausiello CM, Prager E, Garbarino G, Dianzani U, Stockinger H, Malavasi F (1998). "Human CD38 (ADP-ribosyl cyclase) is a counter-receptor of CD31, an Ig superfamily member". J. Immunol. 160 (1): 395–402.  
  • Coukos G, Makrigiannakis A, Amin K, Albelda SM, Coutifaris C (1999). "Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 is expressed by a subpopulation of human trophoblasts: a possible mechanism for trophoblast-endothelial interaction during haemochorial placentation". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 4 (4): 357–67.  
  • Cao MY, Huber M, Beauchemin N, Famiglietti J, Albelda SM, Veillette A (1998). "Regulation of mouse PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by the Src and Csk families of protein-tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (25): 15765–72.  
  • Ma L, Mauro C, Cornish GH, Chai JG, Coe D, Fu H, Patton D, Okkenhaug K, Franzoso G, Dyson J, Nourshargh S, Marelli-Berg FM (2010). "Ig gene-like molecule CD31 plays a nonredundant role in the regulation of T-cell immunity and tolerance". PNAS 107 (45): 19461–6.  

External links

  • Mouse CD Antigen Chart
  • Human CD Antigen Chart
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